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    TSPO translocator protein [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

    Gene ID: 706, updated on 26-Jul-2016
    Official Symbol
    TSPOprovided by HGNC
    Official Full Name
    translocator proteinprovided by HGNC
    Primary source
    HGNC:HGNC:1158
    See related
    Ensembl:ENSG00000100300 HPRD:15913; MIM:109610; Vega:OTTHUMG00000150573
    Gene type
    protein coding
    RefSeq status
    REVIEWED
    Organism
    Homo sapiens
    Lineage
    Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
    Also known as
    DBI; IBP; MBR; PBR; PBS; BPBS; BZRP; PKBS; PTBR; mDRC; pk18
    Summary
    Present mainly in the mitochondrial compartment of peripheral tissues, the protein encoded by this gene interacts with some benzodiazepines and has different affinities than its endogenous counterpart. The protein is a key factor in the flow of cholesterol into mitochondria to permit the initiation of steroid hormone synthesis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been reported; one of the variants lacks an internal exon and is considered non-coding, and the other variants encode the same protein. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]
    Orthologs
    Location:
    22q13.31
    Exon count:
    5
    Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
    108 current GRCh38.p7 (GCF_000001405.33) 22 NC_000022.11 (43151514..43163242)
    105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 22 NC_000022.10 (43547520..43559248)

    Chromosome 22 - NC_000022.11Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene BCL2 interacting killer Neighboring gene malonyl-CoA-acyl carrier protein transacylase Neighboring gene tubulin tyrosine ligase like 12 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105373051 Neighboring gene signal peptide, CUB domain and EGF like domain containing 1

    GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

    Replication interactions

    Interaction Pubs
    Knockdown of TSPO by shRNA enhances HIV-1 replication in nonpermissive NKR cells PubMed

    Protein interactions

    Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
    Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 env Treatment with TSPO antagonists or knockdown of TSPO by shRNA activate HIV-1 replication in nonpermissive NKR cells by restoring HIV-1 gp120/gp41 biogenesis PubMed
    Envelope surface glycoprotein gp160, precursor env TSPO inhibits HIV-1 Env expression in 293T cells in a dose-dependent manner PubMed
    Envelope transmembrane glycoprotein gp41 env Treatment with TSPO antagonists or knockdown of TSPO by shRNA activate HIV-1 replication in nonpermissive NKR cells by restoring HIV-1 gp120/gp41 biogenesis PubMed

    Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

    Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

    Markers

    Homology

    Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

    Function Evidence Code Pubs
    androgen binding IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    benzodiazepine receptor activity IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    cholesterol binding TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    ion channel binding IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    protein binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    Process Evidence Code Pubs
    adrenal gland development IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    aging IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    anion transport TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    apoptotic process TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    behavioral response to pain IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    cell proliferation TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    cellular hypotonic response IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    cellular response to lipopolysaccharide IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    cellular response to zinc ion IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    chemical synaptic transmission IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    chloride transport IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    contact inhibition IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    glial cell migration IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    heme biosynthetic process TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    lipid transport IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    maintenance of protein location in mitochondrion IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    negative regulation of ATP metabolic process IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    negative regulation of glial cell proliferation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    negative regulation of mitophagy IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    negative regulation of nitric oxide biosynthetic process IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    negative regulation of protein ubiquitination IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    negative regulation of tumor necrosis factor production IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    peripheral nervous system axon regeneration IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    positive regulation of apoptotic process IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    positive regulation of calcium ion transport IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    positive regulation of glial cell proliferation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    positive regulation of mitochondrial depolarization IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    positive regulation of necrotic cell death IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    positive regulation of reactive oxygen species metabolic process IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    protein targeting to mitochondrion TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    regulation of cholesterol transport TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    regulation of steroid biosynthetic process IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    response to drug IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    response to manganese ion IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    response to progesterone IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    response to testosterone IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    response to vitamin B1 IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    signal transduction IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    steroid biosynthetic process IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    steroid metabolic process TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    Component Evidence Code Pubs
    cytoplasm IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
     
    extracellular exosome IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    integral component of membrane IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    intracellular membrane-bounded organelle IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
     
    mitochondrial outer membrane IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    mitochondrion IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
     
    nuclear membrane IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
     
    Preferred Names
    translocator protein
    Names
    benzodiazepine peripheral binding site
    mitochondrial benzodiazepine receptor
    peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor
    translocator protein (18kDa)

    RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

    These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

    These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. NM_000714.5NP_000705.2  translocator protein

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_000705.2

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (PBR) consists of four exons and encodes the protein PBR.
      Source sequence(s)
      AF075589, BC001110, BG752086, BP420304
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS33661.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P30536
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      O76068
      Related
      ENSP00000338004, OTTHUMP00000197857, ENST00000337554, OTTHUMT00000318951
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      pfam03073
      Location:9156
      TspO_MBR; TspO/MBR family
    2. NM_001256530.1NP_001243459.1  translocator protein

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001243459.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (3) differs in the 5' UTR, compared to variant PBR. Variants PBR, 3 and 4 encode the same protein.
      Source sequence(s)
      AF075590, BC001110, BG750685
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS33661.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P30536
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      O76068
      Related
      ENSP00000379563, ENST00000396265
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      pfam03073
      Location:9156
      TspO_MBR; TspO/MBR family
    3. NM_001256531.1NP_001243460.1  translocator protein

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001243460.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (4) differs in the 5' UTR, compared to variant PBR. Variants PBR, 3 and 4 encode the same protein.
      Source sequence(s)
      AF075590, BC001110, BG749252
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS33661.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P30536
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      O76068
      Related
      ENSP00000328973, OTTHUMP00000198250, ENST00000329563, OTTHUMT00000319618
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      pfam03073
      Location:9156
      TspO_MBR; TspO/MBR family

    RNA

    1. NR_046308.1 RNA Sequence

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (PBR-S) lacks an internal exon, compared to variant 1. This variant is represented as non-coding because the longest available open reading frame is found in a different frame, compared to variant PBR, and there is no experimental support for the existence of the predicted protein. This transcript has been described in PMID:8307574.
      Source sequence(s)
      AF075589, BC001110, BG752086, BP420304, L21950
      Related
      ENST00000583777, OTTHUMT00000318952

    RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 108 details...

    The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

    Reference GRCh38.p7 Primary Assembly

    Genomic

    1. NC_000022.11 Reference GRCh38.p7 Primary Assembly

      Range
      43151514..43163242
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    Alternate CHM1_1.1

    Genomic

    1. NC_018933.2 Alternate CHM1_1.1

      Range
      43507104..43518509
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    Suppressed Reference Sequence(s)

    The following Reference Sequences have been suppressed. Explain

    1. NM_007311.3: Suppressed sequence

      Description
      NM_007311.3: This RefSeq was permanently suppressed because currently there is support for the transcript but not for the protein.