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    NFKB1 nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells 1 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

    Gene ID: 4790, updated on 30-Jun-2015
    Official Symbol
    NFKB1provided by HGNC
    Official Full Name
    nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells 1provided by HGNC
    Primary source
    HGNC:HGNC:7794
    See related
    Ensembl:ENSG00000109320; HPRD:01238; MIM:164011; Vega:OTTHUMG00000161080
    Gene type
    protein coding
    RefSeq status
    REVIEWED
    Organism
    Homo sapiens
    Lineage
    Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
    Also known as
    p50; KBF1; p105; EBP-1; NF-kB1; NFKB-p50; NFkappaB; NF-kappaB; NFKB-p105; NF-kappa-B
    Summary
    This gene encodes a 105 kD protein which can undergo cotranslational processing by the 26S proteasome to produce a 50 kD protein. The 105 kD protein is a Rel protein-specific transcription inhibitor and the 50 kD protein is a DNA binding subunit of the NF-kappa-B (NFKB) protein complex. NFKB is a transcription regulator that is activated by various intra- and extra-cellular stimuli such as cytokines, oxidant-free radicals, ultraviolet irradiation, and bacterial or viral products. Activated NFKB translocates into the nucleus and stimulates the expression of genes involved in a wide variety of biological functions. Inappropriate activation of NFKB has been associated with a number of inflammatory diseases while persistent inhibition of NFKB leads to inappropriate immune cell development or delayed cell growth. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]
    Orthologs
    See NFKB1 in Epigenomics, MapViewer
    Location:
    4q24
    Exon count:
    26
    Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
    107 current GRCh38.p2 (GCF_000001405.28) 4 NC_000004.12 (102501329..102617302)
    105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 4 NC_000004.11 (103422486..103538459)

    Chromosome 4 - NC_000004.12Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene solute carrier family 39 (zinc transporter), member 8 Neighboring gene collagen alpha-2(I) chain-like Neighboring gene zinc finger protein 705A pseudogene Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC101929401 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105377347 Neighboring gene mannosidase, beta A, lysosomal Neighboring gene ribosomal protein L21 pseudogene 49 Neighboring gene keratin 8 pseudogene 46

    GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

    NHGRI GWAS Catalog

    Description
    Genetic risk and a primary role for cell-mediated immune mechanisms in multiple sclerosis.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog
    Genome-wide association study identifies 12 new susceptibility loci for primary biliary cirrhosis.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog
    Genome-wide association study identifies TNFSF15 and POU2AF1 as susceptibility loci for primary biliary cirrhosis in the Japanese population.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog
    Genome-wide association study of treatment refractory schizophrenia in Han Chinese.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog
    Genome-wide contribution of genotype by environment interaction to variation of diabetes-related traits.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog
    Host-microbe interactions have shaped the genetic architecture of inflammatory bowel disease.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog

    Replication interactions

    Interaction Pubs
    Knockdown of nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells 1 (NFKB1; p50/p105) by shRNA library screening inhibits HIV-1 replication in cultured Jurkat T-cells PubMed
    Knockdown of nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells 1 (NFKB1; p50/p105) by siRNA inhibits HIV-1 replication in HeLa P4/R5 cells PubMed

    Protein interactions

    Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
    Asp asp Analysis of point mutations in the USF1 and NF-kappaB sites in the cis-acting elements of ASP promoter region shows that USF1 and NF-kappaB are required for ASP activity PubMed
    Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 env The binding of soluble HIV-1 gp120 to TLR2 or TLR4 results in upregulation of the TNF-alpha and IL-8 production through NF-kappaB activation PubMed
    env HIV-1 gp120 and methamphetamine synergistically induce release of IL-6 through the NF-kappaB pathway in astrocytes PubMed
    env HIV-1 gp120-mediated increases in IL-8 production in astrocytes are mediated through the NF-KapaB pathway PubMed
    env HIV-1 gp120 induces a time-dependent IL-6 upregulation by translocating NF-kappaB1 from cytoplasm to nucleus in human astrocyte cells PubMed
    env HIV-1 gp120-mediated downregulation of P-gp is attenuated by SN50 (a nuclear factor-KappaB [NF-KappaB] inhibitor), suggesting involvement of NF-KappaB signaling in P-gp regulation in primary cultures of human fetal astrocytes PubMed
    env HIV-1 gp120 activates NF-kappaB by inducing phosphorylation of IkappaBalpha in human astrocyte cells PubMed
    env HIV-1 gp120-mediated upregulation of CCL5 expression requires the NF-kappaB pathway in astrocytes PubMed
    env Inhibition of NRF2 by siRNA results in increased NOX2, NFkappaB (p65/p50), TNF-alpha, and MMP-9 proteins in astrocytes exposed to HIV-1 gp120 PubMed
    env Increased neurotoxicity mediated by cocaine and gp120 involves signaling pathways including c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), and nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB PubMed
    env PC-PLC is an upstream regulator of HIV-1 gp120-mediated NF-kappaB activation in human monocyte-derived macrophages PubMed
    env NF-kappaB and JNK signaling are involved in gp120-induced multidrug resistance protein 1 (Mrp1) regulation during an HIV-1 associated inflammatory response PubMed
    env Treatment of human hepatic stellate cells with gp120 significantly increases secretion and gene expression of CCL2, metalloprotease-1 and interleukin-6. Gp120 also induces activation of Akt, NF-kappaB, and p38(MAPK) PubMed
    env HIV-1 gp120 induces NF-kappaB activation and increases p21(cip1/waf1) and p27(kip1) protein levels in human mesangial cells PubMed
    env The mRNA expression levels for alpha-tubulin, TRADD, IFN-gamma R2, GAS1, MADD, NF-kappaB, I-kappa B, 14-3-3 protein, APaf1, PARP, IGF-1 receptor, RB1, Rb2/p130, ARC, and caspase 6 are upregulated in human neuronal cells after treatment with HIV-1 gp120 PubMed
    env HIV-1 gp120/CD4 interaction-induced NF-kappaB activation stimulates the hyperphosphorylation of IkappaB-alpha by IkappaB kinases (IKKs) PubMed
    env HIV-1 envelope protein gp120 is able to induce COX-2 mRNA and protein in human neuroblastoma cell lines that express CXCR4 and CCR5 but not CD4; gp120 induces COX-2 promoter transcription through NF-kappaB and activating protein-1 (AP-1) sites PubMed
    env CD4-p56Lck interaction is required for HIV-1 gp120-induced nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB in HeLa cells PubMed
    env The protein tyrosine kinase p56lck plays an active role in transmitting an HIV-1 gp120-mediated signal that increases the oxidative state of cells and as a consequence amplifies TNF-mediated NF-kappa B DNA binding PubMed
    env In CD4-positive Jurkat cells, gp120 enhances TNF-induced NF-kappa B activation PubMed
    env Binding of heat-inactivated HIV-1 (iHIV-1) or HIV-1 gp120 to infected resting PBMCs is sufficient to activate NF-kappa B and AP-1, to induce cell surface expression of CD25, and to commit cells to produce virus PubMed
    env HIV-1 gp120 and anti-CD4 antibodies induce a specific, significant decrease in the binding activity of NF-AT, NF-kappa B and AP-1, which leads to an inhibition of IL-2 production and cell proliferation PubMed
    Envelope transmembrane glycoprotein gp41 env The HIV-1 gp41 cytoplasmic domain-induced NFkappaB activation requires TAK1, RelA, and NEMO proteins PubMed
    env The cytoplasmic domain (residues 704-773) of HIV-1 gp41 induces NFkappaB activation. Deletion of a 12 amino-acid sequence (762CLFSYHRLRDLL) in gp41 leads to a dramatic loss of the NFkappaB activation and tyrosine 766 is particularly important PubMed
    Nef nef The (PxxP) regions that interact with SH3 domain-containing cellular kinases as well as two acidic C-terminal residues (E154/E155) are critical for Nef-mediated enhancement of NF-kappaB activity PubMed
    nef HIV-1 and SIVcpz Nef proteins enhance TNF-alpha, IKK-beta, and RelA/p65-induced NF-kappaB activation in 293T cells PubMed
    nef HIV-1 Nef activates nuclear transcription factor NF-kappaB in human monocyte/macrophages, promonoctyes, and dendritic cells, and to a lesser extent in immature dendritic cells PubMed
    nef Knockdown of the p50 and p65 subunits of NF-kappaB by siRNA shows significant reduction of CCL5 levels, suggesting that NF-kappaB is involved in Nef-mediated upregulation of CCL5 PubMed
    nef Stimulation of T cells by mitogens or antibodies to the T-cell receptor (TCR)-CD3 complex results in the downregulation of transcriptional factors NF-kappa B and AP-1 in cells expressing HIV-1 Nef PubMed
    nef The interaction of HIV-1 Nef with TRAF2, TRAF5, and TRAF6 proteins activates NF-kappaB, leading to the degradation of IkappaB-alpha and the increased phosphorylation of IKK-alpha and IKK-beta in monocyte-derived macrophages PubMed
    nef HIV-1 Nef upregulates TLR2 expression via NF-kappaB activation in THP-1 cells PubMed
    nef Both the myristoylation site and the acidic cluster in HIV-1 Nef are required for the activation of NF-kappaB, which induces upregulation of TNFalpha and IL6 expression PubMed
    nef HIV-1 Nef immunocomplexes analyzed by mass spectrometry reveal that NFKB-p105 is a Nef-binding protein in Jurkat cells PubMed
    nef Nef-mediated activation of NF-kappaB in macrophages induces secretion of the acute-phase protein ferritin, which is necessary and sufficient for Nef-dependent B cell changes PubMed
    nef HIV-1 Nef suppresses immunoglobulin class-switch DNA recombination by inducing IkappaBalpha and SOCS proteins, which block CD154, IL-4 and IL-10 cytokine signaling via NF-kappaB and STAT transcription factors PubMed
    nef HIV-1 Nef inhibits the induction of HIV-1- and interleukin 2-directed gene expression, and the effect on HIV-1 transcription depends on an intact NF-kappa B-binding site PubMed
    nef HIV-1 Nef expression in Drosophila inhibits NF-kappa-B activation PubMed
    nef HIV-1 Nef inhibits the induction of NF-kappa B DNA-binding activity by T-cell mitogens, however Nef does not affect the DNA-binding activity of other transcription factors implicated in HIV-1 regulation, including SP-1, USF, URS, and NF-AT PubMed
    Tat tat HIV-1 Tat upregulates the expression of platelet-derived growth factor subunit B homodimer through activation of the PDGFR-B/MEK/NF-kappaB pathway in human brain microvascular pericytes PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat-mediated transcriptional activation of the HIV-1 LTR promoter requires NFkappaB binding sites in the promoter and involves the activation of NFkappaB by Tat PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat-mediated upregulation of CCL5 involves JAK2/3, AKT2/3, p38delta, NF-kappaB (p65/p50), C/EBP alpha/gamma, and AP-1 proteins PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat enhances the NFkappaB activity by inhibiting IkappaB-alpha binding to p65 RelA PubMed
    tat Exogenous Nef and TNF-alpha synergistically activate NF-kappaB and AP-1 resulting in enhancing HIV-1 Tat transactivation of the LTR and viral replication in both chronically infected promonocytic cells and acutely infected primary macrophages PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat recruits P/CAF to the integrated HIV-1 LTR promoter causing the acetylation of histones, which in turn leads to the recruitment the p65 subunit of NFkappaB to the promoter PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat induces the acetylation of the NFkappaB p50 subunit as well as the p50/p65 complex by p300, causing an increase in NFkappaB DNA binding activity and in the rate of transcription PubMed
    tat Extracellular HIV-1 Tat upregulates the expression of human beta-defensin 2 (hBD-2) via JNK/NF-KappaB/AP-1-dependent pathways in human B cells PubMed
    tat The transcription factors NF-KappaB and NF-AT contribute to the Tat-induced activation of the HERV-K (HML-2) gag RNA transcripts in Jurkat T cells and in primary lymphocytes PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat enhances the NFkappaB activity and promotes the transcriptional activation of MIP-1alpha by interacting with IkappaB-alpha and p65 RelA PubMed
    tat MiR-217 regulates HIV-1 Tat-induced activation of NF-kappaB and inactivation of AMPK in MAGI cells PubMed
    tat Inhibition of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) results in the upregulation of HIV-1 Tat-induced overexpression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM1) via the nuclear factor-kappaB-regulated mechanism PubMed
    tat Acetylation-deficient cyclin T1 mutant dominantly suppresses NF-kappaB-mediated activation of the interleukin-8 promoter but continues to synergize with the HIV Tat protein to transactivate the HIV long terminal repeat PubMed
    tat Herpes virus saimiri-StpC synergizes with Tat during transcriptional activation of the HIV-1 LTR. This transcriptional synergy between StpC and Tat requires Lck and NF-kappaB consensus binding sequences PubMed
    tat Specific C/EBP and NF-kappaB transcription factor binding elements within the IL-1beta promoter are involved in Tat regulation of IL-1beta production PubMed
    tat Treatment of astrocytes with cell-permeable superoxide dismutase (SOD) leads to a decrease in Tat-induced ROS generation and NF-kappaB activation PubMed
    tat Glutamic acids at positions 92, 94, and 96 or lysine's at positions 88, 89, and 90 in the second encoding Tat exon are critical for the activation of NF-kappaB PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat binds the deacetylase domain (amino acids 341-512) of SIRT1 and inhibits SIRT1 deacetylase activity, which results in the induction of NF-kappaB hyperacetylation PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat-mediated upregulation of MMP-9 in human astrocytes results from NF-kappaB activation pathway PubMed
    tat PPARalpha and PPARgamma over-expression prevent Tat-induced binding activity and transactivation of nuclear factor-kappaB PubMed
    tat NFKB1 is downregulated in HIV-1 Tat and NC cotransfection of HEK 293T cells PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat in combination with IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha increases CXCL10 mRNA and protein in human astrocytes through the activation of the p38, Jnk, and Akt signaling pathways and their downstream transcription factors, NF-kappaB and STAT-1alpha PubMed
    tat NFAT-1 negatively regulates HIV-1 Tat-mediated transactivation of the HIV-1 LTR by competing with NFkappaB for its binding to the LTR, thereby blocking the interaction of NFkappaB with Tat PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat activates NFkappaB through the cellular interferon-inducible, double-stranded RNA dependent protein kinase, PKR PubMed
    tat Activation of NFkappaB by HIV-1 Tat leads to a reduction in adenylyl cyclase activity and an inhibition of cAMP synthesis PubMed
    tat Activation of NFkappaB by HIV-1 Tat is inhibited by Nitric Oxide PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat activates NFkappaB, causing the induction of CD95 ligand, CD69, iNOS, MCP-1, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-alpha, VCAM-1, ICAM-1, E-selectin, and MMP-9, as well as monocyte adhesion, cellular activation and angiogenesis PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat-induced SOCS3 expression inhibits antiviral IFN-beta signaling to enhance HIV-1 replication in macrophages in a NF-kappaB-dependent manner PubMed
    tat Recombinant CD40L synergizes with HIV-1 Tat to increase TNF-alpha release from primary human monocytes and microglia in an NF-kappaB-dependent manner. This synergism is attributed to a Tat-mediated up-regulation of CD40 PubMed
    tat In HIV-1 Tat-expressing and HIV-infected astrocytes, endothelin-1 (ET-1) is significantly elevated through NF-kappaB (NF-kappaB)-responsive sites in the ET-1 promoter PubMed
    tat NFkappaB tethers the p160 nuclear receptor co-activator GRIP1 to the HIV-1 LTR promoter, thereby regulating the full activation of this promoter by HIV-1 Tat PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat has been shown to bind NFkappaB in vitro in gel shift, GST-pull down and affinity matrix assays PubMed
    tat p56-lck plays a critical role in the activation of NFkappaB by HIV-1 Tat PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat enhances tumor necrosis factor-induced activation of NFkappaB by downregulating manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) PubMed
    Vpr vpr HIV-1 and SIVcpz Vpr proteins inhibit NF-kappaB, but the opposite is observed for SIVgsn/mus/mon Vpr proteins PubMed
    vpr HIV-1 Vpr regulates NF-kappa B, activating it in certain circumstances while suppressing it in others PubMed
    vpr The ability of HIV-1 Vpr to activate NF-kappaB or activator protein 1-dependent luciferase expression requires TAK1, TRAF6, or TAB3 in cells PubMed
    vpr HIV-1 Vpr-induced upregulation of CCL5 requires p50 and p65 subunits of NF-kappaB, p38delta MAPK, Akt-2 and Akt-3, and AP-1 transcription factor in HIV-1 Vpr transfected astrocytes PubMed
    vpr HIV-1 Vpr interacts with RelB to promote the Vpr-mediated activation of NF-kappaB reporter gene and to enhance the transactivation of HIV LTR PubMed
    vpr HIV-1 Vpr inhibits the NFkappaB signaling pathway in TNF-alpha treated cells and abolishes the phosphorylation of NFkappaB p65 subunit in response to such treatment PubMed
    vpr HIV-1 Vpr-induced IL-6 production depends on the activation of NFkappaB and the involvement of C/EBP-beta, TLR4, and MyD88 PubMed
    vpr Recruitment of PARP-1 by HIV-1 Vpr-glucocorticoid receptor (GR) complex prevents its nuclear localization, which is necessary for Vpr to suppress NF-kappaB PubMed
    vpr HIV-1 Vpr activation of NF-kappa B regulated promoters is linked to Vpr regulation of IL-12, CD44, Toll-like receptor 4, indolamine 2,3-dioxygenase, macrophage receptor with collagenous structure, and thrombospondin 1 PubMed
    vpr HIV-1 Vpr potentiates the trans-activation, but not the trans-repression, properties of the glucocorticoid receptor on NF-kappa B-regulated simple promoters PubMed
    vpr Upregulation of IL-6, IL-10, TNFalpha, and gamma interferon is linked to HIV-1 Vpr activation of NF-kappa B PubMed
    vpr HIV-1 Vpr increases IL-8 expression and IL-8 promoter activity by activating transcription factors NF-kappa B and NF-IL-6 and also increases transcription of NF-kappa B and NF-IL-6 enhancer containing viral promoters PubMed
    vpr NF-kappa B contributes to HIV-1 transactivation by HIV-1 Vpr but is not completely responsible for this effect PubMed
    vpr Data suggests that p300, through its interactions with NF-kappa B, basal transcriptional components, and Cdks, is modulated by HIV-1 Vpr and regulates HIV replication PubMed
    vpr Vpr suppresses expression of IL-2, IL-10, IL-12, TNFalpha and IL-4, all of which are NF-kappa B-dependent PubMed
    vpr Regulation of apoptosis by HIV-1 Vpr is linked to Vpr suppression of NF-kappa B activity via the induction of I kappa B and is mapped to the first alpha-helical domain (amino acids 17-34) of Vpr PubMed
    Vpu vpu Most HIV-1 and primate lentiviral Vpu proteins inhibit IKK-beta-induced NF-kappaB activation except HIV-1 group N Vpu proteins PubMed
    vpu HIV-1 Vpu inhibits endogenous expression BST2-induced NF-kappaB activity in cells, and the inhibition requires the beta-TrCP binding motif (residues 51-56; DSGxxS) in Vpu PubMed
    vpu NF-kappaB-mediated enhancement of the IFN-beta promoter activity is inhibited by HIV-1 Vpu PubMed
    vpu HIV-1 Vpu interferes with beta-TrCP to inhibit TNF-alpha-induced activation of NFkappaB PubMed
    vpu HIV-1 Vpu inhibits NF-kappa B activation by interfering with beta-TrCP-mediated degradation of IkappaB-alpha PubMed
    capsid gag HIV-1 CA mutants N74D and P90A fail to bind to CPSF6 and cyclophilins (Nup358 and CypA), respectively, and trigger innate sensors, leading to nuclear translocation of NFkappaB and IRF3, production of type 1 IFN and induction of an antiviral state PubMed
    nucleocapsid gag NFKB1 (Nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells 1) is downregulated in HIV-1 Tat and NC cotransfection of HEK 293T cells PubMed
    gag HIV-1 Nucleocapsid has been shown to bind to the HIV-1 LTR promoter and enhance NF-kappaB, Sp1, and TFIIB-induced HIV-1 LTR-directed RNA transcription PubMed
    retropepsin gag-pol HIV-1 protease can cleave p105 into a p45 maturation product and increases levels of active nuclear NF-kappa B complex PubMed

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      Cocaine addiction, conserved biosystemDrug addiction is a chronic, relapsing disorder in which compulsive drug-seeking and drug-taking behavior persists despite serious negative consequences.There is strong evidence that the dopaminergic...
    • Corticotropin-releasing hormone, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Corticotropin-releasing hormone, organism-specific biosystemCorticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is a neuropeptide secreted abundantly in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, amygdala, cerebral cortex and cerebellum in the central nervous system ...
    • Cytokine Signaling in Immune system, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Cytokine Signaling in Immune system, organism-specific biosystemCytokines are small proteins that regulate and mediate immunity, inflammation, and hematopoiesis. They are secreted in response to immune stimuli, and usually act briefly, locally, at very low concen...
    • Cytosolic DNA-sensing pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Cytosolic DNA-sensing pathway, organism-specific biosystemSpecific families of pattern recognition receptors are responsible for detecting foreign DNA from invading microbes or host cells and generating innate immune responses. DAI is the first identified s...
    • Cytosolic DNA-sensing pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Cytosolic DNA-sensing pathway, conserved biosystemSpecific families of pattern recognition receptors are responsible for detecting foreign DNA from invading microbes or host cells and generating innate immune responses. DAI is the first identified s...
    • Cytosolic sensors of pathogen-associated DNA, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Cytosolic sensors of pathogen-associated DNA, organism-specific biosystemPresence of pathogen-associated DNA in cytosol induces type I IFN production. Several intracellular receptors have been implicated to some degree. These include DNA-dependent activator of interferon ...
    • DEx/H-box helicases activate type I IFN and inflammatory cytokines production, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      DEx/H-box helicases activate type I IFN and inflammatory cytokines production, organism-specific biosystemDHX36 and DHX9 are aspartate-glutamate-any amino acid aspartate/histidine (DExD/H) box helicase (DHX) proteins that localize in the cytosol. The DHX RNA helicases family includes a large number of pr...
    • DNA damage response (only ATM dependent), organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      DNA damage response (only ATM dependent), organism-specific biosystemThis is the second pathway out of two pathways which deals with DNA damage response. It has two central gene products (ATM and TP53) which are connected with the first DNA damage response pathway. In...
    • Developmental Biology, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Developmental Biology, organism-specific biosystemAs a first step towards capturing the array of processes by which a fertilized egg gives rise to the diverse tissues of the body, examples of three kinds of processes have been annotated. These are a...
    • Disease, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Disease, organism-specific biosystemBiological processes are captured in Reactome by identifying the molecules (DNA, RNA, protein, small molecules) involved in them and describing the details of their interactions. From this molecular ...
    • Diseases associated with the TLR signaling cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Diseases associated with the TLR signaling cascade, organism-specific biosystemToll like receptors (TLRs) are sensors of the innate immune system that detect danger signals derived from pathogens (pathogen-associated molecular patterns - PAMP) or damaged cells (damage-associate...
    • Diseases of Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Diseases of Immune System, organism-specific biosystemThe immune system is a complex network of the biological processes that provide defense mechanisms during infection or in response to an intrinsic danger signal. Compromised immune response may prese...
    • Downstream TCR signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Downstream TCR signaling, organism-specific biosystemChanges in gene expression are required for the T cell to gain full proliferative competence and to produce effector cytokines. Three transcription factors in particular have been found to play a key...
    • Downstream signaling events of B Cell Receptor (BCR), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Downstream signaling events of B Cell Receptor (BCR), organism-specific biosystemSecond messengers (calcium, diacylglycerol, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, and phosphatidyinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate) trigger signaling pathways: NF-kappaB is activated via protein kinase C beta, RA...
    • EBV LMP1 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      EBV LMP1 signaling, organism-specific biosystembased on science-slides...
    • EPO signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      EPO signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem
      EPO signaling pathway
    • Epithelial cell signaling in Helicobacter pylori infection, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Epithelial cell signaling in Helicobacter pylori infection, organism-specific biosystemTwo major virulence factors of H. pylori are the vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA) and the cag type-IV secretion system (T4SS) and its translocated effector protein, cytotoxin-associated antigen A (CagA)....
    • Epithelial cell signaling in Helicobacter pylori infection, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Epithelial cell signaling in Helicobacter pylori infection, conserved biosystemTwo major virulence factors of H. pylori are the vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA) and the cag type-IV secretion system (T4SS) and its translocated effector protein, cytotoxin-associated antigen A (CagA)....
    • Epstein-Barr virus infection, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Epstein-Barr virus infection, organism-specific biosystemEpstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous human herpesvirus that is associated with oncogenesis. EBV infection to primary human B lymphocytes leads to induction of EBV-specific HLA-restricted cytotoxi...
    • Epstein-Barr virus infection, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Epstein-Barr virus infection, conserved biosystemEpstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous human herpesvirus that is associated with oncogenesis. EBV infection to primary human B lymphocytes leads to induction of EBV-specific HLA-restricted cytotoxi...
    • Estrogen signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Estrogen signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemEstrogen receptor refers to a group of receptors which are activated by the hormone 17??-estradiol (estrogen). Two types of estrogen receptor exist: ER which is a member of the nuclear hormone family...
    • FCERI mediated NF-kB activation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      FCERI mediated NF-kB activation, organism-specific biosystemThe increase in intracellular Ca+2 in conjunction with DAG also activates PKC and RasGRP, which inturn contributes to cytokine production by mast cells (Kambayashi et al. 2007). Activation of the FCE...
    • Fc epsilon receptor (FCERI) signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Fc epsilon receptor (FCERI) signaling, organism-specific biosystemMast cells (MC) are distributed in tissues throughout the human body and have long been recognized as key cells of type I hypersensitivity reactions. They also play important roles in inflammatory an...
    • Fc-epsilon receptor I signaling in mast cells, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      Fc-epsilon receptor I signaling in mast cells, organism-specific biosystem
      Fc-epsilon receptor I signaling in mast cells
    • Glucocorticoid receptor regulatory network, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      Glucocorticoid receptor regulatory network, organism-specific biosystem
      Glucocorticoid receptor regulatory network
    • HIF-1 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      HIF-1 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemHypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a transcription factor that functions as a master regulator of oxygen homeostasis. It consists of two subunits: an inducibly-expressed HIF-1alpha subunit and a c...
    • HIV-1 Nef: Negative effector of Fas and TNF-alpha, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      HIV-1 Nef: Negative effector of Fas and TNF-alpha, organism-specific biosystem
      HIV-1 Nef: Negative effector of Fas and TNF-alpha
    • HTLV-I infection, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      HTLV-I infection, organism-specific biosystemHuman T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a pathogenic retrovirus that is associated with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL). It is also strongly implicated in non-neoplastic chronic inflammato...
    • HTLV-I infection, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      HTLV-I infection, conserved biosystemHuman T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a pathogenic retrovirus that is associated with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL). It is also strongly implicated in non-neoplastic chronic inflammato...
    • Hepatitis B, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Hepatitis B, organism-specific biosystemHepatitis B virus (HBV) is an enveloped virus and contains a partially double-stranded relaxed circular DNA (RC-DNA) genome. After entry into hepatocytes, HBV RC-DNA is transported to the nucleus and...
    • Hepatitis C, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Hepatitis C, organism-specific biosystemHepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of chronic liver disease. The HCV employ several strategies to perturb host cell immunity. After invasion, HCV RNA genome functions directly as an mRNA in the...
    • Hepatitis C, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Hepatitis C, conserved biosystemHepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of chronic liver disease. The HCV employ several strategies to perturb host cell immunity. After invasion, HCV RNA genome functions directly as an mRNA in the...
    • Herpes simplex infection, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Herpes simplex infection, organism-specific biosystemHerpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are very common worldwide, with the prevalence of HSV-1 reaching up to 80%-90%. Primary infection with HSV takes place in the mucosa, followed by the establishme...
    • Herpes simplex infection, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Herpes simplex infection, conserved biosystemHerpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are very common worldwide, with the prevalence of HSV-1 reaching up to 80%-90%. Primary infection with HSV takes place in the mucosa, followed by the establishme...
    • IKBKG deficiency causes anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with immunodeficiency (EDA-ID) (via TLR), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      IKBKG deficiency causes anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with immunodeficiency (EDA-ID) (via TLR), organism-specific biosystemMany signaling pathways rely on the activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NFkB), which is critical for the induction of the appropriate cellular function in response to various stimuli such as inflam...
    • IL-3 Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      IL-3 Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemInterleukin-3 belongs to a family of cytokines, which includes IL-5 and GM-CSF. It signals through a receptor complex comprising of an IL-3 specific IL-3 receptor alpha subunit (IL3RA) and a common b...
    • IL-4 signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      IL-4 signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemInterleukin-4 belongs to the IL-2 family of cytokines, which includes IL-2, IL-7, IL-9, IL-15 and IL-21. It signals through 2 different receptor complexes; Receptor complex 1 comprises of IL-4 recept...
    • IL-5 Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      IL-5 Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemInterleukin-5 belongs to the family of cytokines, which includes IL-3 and GM-CSF. It signals through a receptor complex comprising of an IL-5 receptor alpha subunit (IL5RA), and a common beta chain w...
    • IL-6 Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      IL-6 Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemInterleukin-6 belongs to a family of cytokines which includes IL-11, ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), cardiotropin-1, cardiotrophin-like cytokine, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and Oncostatin M...
    • IL1-mediated signaling events, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      IL1-mediated signaling events, organism-specific biosystem
      IL1-mediated signaling events
    • IL12-mediated signaling events, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      IL12-mediated signaling events, organism-specific biosystem
      IL12-mediated signaling events
    • IL17 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      IL17 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemInterleukin 17 is a family of cytokines that acts as potent mediators in delayed-type reactions by increasing chemokine production in various tissues to recruit monocytes and neutrophils to the site ...
    • IL2 signaling events mediated by PI3K, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      IL2 signaling events mediated by PI3K, organism-specific biosystem
      IL2 signaling events mediated by PI3K
    • IL23-mediated signaling events, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      IL23-mediated signaling events, organism-specific biosystem
      IL23-mediated signaling events
    • Id Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Id Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemInhibitor of DNA binding (ID) proteins are members of the helix-loop-helix (HLH) family of proteins which lack a DNA binding domain themselves but bind to other family members inhibiting their DNA bi...
    • IkBA variant leads to EDA-ID, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      IkBA variant leads to EDA-ID, organism-specific biosystemThe nuclear factor kappa B (NFkB) family of transcription factors is kept inactive in the cytoplasm by the inhibitor of kappa B (IkB) family members IKBA (IkB alpha), IKBB (IkB beta) and IKBE (IkB ep...
    • Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Immune System, organism-specific biosystemHumans are exposed to millions of potential pathogens daily, through contact, ingestion, and inhalation. Our ability to avoid infection depends on the adaptive immune system and during the first crit...
    • Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), organism-specific biosystemInflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes Crohn disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), is characterized by chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract due to environmental and geneti...
    • Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), conserved biosystemInflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes Crohn disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), is characterized by chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract due to environmental and geneti...
    • Influenza A, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Influenza A, organism-specific biosystemInfluenza is a contagious respiratory disease caused by influenza virus infection. Influenza A virus is responsible for both annual seasonal epidemics and periodic worldwide pandemics. Novel strains ...
    • Influenza A, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Influenza A, conserved biosystemInfluenza is a contagious respiratory disease caused by influenza virus infection. Influenza A virus is responsible for both annual seasonal epidemics and periodic worldwide pandemics. Novel strains ...
    • Innate Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Innate Immune System, organism-specific biosystemInnate immunity encompases the nonspecific part of immunity tha are part of an individual's natural biologic makeup
    • Integrated Breast Cancer Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Integrated Breast Cancer Pathway, organism-specific biosystemThis pathway incorporates the most important proteins for Breast Cancer. The Rp score from the Connectivity-Maps (C-Maps) webserver was used to determine the rank of the most important proteins in Br...
    • Integrated Pancreatic Cancer Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Integrated Pancreatic Cancer Pathway, organism-specific biosystemAn integrated pathway model which displays the protein-protein interactions (PPIs) among the relevant proteins for pancreatic cancer. This pathway is a collection of different mechanistic protein pat...
    • Interleukin-1 processing, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Interleukin-1 processing, organism-specific biosystemThe IL-1 family of cytokines that interact with the Type 1 IL-1R include IL-1 Alpha (IL1A), IL-1 Beta (IL1B) and the IL-1 receptor antagonist protein (IL1RAP). IL1RAP is synthesized with a signal pep...
    • Interleukin-1 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Interleukin-1 signaling, organism-specific biosystemInterleukin 1 (IL1) signals via Interleukin 1 receptor 1 (IL1R1), the only signaling-capable IL1 receptor. This is a single chain type 1 transmembrane protein comprising an extracellular ligand bindi...
    • LPA receptor mediated events, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      LPA receptor mediated events, organism-specific biosystem
      LPA receptor mediated events
    • Legionellosis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Legionellosis, organism-specific biosystemLegionellosis is a potentially fatal infectious disease caused by the bacterium Legionella pneumophila and other legionella species. Two distinct clinical and epidemiological syndromes are associated...
    • Legionellosis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Legionellosis, conserved biosystemLegionellosis is a potentially fatal infectious disease caused by the bacterium Legionella pneumophila and other legionella species. Two distinct clinical and epidemiological syndromes are associated...
    • Leishmaniasis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Leishmaniasis, organism-specific biosystemLeishmania is an intracellular protozoan parasite of macrophages that causes visceral, mucosal, and cutaneous diseases. The parasite is transmitted to humans by sandflies, where they survive and prol...
    • Leishmaniasis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Leishmaniasis, conserved biosystemLeishmania is an intracellular protozoan parasite of macrophages that causes visceral, mucosal, and cutaneous diseases. The parasite is transmitted to humans by sandflies, where they survive and prol...
    • Leptin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Leptin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemLeptin is a peptide hormone mainly synthesised and secreted from adipocytes. It is also expressed in other tissues including placenta, stomach and skeletal muscle. Leptin mediates its effects by bind...
    • MAPK signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      MAPK signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is a highly conserved module that is involved in various cellular functions, including cell proliferation, differentiation and migration. Mammals e...
    • MAPK signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      MAPK signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is a highly conserved module that is involved in various cellular functions, including cell proliferation, differentiation and migration. Mammals e...
    • MAPK signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      MAPK signaling pathway, conserved biosystemThe mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is a highly conserved module that is involved in various cellular functions, including cell proliferation, differentiation and migration. Mammals e...
    • Measles, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Measles, organism-specific biosystemMeasles virus (MV) is highly contagious virus that leads infant death worldwide. Humans are the unique natural reservoir for this virus. It causes severe immunosuppression favouring secondary bacteri...
    • Measles, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Measles, conserved biosystemMeasles virus (MV) is highly contagious virus that leads infant death worldwide. Humans are the unique natural reservoir for this virus. It causes severe immunosuppression favouring secondary bacteri...
    • MicroRNAs in cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      MicroRNAs in cancer, organism-specific biosystemMicroRNA (miRNA) is a cluster of small non-encoding RNA molecules of 21 - 23 nucleotides in length, which controls gene expression post-transcriptionally either via the degradation of target mRNAs or...
    • MicroRNAs in cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      MicroRNAs in cancer, conserved biosystemMicroRNA (miRNA) is a cluster of small non-encoding RNA molecules of 21 - 23 nucleotides in length, which controls gene expression post-transcriptionally either via the degradation of target mRNAs or...
    • MicroRNAs in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      MicroRNAs in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, organism-specific biosystemThis pathway shows the role of microRNAs in the process of cardiac hypertrophy. MicroRNA targets were predicted by the TargetScan algorithm, and the predicted interactions are shown in red dashed lin...
    • MyD88 cascade initiated on plasma membrane, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      MyD88 cascade initiated on plasma membrane, organism-specific biosystemMammalian myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) is Toll/interleukin (IL)-1 (TIR)-domain containing adapter protein which plays crucial role in TLR signaling. All TLRs, with only one exception of...
    • MyD88 dependent cascade initiated on endosome, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      MyD88 dependent cascade initiated on endosome, organism-specific biosystemUpon binding of their ligands, TLR7/8 and TLR9 recruit a cytoplasmic adaptor MyD88 and IRAKs, downstream of which the signaling pathways are divided to induce either inflammatory cytokines or type I ...
    • MyD88-independent TLR3/TLR4 cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      MyD88-independent TLR3/TLR4 cascade, organism-specific biosystemMyD88-independent signaling pathway is shared by TLR3 and TLR4 cascades. TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-beta (TRIF or TICAM1) is a key adapter molecule in transducing signals from ...
    • MyD88:Mal cascade initiated on plasma membrane, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      MyD88:Mal cascade initiated on plasma membrane, organism-specific biosystemThe first known downstream component of TLR4 and TLR2 signaling is the adaptor MyD88. Another adapter MyD88-adaptor-like (Mal; also known as TIR-domain-containing adaptor protein or TIRAP) has also b...
    • Myometrial Relaxation and Contraction Pathways, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Myometrial Relaxation and Contraction Pathways, organism-specific biosystemThis pathway illustrates signaling networks implicated in uterine muscle contraction at labor and quiescence throughout gestation (pregnancy). The muscle of the uterus, responsible for contractile ac...
    • NF-kB is activated and signals survival, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      NF-kB is activated and signals survival, organism-specific biosystemUpon activation in response to NGF, NF-kB moves to the nucleus, where it turns on genes that promote survival, and triggers the expression of HES1/5 to modulate dendritic growth.
    • NF-kappa B signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      NF-kappa B signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemNuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B) is the generic name of a family of transcription factors that function as dimers and regulate genes involved in immunity, inflammation and cell survival. There are...
    • NOD-like receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      NOD-like receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemSpecific families of pattern recognition receptors are responsible for detecting various pathogens and generating innate immune responses. The intracellular NOD-like receptor (NLR) family contains mo...
    • NOD-like receptor signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      NOD-like receptor signaling pathway, conserved biosystemSpecific families of pattern recognition receptors are responsible for detecting various pathogens and generating innate immune responses. The intracellular NOD-like receptor (NLR) family contains mo...
    • Neural Crest Differentiation, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Neural Crest Differentiation, organism-specific biosystemGene regulatory network model of cranial neural crest cell (CNCC) development, adaped from PMID: 19575671. Most interactions in the model are proposed to regulate transcription of core factors involv...
    • Neurotrophin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Neurotrophin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemNeurotrophins are a family of trophic factors involved in differentiation and survival of neural cells. The neurotrophin family consists of nerve growth factor (NGF), brain derived neurotrophic facto...
    • Neurotrophin signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Neurotrophin signaling pathway, conserved biosystemNeurotrophins are a family of trophic factors involved in differentiation and survival of neural cells. The neurotrophin family consists of nerve growth factor (NGF), brain derived neurotrophic facto...
    • Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), organism-specific biosystemNon-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents a spectrum ranging from simple steatosis to more severe steatohepatitis with hepatic inflammation and fibrosis, known as nonalcoholic steatohepati...
    • Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), conserved biosystemNon-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents a spectrum ranging from simple steatosis to more severe steatohepatitis with hepatic inflammation and fibrosis, known as nonalcoholic steatohepati...
    • Oncostatin M Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Oncostatin M Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemOncostatin M (OSM) is a member of the multifunctional cytokine interleukin 6 (IL6) - type cytokine family. It is mainly produced in cell types such as activated T lymphocytes, macrophages, monocytes,...
    • Osteoclast differentiation, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Osteoclast differentiation, organism-specific biosystemThe osteoclasts, multinucleared cells originating from the hematopoietic monocyte-macrophage lineage, are responsible for bone resorption. Osteoclastogenesis is mainly regulated by signaling pathways...
    • Osteoclast differentiation, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Osteoclast differentiation, conserved biosystemThe osteoclasts, multinucleared cells originating from the hematopoietic monocyte-macrophage lineage, are responsible for bone resorption. Osteoclastogenesis is mainly regulated by signaling pathways...
    • Osteopontin Signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Osteopontin Signaling, organism-specific biosystemStudy of regulation of promatrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) by osteopontin (OPN) through IKK signaling pathway.
    • Osteopontin-mediated events, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      Osteopontin-mediated events, organism-specific biosystem
      Osteopontin-mediated events
    • Oxidative Stress, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Oxidative Stress, organism-specific biosystemOxidative stress represents an imbalance between the production and manifestation of reactive oxygen species and a biological system's ability to readily detoxify the reactive intermediates or to rep...
    • PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe phosphatidylinositol 3' -kinase(PI3K)-Akt signaling pathway is activated by many types of cellular stimuli or toxic insults and regulates fundamental cellular functions such as transcription, tra...
    • PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, conserved biosystemThe phosphatidylinositol 3' -kinase(PI3K)-Akt signaling pathway is activated by many types of cellular stimuli or toxic insults and regulates fundamental cellular functions such as transcription, tra...
    • Pancreatic cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Pancreatic cancer, organism-specific biosystemInfiltrating ductal adenocarcinoma is the most common malignancy of the pancreas. When most investigators use the term 'pancreatic cancer' they are referring to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA)...
    • Pancreatic cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Pancreatic cancer, conserved biosystemInfiltrating ductal adenocarcinoma is the most common malignancy of the pancreas. When most investigators use the term 'pancreatic cancer' they are referring to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA)...
    • Pathways in cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Pathways in cancer, organism-specific biosystem
      Pathways in cancer
    • Pertussis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Pertussis, organism-specific biosystemPertussis, also known as whooping cough, is an acute respiratory infectious disease caused by a bacteria called Bordetella Pertussis. The characteristic symptoms are paroxysmal cough, inspiratory whe...
    • Pertussis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Pertussis, conserved biosystemPertussis, also known as whooping cough, is an acute respiratory infectious disease caused by a bacteria called Bordetella Pertussis. The characteristic symptoms are paroxysmal cough, inspiratory whe...
    • Prolactin Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Prolactin Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemProlactin (PRL), a pleiotropic polypeptide hormone, mostly secreted by the lactotrophic cells of anterior pituitary gland and to a lesser extent expressed in numerous extra pituitary tissues such as ...
    • Prolactin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Prolactin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemProlactin (PRL) is a polypeptide hormone known to be involved in a wide range of biological functions including osmoregulation, lactation, reproduction, growth and development, endocrinology and meta...
    • Prolactin signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Prolactin signaling pathway, conserved biosystemProlactin (PRL) is a polypeptide hormone known to be involved in a wide range of biological functions including osmoregulation, lactation, reproduction, growth and development, endocrinology and meta...
    • Prostate cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Prostate cancer, organism-specific biosystemProstate cancer constitutes a major health problem in Western countries. It is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among men and the second leading cause of male cancer deaths. The identification of...
    • Prostate cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Prostate cancer, conserved biosystemProstate cancer constitutes a major health problem in Western countries. It is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among men and the second leading cause of male cancer deaths. The identification of...
    • RANKL/RANK Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      RANKL/RANK Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemRANKL (Receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand), RANK (Receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B) and the natural decoy receptor of RANKL, OPG (Osteoprotegerin) are three important mol...
    • RIG-I-like receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      RIG-I-like receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemSpecific families of pattern recognition receptors are responsible for detecting viral pathogens and generating innate immune responses. Non-self RNA appearing in a cell as a result of intracellular ...
    • RIG-I-like receptor signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      RIG-I-like receptor signaling pathway, conserved biosystemSpecific families of pattern recognition receptors are responsible for detecting viral pathogens and generating innate immune responses. Non-self RNA appearing in a cell as a result of intracellular ...
    • RIG-I/MDA5 mediated induction of IFN-alpha/beta pathways, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      RIG-I/MDA5 mediated induction of IFN-alpha/beta pathways, organism-specific biosystemRIG-I-like helicases (RLHs) the retinoic acid inducible gene-I (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation associated gene 5 (MDA5) are RNA helicases that recognize viral RNA present within the cytoplasm. F...
    • RIP-mediated NFkB activation via ZBP1, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      RIP-mediated NFkB activation via ZBP1, organism-specific biosystemOverexpression of human or murine ZBP1 (DAI) in human embryonic kidney 293T cells (HEK293T) activated NF-kB-dependent promoter in a dose-dependent manner. Two RHIM-contaning kinases RIP1 and RIP3 are...
    • Ras signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Ras signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe Ras proteins are GTPases that function as molecular switches for signaling pathways regulating cell proliferation, survival, growth, migration, differentiation or cytoskeletal dynamism. Ras prote...
    • Regulated proteolysis of p75NTR, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Regulated proteolysis of p75NTR, organism-specific biosystemp75NTR undergoes a process of regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP) similar to other transmembrane proteins such as NOTCH, beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP), and ERBB4. Each of these proteins ...
    • Regulation of Telomerase, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      Regulation of Telomerase, organism-specific biosystem
      Regulation of Telomerase
    • Regulation of toll-like receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Regulation of toll-like receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem
      Regulation of toll-like receptor signaling pathway
    • SIDS Susceptibility Pathways, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      SIDS Susceptibility Pathways, organism-specific biosystemIn this model, we provide an integrated view of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) at the level of implicated tissues, signaling networks and genetics. The purpose of this model is to serve as an ov...
    • Salmonella infection, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Salmonella infection, organism-specific biosystemSalmonella infection usually presents as a self-limiting gastroenteritis or the more severe typhoid fever and bacteremia. The common disease-causing Salmonella species in human is a single species, S...
    • Salmonella infection, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Salmonella infection, conserved biosystemSalmonella infection usually presents as a self-limiting gastroenteritis or the more severe typhoid fever and bacteremia. The common disease-causing Salmonella species in human is a single species, S...
    • Selenium Metabolism and Selenoproteins, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Selenium Metabolism and Selenoproteins, organism-specific biosystem* Comments belonging to specific genes on the Selenoprotein pathway ** TRXND3 gene: Although the geneID is correct, the sequence of this gene was guessed by analogy. ** Cystathionine gamma-lyase is t...
    • Selenium Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Selenium Pathway, organism-specific biosystem
      Selenium Pathway
    • Senescence-Associated Secretory Phenotype (SASP), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Senescence-Associated Secretory Phenotype (SASP), organism-specific biosystemThe culture medium of senescent cells in enriched in secreted proteins when compared with the culture medium of quiescent i.e. presenescent cells and these secreted proteins constitute the so-called ...
    • Shigellosis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Shigellosis, organism-specific biosystemShigellosis, or bacillary dysentery, is an intestinal infection caused by Shigella, a genus of enterobacteria. Shigella are potential food-borne pathogens that are capable of colonizing the intestina...
    • Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystemSignal transduction is a process in which extracellular signals elicit changes in cell state and activity. Transmembrane receptors sense changes in the cellular environment by binding ligands, such a...
    • Signaling by Interleukins, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by Interleukins, organism-specific biosystemInterleukins are low molecular weight proteins that bind to cell surface receptors and act in an autocrine and/or paracrine fashion. They were first identified as factors produced by leukocytes but a...
    • Signaling by the B Cell Receptor (BCR), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by the B Cell Receptor (BCR), organism-specific biosystemMature B cells express IgM and IgD immunoglobulins which are complexed at the plasma membrane with Ig-alpha (CD79A, MB-1) and Ig-beta (CD79B, B29) to form the B cell receptor (BCR) (Fu et al. 1974, F...
    • Signaling events mediated by HDAC Class I, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      Signaling events mediated by HDAC Class I, organism-specific biosystem
      Signaling events mediated by HDAC Class I
    • Signalling by NGF, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signalling by NGF, organism-specific biosystemNeurotrophins (NGF, BDNF, NT-3, NT-4/5) play pivotal roles in survival, differentiation, and plasticity of neurons in the peripheral and central nervous system. They are produced, and secreted in mi...
    • Small cell lung cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Small cell lung cancer, organism-specific biosystemLung cancer is a leading cause of cancer death among men and women in industrialized countries. Small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) is a highly aggressive neoplasm, which accounts for approximately 25% ...
    • Small cell lung cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Small cell lung cancer, conserved biosystemLung cancer is a leading cause of cancer death among men and women in industrialized countries. Small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) is a highly aggressive neoplasm, which accounts for approximately 25% ...
    • Sphingolipid signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Sphingolipid signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemSphingomyelin (SM) and its metabolic products are now known to have second messenger functions in a variety of cellular signaling pathways. Particularly, the sphingolipid metabolites, ceramide (Cer) ...
    • Sphingolipid signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Sphingolipid signaling pathway, conserved biosystemSphingomyelin (SM) and its metabolic products are now known to have second messenger functions in a variety of cellular signaling pathways. Particularly, the sphingolipid metabolites, ceramide (Cer) ...
    • T cell receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      T cell receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemActivation of T lymphocytes is a key event for an efficient response of the immune system. It requires the involvement of the T-cell receptor (TCR) as well as costimulatory molecules such as CD28. En...
    • T cell receptor signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      T cell receptor signaling pathway, conserved biosystemActivation of T lymphocytes is a key event for an efficient response of the immune system. It requires the involvement of the T-cell receptor (TCR) as well as costimulatory molecules such as CD28. En...
    • TAK1 activates NFkB by phosphorylation and activation of IKKs complex, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      TAK1 activates NFkB by phosphorylation and activation of IKKs complex, organism-specific biosystemNF-kappaB is sequestered in the cytoplasm in a complex with inhibitor of NF-kappaB (IkB). Almost all NF-kappaB activation pathways are mediated by IkB kinase (IKK), which phosphorylates IkB resulting...
    • TCR Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      TCR Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) complex is composed of a ligand-binding subunit, the ? and ? chains, and a signaling subunit, namely the CD3?, ? and ? chains and the TCR? chain. This complex partic...
    • TCR signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      TCR signaling, organism-specific biosystemThe TCR is a multisubunit complex that consists of clonotypic alpha/beta chains noncovalently associated with the invariant CD3 delta/epsilon/gamma and TCR zeta chains. T cell activation by antigen p...
    • TFs Regulate miRNAs related to cardiac hypertrophy, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      TFs Regulate miRNAs related to cardiac hypertrophy, organism-specific biosystemTranscription Factors that possibly regulate the expression of microRNAs related to cardiac hypertrophy. Interactions found by using TransMir. MicroRNAs are represented by a purple color and a rounde...
    • TGF Beta Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      TGF Beta Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe Transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) signaling pathway is involved in many cellular processes in both the adult organism and the developing embryo including cell growth, cell differentiat...
    • TNF receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      TNF receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem
      TNF receptor signaling pathway
    • TNF signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      TNF signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemTumor necrosis factor (TNF), as a critical cytokine, can induce a wide range of intracellular signal pathways including apoptosis and cell survival as well as inflammation and immunity. Activated TNF...
    • TNF signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      TNF signaling pathway, conserved biosystemTumor necrosis factor (TNF), as a critical cytokine, can induce a wide range of intracellular signal pathways including apoptosis and cell survival as well as inflammation and immunity. Activated TNF...
    • TNF-alpha/NF-kB Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      TNF-alpha/NF-kB Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem"The Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha is a proinflammatory cytokine belonging to the TNF superfamily. It signals through 2 separate receptors - TNFRSF1A and TNFRSF1B, both members of the TNF receptor supe...
    • TRAF6 mediated NF-kB activation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      TRAF6 mediated NF-kB activation, organism-specific biosystemThe TRAF6/TAK1 signal activates a canonical IKK complex, resulting in the activation of NF-kB as well as MAPK cascades leading to the activation of AP-1. Although TRAF6/TAK1 has been implicated in To...
    • TRAF6 mediated induction of NFkB and MAP kinases upon TLR7/8 or 9 activation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      TRAF6 mediated induction of NFkB and MAP kinases upon TLR7/8 or 9 activation, organism-specific biosystemTRAF6 mediates NFkB activation via canonical phosphorylation of IKK complex by TAK1. TRAF6 and TAK1 also regulate MAPK cascades leading to the activation of AP-1.
    • TRIF-mediated TLR3/TLR4 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      TRIF-mediated TLR3/TLR4 signaling, organism-specific biosystemTRIF(TICAM1) was shown to induce IRF3/7 and NF-?B activation and apoptosis through distinct intracellular signaling pathways [Han KJ et al 2004; Kaiser WJ and Offermann MK et al 2005]. TRIF consists...
    • TSLP Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      TSLP Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemThymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is a type I cytokine member of interleukin-2 cytokine family. TSLP signals through interleukin-7 receptor a chain (IL-7Ra) and the TSLP receptor subunit (TSLPR), h...
    • TWEAK Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      TWEAK Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemTNF related weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) is a small pleiotropic cytokine of the TNF super family and its gene is located at chromosome 17p13.1. TWEAK has been reported to be expressed in tissues...
    • Toll Like Receptor 10 (TLR10) Cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Toll Like Receptor 10 (TLR10) Cascade, organism-specific biosystemLittle is known about TLR10 ligands. It has been established that the receptor homodimerizes upon binding and signals in an MyD88-dependent manner (Hasan U et al 2005; Nyman T et al 2008). It may als...
    • Toll Like Receptor 2 (TLR2) Cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Toll Like Receptor 2 (TLR2) Cascade, organism-specific biosystemTLR2 is involved in recognition of peptidoglycan from gram-positive bacteria, bacterial lipoproteins, mycoplasma lipoprotein and mycobacterial products. It is quite possible that recognition of at le...
    • Toll Like Receptor 3 (TLR3) Cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Toll Like Receptor 3 (TLR3) Cascade, organism-specific biosystemToll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) as was shown for mammals is expressed on myeloid dendritic cells, respiratory epithelium, macrophages, and appears to play a central role in mediating the antiviral and in...
    • Toll Like Receptor 4 (TLR4) Cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Toll Like Receptor 4 (TLR4) Cascade, organism-specific biosystemToll-like Receptor 4 is a Microbe Associated Molecular Pattern receptor well known for it's sensitivity to Bacterial Lipopolysaccharides (LPS). LPS is assembled within diverse Gram-negative bacteria,...
    • Toll Like Receptor 5 (TLR5) Cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Toll Like Receptor 5 (TLR5) Cascade, organism-specific biosystemTLR5 is the receptor for flagellin, the protein that forms bacterial flagella. Unlike most other Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs), flagellin does not undergo any posttranslational modif...
    • Toll Like Receptor 7/8 (TLR7/8) Cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Toll Like Receptor 7/8 (TLR7/8) Cascade, organism-specific biosystemRNA can serve as a danger signal, both in its double-stranded form (that is associated with viral infection), as well as single-stranded RNA (ssRNA). Specifically, guanosine (G)- and uridine (U)-rich...
    • Toll Like Receptor 9 (TLR9) Cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Toll Like Receptor 9 (TLR9) Cascade, organism-specific biosystemCpG DNA is an unusual Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern (PAMP). Cytosine methylation exists in mammalian but not bacterial cells, and most (but not all) CpG in the mammalian genome is methylated....
    • Toll Like Receptor TLR1:TLR2 Cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Toll Like Receptor TLR1:TLR2 Cascade, organism-specific biosystemTLR1 is expressed by monocytes. TLR1 and TLR2 cotranslationally form heterodimeric complexes on the cell surface and in the cytosol. The TLR2:TLR1 complex recognizes Neisserial PorB and Mycobacterial...
    • Toll Like Receptor TLR6:TLR2 Cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Toll Like Receptor TLR6:TLR2 Cascade, organism-specific biosystemTLR2 and TLR4 recognize different bacterial cell wall components. While TLR4 is trained onto Gram-negative lipopolysaccharide components, TLR2 - in combination with TLR6 - plays a major role in recog...
    • Toll-Like Receptors Cascades, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Toll-Like Receptors Cascades, organism-specific biosystemIn human, ten members of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family (TLR1-TLR10) have been identified (TLR11 has been found in mouse, but not in human). All TLRs have a similar Toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) doma...
    • Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemSpecific families of pattern recognition receptors are responsible for detecting microbial pathogens and generating innate immune responses. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are membrane-bound receptors id...
    • Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemSpecific families of pattern recognition receptors are responsible for detecting microbial pathogens and generating innate immune responses. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are membrane-bound receptors id...
    • Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, conserved biosystemSpecific families of pattern recognition receptors are responsible for detecting microbial pathogens and generating innate immune responses. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are membrane-bound receptors id...
    • Toxoplasmosis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Toxoplasmosis, organism-specific biosystemToxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that is prevalent worldwide. The tachyzoite form acquired by oral ingestion downmodulates proinflammatory signaling pathways via various mechan...
    • Toxoplasmosis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Toxoplasmosis, conserved biosystemToxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that is prevalent worldwide. The tachyzoite form acquired by oral ingestion downmodulates proinflammatory signaling pathways via various mechan...
    • Transcriptional misregulation in cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Transcriptional misregulation in cancer, organism-specific biosystem
      Transcriptional misregulation in cancer
    • Transcriptional misregulation in cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Transcriptional misregulation in cancer, conserved biosystem
      Transcriptional misregulation in cancer
    • Transcriptional regulation of white adipocyte differentiation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Transcriptional regulation of white adipocyte differentiation, organism-specific biosystemAdipogenesis is the process of cell differentiation by which preadipocytes become adipocytes. During this process the preadipocytes cease to proliferate, begin to accumulate lipid droplets and develo...
    • Tuberculosis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Tuberculosis, organism-specific biosystemTuberculosis, or TB, is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. One third of the world's population is thought to be infected with TB. About 90% of those infected result in latent...
    • Tuberculosis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Tuberculosis, conserved biosystemTuberculosis, or TB, is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. One third of the world's population is thought to be infected with TB. About 90% of those infected result in latent...
    • Viral carcinogenesis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Viral carcinogenesis, organism-specific biosystemThere is a strong association between viruses and the development of human malignancies. We now know that at least six human viruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C vi...
    • Viral carcinogenesis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Viral carcinogenesis, conserved biosystemThere is a strong association between viruses and the development of human malignancies. We now know that at least six human viruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C vi...
    • ZBP1(DAI) mediated induction of type I IFNs, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      ZBP1(DAI) mediated induction of type I IFNs, organism-specific biosystemZ-DNA-binding protein-1 (ZBP1), also known as, DNA-dependent activator of IFN-regulatory factors (DAI) was reported to initiate innate immune responses in murine L929 cells upon stimulation by multip...
    • amb2 Integrin signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      amb2 Integrin signaling, organism-specific biosystem
      amb2 Integrin signaling
    • cAMP signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      cAMP signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemcAMP is one of the most common and universal second messengers, and its formation is promoted by adenylyl cyclase (AC) activation after ligation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) by ligands incl...
    • cAMP signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      cAMP signaling pathway, conserved biosystemcAMP is one of the most common and universal second messengers, and its formation is promoted by adenylyl cyclase (AC) activation after ligation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) by ligands incl...
    • p75 NTR receptor-mediated signalling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      p75 NTR receptor-mediated signalling, organism-specific biosystemBesides signalling through the tyrosine kinase receptors TRK A, B, and C, the mature neurotrophins NGF, BDNF, and NT3/4 signal through their common receptor p75NTR. NGF binding to p75NTR activates a ...
    • p75NTR signals via NF-kB, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      p75NTR signals via NF-kB, organism-specific biosystemThe NF-kB pathway is an important pro-survival signalling pathway activated by mature NGF, but not BDNF or NT-3, through p75NTR. It is unclear whether TRKA activity also affects NF-kB activation.
    Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

    Markers

    Homology

    Clone Names

    • MGC54151, DKFZp686C01211

    Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

    Function Evidence Code Pubs
    RNA polymerase II distal enhancer sequence-specific DNA binding IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    RNA polymerase II distal enhancer sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity involved in positive regulation of transcription IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    RNA polymerase II regulatory region sequence-specific DNA binding IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    RNA polymerase II transcription regulatory region sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity involved in negative regulation of transcription IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    actinin binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    chromatin binding IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    double-stranded DNA binding IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    heat shock protein binding IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    identical protein binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    protein binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    protein heterodimerization activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    protein homodimerization activity IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    regulatory region DNA binding IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    transcription factor binding IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    transcription regulatory region DNA binding IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    transcription regulatory region sequence-specific DNA binding IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    Process Evidence Code Pubs
    Fc-epsilon receptor signaling pathway TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB signaling IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    MyD88-dependent toll-like receptor signaling pathway TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    MyD88-independent toll-like receptor signaling pathway TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    NIK/NF-kappaB signaling IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    T cell receptor signaling pathway TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    TRIF-dependent toll-like receptor signaling pathway TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    apoptotic process IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    cellular response to interleukin-1 IEP
    Inferred from Expression Pattern
    more info
    PubMed 
    cellular response to interleukin-6 IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    cellular response to lipopolysaccharide IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    cellular response to mechanical stimulus IEP
    Inferred from Expression Pattern
    more info
    PubMed 
    cellular response to nicotine IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    cellular response to peptide hormone stimulus IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    inflammatory response TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    innate immune response IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    innate immune response TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    membrane protein intracellular domain proteolysis TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    negative regulation of apoptotic process TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of calcidiol 1-monooxygenase activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of cellular protein metabolic process IC
    Inferred by Curator
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of cholesterol transport IC
    Inferred by Curator
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of inflammatory response IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    negative regulation of interleukin-12 biosynthetic process IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter IC
    Inferred by Curator
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter IGI
    Inferred from Genetic Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of vitamin D biosynthetic process IC
    Inferred by Curator
    more info
    PubMed 
    neurotrophin TRK receptor signaling pathway TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor activity TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    positive regulation of canonical Wnt signaling pathway IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of hyaluronan biosynthetic process IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of lipid storage IC
    Inferred by Curator
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of macrophage derived foam cell differentiation IC
    Inferred by Curator
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of miRNA metabolic process IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated NAS
    Non-traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of type I interferon production TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    response to copper ion IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    response to muscle stretch IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    response to oxidative stress IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    stimulatory C-type lectin receptor signaling pathway TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    toll-like receptor 10 signaling pathway TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    toll-like receptor 2 signaling pathway TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    toll-like receptor 3 signaling pathway TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    toll-like receptor 5 signaling pathway TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    toll-like receptor 9 signaling pathway TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    toll-like receptor TLR1:TLR2 signaling pathway TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    toll-like receptor TLR6:TLR2 signaling pathway TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    toll-like receptor signaling pathway TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    Component Evidence Code Pubs
    I-kappaB/NF-kappaB complex TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    cytoplasm IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    cytosol IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    cytosol TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    mitochondrion IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
     
    nucleoplasm IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
     
    nucleoplasm TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    nucleus IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    Preferred Names
    nuclear factor NF-kappa-B p105 subunit
    Names
    DNA binding factor KBF1
    DNA-binding factor KBF1
    NF-kappabeta
    nuclear factor NF-kappa-B p50 subunit
    nuclear factor kappa-B DNA binding subunit

    RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

    These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

    These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. NM_001165412.1NP_001158884.1  nuclear factor NF-kappa-B p105 subunit isoform 2

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001158884.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (2) uses an alternate in-frame splice junction at the 5' end of an exon compared to variant 1. The resulting isoform (2) has the same N- and C-termini but is 1 aa shorter compared to isoform 1.
      Source sequence(s)
      AF213884, AI076882, BC051765, M58603
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS54783.1
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      A0A024RDJ4
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P19838
      Related
      ENSP00000378297, OTTHUMP00000161765, ENST00000394820, OTTHUMT00000253802
      Conserved Domains (6) summary
      cd07935
      Location:42243
      RHD-n_NFkB1; N-terminal sub-domain of the Rel homology domain (RHD) of nuclear factor of kappa B1 (NF-kappa B1)
      cd00204
      Location:576705
      ANK; ankyrin repeats; ankyrin repeats mediate protein-protein interactions in very diverse families of proteins. The number of ANK repeats in a protein can range from 2 to over 20 (ankyrins, for example). ANK repeats may occur in combinations with other ...
      cd01177
      Location:250351
      IPT_NFkappaB; IPT domain of the transcription factor NFkappaB and related transcription factors. NFkappaB is considered a central regulator of stress responses, activated by different stressful conditions, including physical stress, oxidative stress, and exposure to ...
      pfam12796
      Location:586680
      Ank_2; Ankyrin repeats (3 copies)
      pfam13857
      Location:670726
      Ank_5; Ankyrin repeats (many copies)
      cd08797
      Location:815890
      Death_NFkB1_p105; Death domain of the Nuclear Factor-KappaB1 precursor protein p105
    2. NM_003998.3NP_003989.2  nuclear factor NF-kappa-B p105 subunit isoform 1

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_003989.2

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (1) represents the longer transcript and encodes the longer isoform (1).
      Source sequence(s)
      AF213884, AI076882, BC051765
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS3657.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P19838
      Related
      ENSP00000226574, OTTHUMP00000216418, ENST00000226574, OTTHUMT00000253801
      Conserved Domains (6) summary
      cd07935
      Location:43244
      RHD-n_NFkB1; N-terminal sub-domain of the Rel homology domain (RHD) of nuclear factor of kappa B1 (NF-kappa B1)
      cd00204
      Location:577706
      ANK; ankyrin repeats; ankyrin repeats mediate protein-protein interactions in very diverse families of proteins. The number of ANK repeats in a protein can range from 2 to over 20 (ankyrins, for example). ANK repeats may occur in combinations with other ...
      cd01177
      Location:251352
      IPT_NFkappaB; IPT domain of the transcription factor NFkappaB and related transcription factors. NFkappaB is considered a central regulator of stress responses, activated by different stressful conditions, including physical stress, oxidative stress, and exposure to ...
      pfam12796
      Location:587681
      Ank_2; Ankyrin repeats (3 copies)
      pfam13857
      Location:540590
      Ank_5; Ankyrin repeats (many copies)
      cd08797
      Location:816891
      Death_NFkB1_p105; Death domain of the Nuclear Factor-KappaB1 precursor protein p105

    RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 107

    The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

    Reference GRCh38.p2 Primary Assembly

    Genomic

    1. NC_000004.12 Reference GRCh38.p2 Primary Assembly

      Range
      102501329..102617302
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. XM_011532006.1XP_011530308.1  

      Conserved Domains (6) summary
      cd07935
      Location:50251
      RHD-n_NFkB1; N-terminal sub-domain of the Rel homology domain (RHD) of nuclear factor of kappa B1 (NF-kappa B1)
      cd00204
      Location:584713
      ANK; ankyrin repeats; ankyrin repeats mediate protein-protein interactions in very diverse families of proteins. The number of ANK repeats in a protein can range from 2 to over 20 (ankyrins, for example). ANK repeats may occur in combinations with other ...
      cd01177
      Location:258359
      IPT_NFkappaB; IPT domain of the transcription factor NFkappaB and related transcription factors. NFkappaB is considered a central regulator of stress responses, activated by different stressful conditions, including physical stress, oxidative stress, and exposure to ...
      pfam12796
      Location:594688
      Ank_2; Ankyrin repeats (3 copies)
      pfam13857
      Location:678734
      Ank_5; Ankyrin repeats (many copies)
      cd08797
      Location:823898
      Death_NFkB1_p105; Death domain of the Nuclear Factor-KappaB1 precursor protein p105
    2. XM_011532007.1XP_011530309.1  

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_011530309.1

      Related
      ENSP00000424790, OTTHUMP00000219572, ENST00000505458, OTTHUMT00000363411
      Conserved Domains (6) summary
      cd07935
      Location:42243
      RHD-n_NFkB1; N-terminal sub-domain of the Rel homology domain (RHD) of nuclear factor of kappa B1 (NF-kappa B1)
      cd00204
      Location:576705
      ANK; ankyrin repeats; ankyrin repeats mediate protein-protein interactions in very diverse families of proteins. The number of ANK repeats in a protein can range from 2 to over 20 (ankyrins, for example). ANK repeats may occur in combinations with other ...
      cd01177
      Location:250351
      IPT_NFkappaB; IPT domain of the transcription factor NFkappaB and related transcription factors. NFkappaB is considered a central regulator of stress responses, activated by different stressful conditions, including physical stress, oxidative stress, and exposure to ...
      pfam12796
      Location:586680
      Ank_2; Ankyrin repeats (3 copies)
      pfam13857
      Location:670726
      Ank_5; Ankyrin repeats (many copies)
      cd08797
      Location:815890
      Death_NFkB1_p105; Death domain of the Nuclear Factor-KappaB1 precursor protein p105
    3. XM_011532008.1XP_011530310.1  

      Conserved Domains (6) summary
      cd00204
      Location:524653
      ANK; ankyrin repeats; ankyrin repeats mediate protein-protein interactions in very diverse families of proteins. The number of ANK repeats in a protein can range from 2 to over 20 (ankyrins, for example). ANK repeats may occur in combinations with other ...
      cd01177
      Location:198299
      IPT_NFkappaB; IPT domain of the transcription factor NFkappaB and related transcription factors. NFkappaB is considered a central regulator of stress responses, activated by different stressful conditions, including physical stress, oxidative stress, and exposure to ...
      pfam12796
      Location:534628
      Ank_2; Ankyrin repeats (3 copies)
      pfam13857
      Location:618674
      Ank_5; Ankyrin repeats (many copies)
      cd08797
      Location:763838
      Death_NFkB1_p105; Death domain of the Nuclear Factor-KappaB1 precursor protein p105
      cl08275
      Location:43191
      RHD-n; N-terminal sub-domain of the Rel homology domain (RHD)
    4. XM_011532009.1XP_011530311.1  

      Conserved Domains (6) summary
      cd00204
      Location:445574
      ANK; ankyrin repeats; ankyrin repeats mediate protein-protein interactions in very diverse families of proteins. The number of ANK repeats in a protein can range from 2 to over 20 (ankyrins, for example). ANK repeats may occur in combinations with other ...
      cd01177
      Location:119220
      IPT_NFkappaB; IPT domain of the transcription factor NFkappaB and related transcription factors. NFkappaB is considered a central regulator of stress responses, activated by different stressful conditions, including physical stress, oxidative stress, and exposure to ...
      pfam12796
      Location:455549
      Ank_2; Ankyrin repeats (3 copies)
      pfam13857
      Location:539595
      Ank_5; Ankyrin repeats (many copies)
      cd08797
      Location:684759
      Death_NFkB1_p105; Death domain of the Nuclear Factor-KappaB1 precursor protein p105
      cl08275
      Location:1112
      RHD-n; N-terminal sub-domain of the Rel homology domain (RHD)

    Alternate CHM1_1.1

    Genomic

    1. NC_018915.2 Alternate CHM1_1.1

      Range
      103398776..103514779
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)