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    PTGS1 prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 1 (prostaglandin G/H synthase and cyclooxygenase) [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

    Gene ID: 5742, updated on 24-Aug-2015
    Official Symbol
    PTGS1provided by HGNC
    Official Full Name
    prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 1 (prostaglandin G/H synthase and cyclooxygenase)provided by HGNC
    Primary source
    HGNC:HGNC:9604
    See related
    Ensembl:ENSG00000095303; HPRD:07518; MIM:176805; Vega:OTTHUMG00000020605
    Gene type
    protein coding
    RefSeq status
    REVIEWED
    Organism
    Homo sapiens
    Lineage
    Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
    Also known as
    COX1; COX3; PHS1; PCOX1; PES-1; PGHS1; PTGHS; PGG/HS; PGHS-1
    Summary
    This is one of two genes encoding similar enzymes that catalyze the conversion of arachinodate to prostaglandin. The encoded protein regulates angiogenesis in endothelial cells, and is inhibited by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as aspirin. Based on its ability to function as both a cyclooxygenase and as a peroxidase, the encoded protein has been identified as a moonlighting protein. The protein may promote cell proliferation during tumor progression. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]
    Orthologs
    See PTGS1 in Epigenomics, MapViewer
    Location:
    9q32-q33.3
    Exon count:
    13
    Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
    107 current GRCh38.p2 (GCF_000001405.28) 9 NC_000009.12 (122370530..122395705)
    105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 9 NC_000009.11 (125132809..125157982)

    Chromosome 9 - NC_000009.12Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene MORN repeat containing 5 Neighboring gene LIM homeobox 6 Neighboring gene RNA binding motif protein 18 Neighboring gene mitochondrial ribosome recycling factor Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105376262 Neighboring gene olfactory receptor, family 1, subfamily J, member 2 Neighboring gene olfactory receptor, family 1, subfamily J, member 1

    GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

    Protein interactions

    Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
    Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 env HIV-1 gp120 increases the intracellular concentrations of prostaglandin E2 and leukotriene B4 by upregulating the activity and expression of the arachidonate-metabolizing enzymes prostaglandin H synthase and 5-lipoxygenase, respectively PubMed
    env Preincubation of human astrocytoma cells with HIV-1 gp120 produces a significant increase of nitrite and PGE2 in cell supernatants; the effect of gp120 on both nitrite and PGE2 production is inhibited by antagonists of NO synthase or cyclooxygenase PubMed

    Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

    • Arachidonic acid metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Arachidonic acid metabolism, organism-specific biosystem
      Arachidonic acid metabolism
    • Arachidonic acid metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Arachidonic acid metabolism, organism-specific biosystemEicosanoids, oxygenated, 20-carbon fatty acids, are autocrine and paracrine signaling molecules that modulate physiological processes including pain, fever, inflammation, blood clot formation, smooth...
    • Arachidonic acid metabolism, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Arachidonic acid metabolism, conserved biosystem
      Arachidonic acid metabolism
    • Biological oxidations, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Biological oxidations, organism-specific biosystemAll organisms are constantly exposed to foreign chemicals every day. These can be man-made (drugs, industrial chemicals) or natural (alkaloids, toxins from plants and animals). Uptake is usually via ...
    • C20 prostanoid biosynthesis, organism-specific biosystem (from BIOCYC)
      C20 prostanoid biosynthesis, organism-specific biosystemGeneral Background A subclass of eicosanoids, the C20 prostanoids comprise of prostaglandins, thromboxanes and prostacyclins. They are all lipid compounds derived from the ω6 essential fatty ...
    • C20 prostanoid biosynthesis, conserved biosystem (from BIOCYC)
      C20 prostanoid biosynthesis, conserved biosystemGeneral Background A subclass of eicosanoids, the C20 prostanoids comprise of prostaglandins, thromboxanes and prostacyclins. They are all lipid compounds derived from the ω6 essential fatty ...
    • COX reactions, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      COX reactions, organism-specific biosystemArachidonic acid (AA) is a 20 carbon unsaturated fatty acid which is present in the lipid bilayer of all mammalian cells. AA is released from the membrane by phospholipases, thus making it available...
    • Eicosanoid Synthesis, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Eicosanoid Synthesis, organism-specific biosystemIn biochemistry, eicosanoids are signaling molecules made by oxidation of twenty-carbon essential fatty acids, (EFAs). They exert complex control over many bodily systems, mainly in inflammation or i...
    • Metabolic pathways, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Metabolic pathways, organism-specific biosystem
      Metabolic pathways
    • Metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Metabolism, organism-specific biosystemMetabolic processes in human cells generate energy through the oxidation of molecules consumed in the diet and mediate the synthesis of diverse essential molecules not taken in the diet as well as th...
    • Metabolism of lipids and lipoproteins, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Metabolism of lipids and lipoproteins, organism-specific biosystemLipids are hydrophobic but otherwise chemically diverse molecules that play a wide variety of roles in human biology. They include ketone bodies, fatty acids, triacylglycerols, phospholipids and sphi...
    • Phase 1 - Functionalization of compounds, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Phase 1 - Functionalization of compounds, organism-specific biosystemPhase 1 of metabolism is concerned with functionalization, that is the introduction or exposure of functional groups on the chemical structure of a compound. This provides a 'handle' for phase 2 conj...
    • Platelet activation, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Platelet activation, organism-specific biosystemPlatelets play a key and beneficial role for primary hemostasis on the disruption of the integrity of vessel wall. Platelet adhesion and activation at sites of vascular wall injury is initiated by ad...
    • Prostaglandin Synthesis and Regulation, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Prostaglandin Synthesis and Regulation, organism-specific biosystem
      Prostaglandin Synthesis and Regulation
    • Regulation of lipolysis in adipocytes, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Regulation of lipolysis in adipocytes, organism-specific biosystemLipolysis in adipocytes, the hydrolysis of triacylglycerol (TAG) to release fatty acids (FAs) and glycerol for use by other organs as energy substrates, is a unique function of white adipose tissue. ...
    • Selenium Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Selenium Pathway, organism-specific biosystem
      Selenium Pathway
    • Serotonergic synapse, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Serotonergic synapse, organism-specific biosystemSerotonin (5-Hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter that plays important roles in physiological functions such as learning and memory, emotion, sleep, pain, motor function and endoc...
    • Synthesis of Prostaglandins (PG) and Thromboxanes (TX), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Synthesis of Prostaglandins (PG) and Thromboxanes (TX), organism-specific biosystemThe bioactive prostaglandin (PG) signalling molecules, including PGA2, PGE2, PGF2a, and PGI2 (prostacyclin) are synthesised from arachidonic acid and its products by various prostaglandin synthase ty...
    Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

    Markers

    Homology

    Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

    Function Evidence Code Pubs
    dioxygenase activity IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    heme binding IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    lipid binding IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    metal ion binding IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    peroxidase activity TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase activity TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    Process Evidence Code Pubs
    aging IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    arachidonic acid metabolic process TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    cyclooxygenase pathway IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    cyclooxygenase pathway TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    inflammatory response IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    learning IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    lipid metabolic process NAS
    Non-traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    maintenance of blood-brain barrier IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    memory IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    negative regulation of epinephrine secretion IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    negative regulation of norepinephrine secretion IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    oxidation-reduction process IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    positive regulation of smooth muscle contraction IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    positive regulation of vasoconstriction IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    prostaglandin biosynthetic process ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    regulation of blood pressure ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    regulation of cell proliferation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    response to corticosterone IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    response to fatty acid IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    response to organonitrogen compound IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    response to oxidative stress IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    sensory perception of pain IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    small molecule metabolic process TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    xenobiotic metabolic process TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    Component Evidence Code Pubs
    cytoplasm IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    cytoplasm ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    endoplasmic reticulum membrane TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    extracellular exosome IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    intracellular membrane-bounded organelle ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    nuclear envelope IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    nucleus ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    photoreceptor outer segment IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    Preferred Names
    prostaglandin G/H synthase 1
    Names
    PGH synthase 1
    cyclooxygenase-1
    prostaglandin H2 synthase 1
    NP_000953.2
    NP_001258093.1
    NP_001258094.1
    NP_001258095.1
    NP_001258296.1
    NP_001258297.1
    NP_542158.1

    RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

    These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

    These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

    Genomic

    1. NG_032900.1 RefSeqGene

      Range
      4581..29754
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. NM_000962.3NP_000953.2  prostaglandin G/H synthase 1 isoform 1 precursor

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_000953.2

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (1) encodes isoform 1.
      Source sequence(s)
      AI813317, AL162424, AL359636, DA392280, M59979
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS6842.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P23219
      Related
      ENSP00000354612, OTTHUMP00000022052, ENST00000362012, OTTHUMT00000053933
      Conserved Domains (3) summary
      cd09816
      Location:89575
      prostaglandin_endoperoxide_synthase; Animal prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase and related bacterial proteins
      cd00054
      Location:3269
      EGF_CA; Calcium-binding EGF-like domain, present in a large number of membrane-bound and extracellular (mostly animal) proteins. Many of these proteins require calcium for their biological function and calcium-binding sites have been found to be located at the ...
      pfam03098
      Location:145581
      An_peroxidase; Animal haem peroxidase
    2. NM_001271164.1NP_001258093.1  prostaglandin G/H synthase 1 isoform 3 precursor

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (3) lacks an alternate exon in the coding region, compared to isoform 1. The encoded isoform (3) is shorter than isoform 1.
      Source sequence(s)
      AI813317, AL162424, AL359636, CD014048, DA392280
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS75895.1
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      A0A087X296
      Related
      ENSP00000484800, ENST00000614910
      Conserved Domains (3) summary
      cd09816
      Location:89527
      prostaglandin_endoperoxide_synthase; Animal prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase and related bacterial proteins
      cd00054
      Location:3269
      EGF_CA; Calcium-binding EGF-like domain, present in a large number of membrane-bound and extracellular (mostly animal) proteins. Many of these proteins require calcium for their biological function and calcium-binding sites have been found to be located at the ...
      pfam03098
      Location:138533
      An_peroxidase; Animal haem peroxidase
    3. NM_001271165.1NP_001258094.1  prostaglandin G/H synthase 1 isoform 4

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001258094.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (4) differs in the 5' UTR, lacks a portion of the 5' coding region, and initiates translation at an alternate downstream in-frame start site, compared to variant 1. The encoded isoform (4) has a shorter N-terminus, compared to isoform 1.
      Source sequence(s)
      AI813317, AK290022, AK304403, AL359636
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS59521.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P23219
      Related
      ENSP00000362802, ENST00000373698
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      cd09816
      Location:2466
      prostaglandin_endoperoxide_synthase; Animal prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase and related bacterial proteins
      pfam03098
      Location:36472
      An_peroxidase; Animal haem peroxidase
    4. NM_001271166.1NP_001258095.1  prostaglandin G/H synthase 1 isoform 5

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001258095.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (5) differs in the 5' UTR and contains multiple differences in the coding region, compared to variant 1. These differences result in initiation of translation at an alternate downstream in-frame start site, compared to variant 1. The encoded isoform (5) is shorter than isoform 1.
      Source sequence(s)
      AI813317, AK295221, AK308222, AL162424, AL359636
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P23219
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      cd09816
      Location:2429
      prostaglandin_endoperoxide_synthase; Animal prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase and related bacterial proteins
      pfam03098
      Location:36435
      An_peroxidase; Animal haem peroxidase
    5. NM_001271367.1NP_001258296.1  prostaglandin G/H synthase 1 isoform 5

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001258296.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (6) uses two alternate splice sites at internal exons, compared to variant 1. These differences result in initiation of translation at an alternate downstream in-frame start site, compared to variant 1. The primary ORF can be translated due to a combination of reinitiation and leaky scanning. The encoded isoform (5) is shorter than isoform 1.
      Source sequence(s)
      AI813317, AL162424, AL359636, CD014049, DA392280
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      cd09816
      Location:2429
      prostaglandin_endoperoxide_synthase; Animal prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase and related bacterial proteins
      pfam03098
      Location:36435
      An_peroxidase; Animal haem peroxidase
    6. NM_001271368.1NP_001258297.1  prostaglandin G/H synthase 1 isoform 6

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001258297.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (7) differs in the 5' UTR, lacks a portion of the 5' coding region, and initiates translation at an alternate start site, compared to variant 1. The primary ORF can be translated due to a combination of reinitiation and leaky scanning. The encoded isoform (6) is shorter and has a distinct N-terminus, compared to isoform 1.
      Source sequence(s)
      AI813317, AK295221, AK308222, AL162424, AL359636
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS59520.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P23219
      Related
      ENSP00000437709, ENST00000540753
      Conserved Domains (3) summary
      cd09816
      Location:64513
      prostaglandin_endoperoxide_synthase; Animal prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase and related bacterial proteins
      cd00054
      Location:844
      EGF_CA; Calcium-binding EGF-like domain, present in a large number of membrane-bound and extracellular (mostly animal) proteins. Many of these proteins require calcium for their biological function and calcium-binding sites have been found to be located at the ...
      pfam03098
      Location:120519
      An_peroxidase; Animal haem peroxidase
    7. NM_080591.2NP_542158.1  prostaglandin G/H synthase 1 isoform 2 precursor

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_542158.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (2) uses an alternate in-frame splice site in the coding region, compared to variant 1. The encoded isoform (2) is shorter than isoform 1.
      Source sequence(s)
      AI813317, AL162424, AL359636, DA392280, S36219
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS6843.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P23219
      Conserved Domains (3) summary
      cd09816
      Location:89538
      prostaglandin_endoperoxide_synthase; Animal prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase and related bacterial proteins
      cd00054
      Location:3269
      EGF_CA; Calcium-binding EGF-like domain, present in a large number of membrane-bound and extracellular (mostly animal) proteins. Many of these proteins require calcium for their biological function and calcium-binding sites have been found to be located at the ...
      pfam03098
      Location:145544
      An_peroxidase; Animal haem peroxidase

    RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 107

    The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

    Reference GRCh38.p2 Primary Assembly

    Genomic

    1. NC_000009.12 Reference GRCh38.p2 Primary Assembly

      Range
      122370530..122395705
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. XM_011518876.1XP_011517178.1  

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_011517178.1

      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P23219
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      cd09816
      Location:2466
      prostaglandin_endoperoxide_synthase; Animal prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase and related bacterial proteins
      pfam03098
      Location:36472
      An_peroxidase; Animal haem peroxidase
    2. XM_011518875.1XP_011517177.1  

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_011517177.1

      Conserved Domains (3) summary
      cd09816
      Location:64550
      prostaglandin_endoperoxide_synthase; Animal prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase and related bacterial proteins
      cd00054
      Location:844
      EGF_CA; Calcium-binding EGF-like domain, present in a large number of membrane-bound and extracellular (mostly animal) proteins. Many of these proteins require calcium for their biological function and calcium-binding sites have been found to be located at the ...
      pfam03098
      Location:120556
      An_peroxidase; Animal haem peroxidase
    3. XM_005252105.2XP_005252162.1  

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_005252162.1

      Conserved Domains (3) summary
      cd09816
      Location:64550
      prostaglandin_endoperoxide_synthase; Animal prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase and related bacterial proteins
      cd00054
      Location:844
      EGF_CA; Calcium-binding EGF-like domain, present in a large number of membrane-bound and extracellular (mostly animal) proteins. Many of these proteins require calcium for their biological function and calcium-binding sites have been found to be located at the ...
      pfam03098
      Location:120556
      An_peroxidase; Animal haem peroxidase

    Alternate CHM1_1.1

    Genomic

    1. NC_018920.2 Alternate CHM1_1.1

      Range
      125280871..125306038
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)