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    FGG fibrinogen gamma chain [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

    Gene ID: 2266, updated on 26-Jul-2015
    Official Symbol
    FGGprovided by HGNC
    Official Full Name
    fibrinogen gamma chainprovided by HGNC
    Primary source
    HGNC:HGNC:3694
    See related
    Ensembl:ENSG00000171557; HPRD:00621; MIM:134850; Vega:OTTHUMG00000150329
    Gene type
    protein coding
    RefSeq status
    REVIEWED
    Organism
    Homo sapiens
    Lineage
    Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
    Summary
    The protein encoded by this gene is the gamma component of fibrinogen, a blood-borne glycoprotein comprised of three pairs of nonidentical polypeptide chains. Following vascular injury, fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form fibrin which is the most abundant component of blood clots. In addition, various cleavage products of fibrinogen and fibrin regulate cell adhesion and spreading, display vasoconstrictor and chemotactic activities, and are mitogens for several cell types. Mutations in this gene lead to several disorders, including dysfibrinogenemia, hypofibrinogenemia and thrombophilia. Alternative splicing results in two transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
    Orthologs
    Location:
    4q28
    Exon count:
    10
    Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
    107 current GRCh38.p2 (GCF_000001405.28) 4 NC_000004.12 (154604134..154612750, complement)
    105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 4 NC_000004.11 (155525286..155533902, complement)

    Chromosome 4 - NC_000004.12Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene fibrinogen beta chain Neighboring gene fibrinogen alpha chain Neighboring gene lecithin retinol acyltransferase (phosphatidylcholine--retinol O-acyltransferase) Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105377500 Neighboring gene RNA binding motif protein 46

    GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

    Associated conditions

    Description Tests
    Afibrinogenemia, congenital
    MedGen: CN071205 OMIM: 202400 GeneReviews: Not available
    Compare labs
    Dysfibrinogenemia, congenital
    MedGen: C0272350 OMIM: 616004 GeneReviews: Not available
    not available

    NHGRI GWAS Catalog

    Description
    A genome-wide association study for venous thromboembolism: the extended cohorts for heart and aging research in genomic epidemiology (CHARGE) consortium.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog
    Assessment of genetic determinants of the association of γ' fibrinogen in relation to cardiovascular disease.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog
    Genetic predictors of fibrin D-dimer levels in healthy adults.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog
    Genetics of venous thrombosis: insights from a new genome wide association study.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog
    Novel loci, including those related to Crohn disease, psoriasis, and inflammation, identified in a genome-wide association study of fibrinogen in 17 686 women: the Women's Genome Health Study.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog
    • Blood Clotting Cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Blood Clotting Cascade, organism-specific biosystemCoagulation is a complex process by which blood forms clots. It is an important part of hemostasis (the cessation of blood loss from a damaged vessel), wherein a damaged blood vessel wall is covered ...
    • Common Pathway of Fibrin Clot Formation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Common Pathway of Fibrin Clot Formation, organism-specific biosystemThe common pathway consists of the cascade of activation events leading from the formation of activated factor X to the formation of active thrombin, the cleavage of fibrinogen by thrombin, and the f...
    • Complement and coagulation cascades, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Complement and coagulation cascades, organism-specific biosystemThe complement system is a proteolytic cascade in blood plasma and a mediator of innate immunity, a nonspecific defense mechanism against pathogens. There are three pathways of complement activation:...
    • Complement and coagulation cascades, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Complement and coagulation cascades, conserved biosystemThe complement system is a proteolytic cascade in blood plasma and a mediator of innate immunity, a nonspecific defense mechanism against pathogens. There are three pathways of complement activation:...
    • Extracellular matrix organization, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Extracellular matrix organization, organism-specific biosystemThe extracellular matrix is a component of all mammalian tissues, a network consisting largely of the fibrous proteins collagen, elastin and associated-microfibrils, fibronectin and laminins embedded...
    • Formation of Fibrin Clot (Clotting Cascade), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Formation of Fibrin Clot (Clotting Cascade), organism-specific biosystemThe formation of a fibrin clot at the site of an injury to the wall of a normal blood vessel is an essential part of the process to stop blood loss after vascular injury. The reactions that lead to ...
    • GRB2:SOS provides linkage to MAPK signaling for Integrins, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      GRB2:SOS provides linkage to MAPK signaling for Integrins, organism-specific biosystemIntegrin signaling is linked to the MAP kinase pathway by recruiting Grb2 to the FADK1/SRC activation complex.
    • Glucocorticoid receptor regulatory network, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      Glucocorticoid receptor regulatory network, organism-specific biosystem
      Glucocorticoid receptor regulatory network
    • Hemostasis, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Hemostasis, organism-specific biosystemHemostasis is a physiological response that culminates in the arrest of bleeding from an injured vessel. Under normal conditions the vascular endothelium supports vasodilation, inhibits platelet adhe...
    • IL6-mediated signaling events, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
      IL6-mediated signaling events, organism-specific biosystem
      IL6-mediated signaling events
    • Integrin alphaIIb beta3 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Integrin alphaIIb beta3 signaling, organism-specific biosystemAt the sites of vascular injury bioactive molecules such as thrombin, ADP, collagen, fibrinogen and thrombospondin are generated, secreted or exposed. These stimuli activate platelets, converting the...
    • Integrin cell surface interactions, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Integrin cell surface interactions, organism-specific biosystemThe extracellular matrix (ECM) is a network of macro-molecules that underlies all epithelia and endothelia and that surrounds all connective tissue cells. This matrix provides the mechanical strength...
    • Platelet Aggregation (Plug Formation), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Platelet Aggregation (Plug Formation), organism-specific biosystemThe tethering of platelets to the site of vascular injury is the first step in the formation of a platelet thrombus. Firm adhesion of these tethered platelets, as well as the additional recruitment o...
    • Platelet activation, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Platelet activation, organism-specific biosystemPlatelets play a key and beneficial role for primary hemostasis on the disruption of the integrity of vessel wall. Platelet adhesion and activation at sites of vascular wall injury is initiated by ad...
    • Platelet activation, signaling and aggregation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Platelet activation, signaling and aggregation, organism-specific biosystemPlatelet activation begins with the initial binding of adhesive ligands and of the excitatory platelet agonists (released or generated at the sites of vascular trauma) to cognate receptors on the pla...
    • Platelet degranulation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Platelet degranulation, organism-specific biosystemPlatelets function as exocytotic cells, secreting a plethora of effector molecules at sites of vascular injury. Platelets contain a number of distinguishable storage granules including alpha granules...
    • Response to elevated platelet cytosolic Ca2+, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Response to elevated platelet cytosolic Ca2+, organism-specific biosystemActivation of phospholipase C enzymes results in the generation of second messengers of the phosphatidylinositol pathway. The events resulting from this pathway are a rise in intracellular calcium an...
    • Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystemSignal transduction is a process in which extracellular signals elicit changes in cell state and activity. Transmembrane receptors sense changes in the cellular environment by binding ligands, such a...
    • Staphylococcus aureus infection, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Staphylococcus aureus infection, organism-specific biosystemStaphylococcus aureus can cause multiple forms of infections ranging from superficial skin infections to food poisoning and life-threatening infections. The organism has several ways to divert the ef...
    • Staphylococcus aureus infection, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Staphylococcus aureus infection, conserved biosystemStaphylococcus aureus can cause multiple forms of infections ranging from superficial skin infections to food poisoning and life-threatening infections. The organism has several ways to divert the ef...
    • p130Cas linkage to MAPK signaling for integrins, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      p130Cas linkage to MAPK signaling for integrins, organism-specific biosystemIntegrin signaling is linked to the MAP kinase pathway by recruiting p130cas and Crk to the FAK/Src activation complex.
    Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

    Markers

    Homology

    Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

    Function Evidence Code Pubs
    cell adhesion molecule binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    metal ion binding IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    protein binding, bridging IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    receptor binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    structural molecule activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    Process Evidence Code Pubs
    blood coagulation TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    blood coagulation, fibrin clot formation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    blood coagulation, fibrin clot formation IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    cell-matrix adhesion IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    cellular protein complex assembly IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    extracellular matrix organization TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    fibrinolysis IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of endothelial cell apoptotic process IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway via death domain receptors IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    plasminogen activation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    platelet activation TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    platelet aggregation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    platelet degranulation TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    positive regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of exocytosis IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of heterotypic cell-cell adhesion IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of peptide hormone secretion IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of protein secretion IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of substrate adhesion-dependent cell spreading NAS
    Non-traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of vasoconstriction IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    protein polymerization IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    protein secretion IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    response to calcium ion IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    signal transduction IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    Component Evidence Code Pubs
    blood microparticle IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    cell cortex IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    cell surface IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    external side of plasma membrane IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    extracellular exosome IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    extracellular region TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    extracellular space IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    fibrinogen complex IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    plasma membrane TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    platelet alpha granule IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    platelet alpha granule lumen TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    Preferred Names
    fibrinogen gamma chain
    Names
    fibrinogen, gamma polypeptide

    RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

    These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

    These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

    Genomic

    1. NG_008834.1 RefSeqGene

      Range
      5001..13617
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. NM_000509.4NP_000500.2  fibrinogen gamma chain isoform gamma-A precursor

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_000500.2

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (gamma-A) is the predominant transcript and is shorter than variant gamma-B. Variant gamma-A encodes isoform gamma-A, which is shorter and has a distinct C-terminus compared to isoform gamma-B.
      Source sequence(s)
      AA936960, BC007044, BG567044
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS47153.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P02679
      Related
      ENSP00000384860, OTTHUMP00000197057, ENST00000404648, OTTHUMT00000317580
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      pfam08702
      Location:29173
      Fib_alpha; Fibrinogen alpha/beta chain family
      cd00087
      Location:174415
      FReD; Fibrinogen-related domains (FReDs); C terminal globular domain of fibrinogen. Fibrinogen is involved in blood clotting, being activated by thrombin to assemble into fibrin clots. The N-termini of 2 times 3 chains come together to form a globular ...
    2. NM_021870.2NP_068656.2  fibrinogen gamma chain isoform gamma-B precursor

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_068656.2

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (gamma-B) represents the longer transcript and encodes the longer isoform (gamma-B).
      Source sequence(s)
      AI808530, AL531173, BC007044, BG567044
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS3788.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P02679
      Related
      ENSP00000336829, OTTHUMP00000197058, ENST00000336098, OTTHUMT00000317581
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      pfam08702
      Location:29173
      Fib_alpha; Fibrinogen alpha/beta chain family
      cd00087
      Location:174415
      FReD; Fibrinogen-related domains (FReDs); C terminal globular domain of fibrinogen. Fibrinogen is involved in blood clotting, being activated by thrombin to assemble into fibrin clots. The N-termini of 2 times 3 chains come together to form a globular ...

    RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 107

    The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

    Reference GRCh38.p2 Primary Assembly

    Genomic

    1. NC_000004.12 Reference GRCh38.p2 Primary Assembly

      Range
      154604134..154612750
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    Alternate CHM1_1.1

    Genomic

    1. NC_018915.2 Alternate CHM1_1.1

      Range
      155503216..155511832
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)