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TXNRD1 thioredoxin reductase 1 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 7296, updated on 19-Jul-2014
Official Symbol
TXNRD1provided by HGNC
Official Full Name
thioredoxin reductase 1provided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:12437
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000198431; HPRD:03068; MIM:601112; Vega:OTTHUMG00000166481
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
TR; TR1; TXNR; TRXR1; GRIM-12
Summary
This gene encodes a member of the family of pyridine nucleotide oxidoreductases. This protein reduces thioredoxins as well as other substrates, and plays a role in selenium metabolism and protection against oxidative stress. The functional enzyme is thought to be a homodimer which uses FAD as a cofactor. Each subunit contains a selenocysteine (Sec) residue which is required for catalytic activity. The selenocysteine is encoded by the UGA codon that normally signals translation termination. The 3' UTR of selenocysteine-containing genes have a common stem-loop structure, the sec insertion sequence (SECIS), that is necessary for the recognition of UGA as a Sec codon rather than as a stop signal. Alternative splicing results in several transcript variants encoding the same or different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
See TXNRD1 in Epigenomics, MapViewer
Location:
12q23-q24.1
Exon count:
18
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
106 current GRCh38 (GCF_000001405.26) 12 NC_000012.12 (104215779..104350307)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 12 NC_000012.11 (104609537..104744085)

Chromosome 12 - NC_000012.12Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene host cell factor C2 Neighboring gene nuclear transcription factor Y, beta Neighboring gene ribosomal protein L18a pseudogene 3 Neighboring gene EP300 interacting inhibitor of differentiation 3 Neighboring gene carbohydrate (chondroitin 4) sulfotransferase 11 Neighboring gene microRNA 3922 Neighboring gene solute carrier family 41 (magnesium transporter), member 2

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 env Thioredoxin-1 (Trx1) catalyzes the HIV-1 gp120 reduction of disulfides, which results in virus entry PubMed
Tat tat Thioredoxin reductase-1 (TR1), a selenium-containing pyridine nucleotide-disulfide oxidoreductase, acts as a negative regulator of Tat-dependent transcription in a NF-kappaB-independent pathway PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Protein Interaction Database

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

Markers

Homology

Clone Names

  • MGC9145

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
NADP binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
electron carrier activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
flavin adenine dinucleotide binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
protein disulfide oxidoreductase activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
thioredoxin-disulfide reductase activity EXP
Inferred from Experiment
more info
 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
cell proliferation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cell redox homeostasis IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cellular lipid metabolic process TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
mesoderm formation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
nucleobase-containing small molecule interconversion TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
nucleobase-containing small molecule metabolic process TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
oxidation-reduction process IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
signal transduction NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
small molecule metabolic process TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
cytosol TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
mitochondrion IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
nucleolus IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 
NOT nucleolus IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 
nucleus IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 
Preferred Names
thioredoxin reductase 1, cytoplasmic
Names
thioredoxin reductase 1, cytoplasmic
oxidoreductase
thioredoxin reductase TR1
thioredoxin reductase GRIM-12
KM-102-derived reductase-like factor
gene associated with retinoic and IFN-induced mortality 12 protein
gene associated with retinoic and interferon-induced mortality 12 protein
NP_001087240.1
NP_001248374.1
NP_001248375.1
NP_003321.3
NP_877393.1
NP_877419.1
NP_877420.1

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

Genomic

  1. NG_029392.1 

    Range
    4999..139527
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_001093771.2NP_001087240.1  thioredoxin reductase 1, cytoplasmic isoform 3

    See proteins identical to NP_001087240.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (5) encodes the longest isoform (3). This variant appears to be expressed primarily in the testis.
    Source sequence(s)
    AI097548, AK226071, AY057105, BC018122, DC418649
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS53820.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q16881
    Related
    ENSP00000434516, OTTHUMP00000232986, ENST00000525566, OTTHUMT00000389960
    Conserved Domains (5) summary
    TIGR01438
    Location:161649
    Blast Score: 2423
    TGR; thioredoxin and glutathione reductase selenoprotein
    cd03419
    Location:68148
    Blast Score: 272
    GRX_GRXh_1_2_like; Glutaredoxin (GRX) family, GRX human class 1 and 2 (h_1_2)-like subfamily; composed of proteins similar to human GRXs, approximately 10 kDa in size, and proteins containing a GRX or GRX-like domain. GRX is a glutathione (GSH) dependent reductase, ...
    pfam00070
    Location:342418
    Blast Score: 190
    Pyr_redox; Pyridine nucleotide-disulphide oxidoreductase
    pfam02852
    Location:520632
    Blast Score: 327
    Pyr_redox_dim; Pyridine nucleotide-disulphide oxidoreductase, dimerization domain
    cl19134
    Location:302372
    Blast Score: 119
    NAD_binding_8; NAD(P)-binding Rossmann-like domain
  2. NM_001261445.1NP_001248374.1  thioredoxin reductase 1, cytoplasmic isoform 4

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (6) differs in the 5' UTR and coding sequence compared to variant 5. The resulting isoform (4) has a shorter and distinct N-terminus compared to isoform 3.
    Source sequence(s)
    AI097548, AK226071, AK295067, BC018122, DA440625, DC351122, DC400503, DC401138
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    B7Z2S5
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q16881
    Conserved Domains (5) summary
    TIGR01438
    Location:61549
    Blast Score: 2417
    TGR; thioredoxin and glutathione reductase selenoprotein
    pfam00070
    Location:242318
    Blast Score: 187
    Pyr_redox; Pyridine nucleotide-disulphide oxidoreductase
    pfam02852
    Location:420532
    Blast Score: 325
    Pyr_redox_dim; Pyridine nucleotide-disulphide oxidoreductase, dimerization domain
    cl00388
    Location:148
    Blast Score: 130
    Thioredoxin_like; Protein Disulfide Oxidoreductases and Other Proteins with a Thioredoxin fold
    cl19134
    Location:202272
    Blast Score: 118
    NAD_binding_8; NAD(P)-binding Rossmann-like domain
  3. NM_001261446.1NP_001248375.1  thioredoxin reductase 1, cytoplasmic isoform 5

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (7) differs in the 5' UTR and coding sequence compared to variant 5. The resulting isoform (5) is shorter at the N-terminus compared to isoform 3.
    Source sequence(s)
    AI097548, AK226071, AK293322, BC018122, DC400503, DC401138
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS58274.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q16881
    Conserved Domains (4) summary
    TIGR01438
    Location:1461
    Blast Score: 2361
    TGR; thioredoxin and glutathione reductase selenoprotein
    pfam00070
    Location:154230
    Blast Score: 187
    Pyr_redox; Pyridine nucleotide-disulphide oxidoreductase
    pfam02852
    Location:332444
    Blast Score: 324
    Pyr_redox_dim; Pyridine nucleotide-disulphide oxidoreductase, dimerization domain
    cl19134
    Location:114184
    Blast Score: 118
    NAD_binding_8; NAD(P)-binding Rossmann-like domain
  4. NM_003330.3NP_003321.3  thioredoxin reductase 1, cytoplasmic isoform 1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1) differs in the 5' UTR and coding sequence compared to variant 5. The resulting isoform (1) has a shorter and distinct N-terminus compared to isoform 3.
    Source sequence(s)
    AI097548, AK226071, BC018122, DC351122, DC400503, DC401138
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS53821.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q16881
    Related
    ENSP00000435929, OTTHUMP00000232993, ENST00000526691, OTTHUMT00000389970
    Conserved Domains (5) summary
    TIGR01438
    Location:63551
    Blast Score: 2417
    TGR; thioredoxin and glutathione reductase selenoprotein
    pfam00070
    Location:244320
    Blast Score: 188
    Pyr_redox; Pyridine nucleotide-disulphide oxidoreductase
    pfam02852
    Location:422534
    Blast Score: 326
    Pyr_redox_dim; Pyridine nucleotide-disulphide oxidoreductase, dimerization domain
    cl00388
    Location:450
    Blast Score: 127
    Thioredoxin_like; Protein Disulfide Oxidoreductases and Other Proteins with a Thioredoxin fold
    cl19134
    Location:204274
    Blast Score: 119
    NAD_binding_8; NAD(P)-binding Rossmann-like domain
  5. NM_182729.2NP_877393.1  thioredoxin reductase 1, cytoplasmic isoform 2

    See proteins identical to NP_877393.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (3) differs in the 5' UTR and coding sequence compared to variant 5. The resulting isoform (2) is shorter at the N-terminus compared to isoform 3. Variants 2, 3, and 4 all encode the same isoform (2).
    Source sequence(s)
    AI097548, AK226071, BC018122, DC400503, DC401138
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS53823.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q16881
    Related
    ENSP00000421934, OTTHUMP00000232988, ENST00000503506, OTTHUMT00000389964
    Conserved Domains (4) summary
    TIGR01438
    Location:11499
    Blast Score: 2415
    TGR; thioredoxin and glutathione reductase selenoprotein
    pfam00070
    Location:192268
    Blast Score: 188
    Pyr_redox; Pyridine nucleotide-disulphide oxidoreductase
    pfam02852
    Location:370482
    Blast Score: 325
    Pyr_redox_dim; Pyridine nucleotide-disulphide oxidoreductase, dimerization domain
    cl19134
    Location:152222
    Blast Score: 118
    NAD_binding_8; NAD(P)-binding Rossmann-like domain
  6. NM_182742.2NP_877419.1  thioredoxin reductase 1, cytoplasmic isoform 2

    See proteins identical to NP_877419.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (2) differs in the 5' UTR and coding sequence compared to variant 5. The resulting isoform (2) is shorter at the N-terminus compared to isoform 3. Variants 2, 3, and 4 all encode the same isoform (2).
    Source sequence(s)
    AI097548, AK226071, BC018122, DA238692, DC400503, DC401138
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS53823.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q16881
    Related
    ENSP00000347020, ENST00000354940
    Conserved Domains (4) summary
    TIGR01438
    Location:11499
    Blast Score: 2415
    TGR; thioredoxin and glutathione reductase selenoprotein
    pfam00070
    Location:192268
    Blast Score: 188
    Pyr_redox; Pyridine nucleotide-disulphide oxidoreductase
    pfam02852
    Location:370482
    Blast Score: 325
    Pyr_redox_dim; Pyridine nucleotide-disulphide oxidoreductase, dimerization domain
    cl19134
    Location:152222
    Blast Score: 118
    NAD_binding_8; NAD(P)-binding Rossmann-like domain
  7. NM_182743.2NP_877420.1  thioredoxin reductase 1, cytoplasmic isoform 2

    See proteins identical to NP_877420.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (4) differs in the 5' UTR and coding sequence compared to variant 5. The resulting isoform (2) is shorter at the N-terminus compared to isoform 3. Variants 2, 3, and 4 all encode the same isoform (2).
    Source sequence(s)
    AI097548, AK226071, BC018122, DA319870, DC400503, DC401138
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS53823.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q16881
    Related
    ENSP00000380844, ENST00000397736
    Conserved Domains (4) summary
    TIGR01438
    Location:11499
    Blast Score: 2415
    TGR; thioredoxin and glutathione reductase selenoprotein
    pfam00070
    Location:192268
    Blast Score: 188
    Pyr_redox; Pyridine nucleotide-disulphide oxidoreductase
    pfam02852
    Location:370482
    Blast Score: 325
    Pyr_redox_dim; Pyridine nucleotide-disulphide oxidoreductase, dimerization domain
    cl19134
    Location:152222
    Blast Score: 118
    NAD_binding_8; NAD(P)-binding Rossmann-like domain

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 106

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000012.12 

    Range
    104215779..104350307
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

Alternate HuRef

Genomic

  1. AC_000144.1 

    Range
    101669268..101804294
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

Alternate CHM1_1.1

Genomic

  1. NC_018923.2 

    Range
    104575396..104709877
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)