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GRIA2 glutamate receptor, ionotropic, AMPA 2 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 2891, updated on 19-Jul-2014
Official Symbol
GRIA2provided by HGNC
Official Full Name
glutamate receptor, ionotropic, AMPA 2provided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:4572
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000120251; HPRD:04726; MIM:138247; Vega:OTTHUMG00000133836
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
GLUR2; GLURB; GluA2; HBGR2; GluR-K2
Summary
Glutamate receptors are the predominant excitatory neurotransmitter receptors in the mammalian brain and are activated in a variety of normal neurophysiologic processes. This gene product belongs to a family of glutamate receptors that are sensitive to alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA), and function as ligand-activated cation channels. These channels are assembled from 4 related subunits, GRIA1-4. The subunit encoded by this gene (GRIA2) is subject to RNA editing (CAG->CGG; Q->R) within the second transmembrane domain, which is thought to render the channel impermeable to Ca(2+). Human and animal studies suggest that pre-mRNA editing is essential for brain function, and defective GRIA2 RNA editing at the Q/R site may be relevant to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) etiology. Alternative splicing, resulting in transcript variants encoding different isoforms, (including the flip and flop isoforms that vary in their signal transduction properties), has been noted for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
See GRIA2 in Epigenomics, MapViewer
Location:
4q32.1
Exon count :
17
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
106 current GRCh38 (GCF_000001405.26) 4 NC_000004.12 (157220584..157366075)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 4 NC_000004.11 (158141736..158287227)

Chromosome 4 - NC_000004.12Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene glycine receptor, beta Neighboring gene chromatin accessibility complex 1 pseudogene Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC340017 Neighboring gene ribosomal protein L6 pseudogene

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

Replication interactions

Interaction Pubs
Knockdown of glutamate receptor, ionotropic, AMPA 2 (GRIA2) by siRNA inhibits HIV-1 replication in HeLa P4/R5 cells PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Protein Interaction Database

  • Activation of AMPA receptors, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Activation of AMPA receptors, organism-specific biosystemAMPA receptors are functionally either Ca permeable or Ca impermeable based on the subunit composition. Ca permeability is determined by GluR2 subunit which undergoes post-transcriptional RNA editin...
  • Activation of NMDA receptor upon glutamate binding and postsynaptic events, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Activation of NMDA receptor upon glutamate binding and postsynaptic events, organism-specific biosystemNMDA receptors are a subtype of ionotropic glutamate receptors that are specifically activated by a glutamate agonist N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA). Activation of NMDA receptor involves opening of the ...
  • Amphetamine addiction, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Amphetamine addiction, organism-specific biosystemAmphetamine is a psychostimulant drug that exerts persistent addictive effects. Most addictive drugs increase extracellular concentrations of dopamine (DA) in nucleus accumbens (NAc) and medial prefr...
  • Amphetamine addiction, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Amphetamine addiction, conserved biosystemAmphetamine is a psychostimulant drug that exerts persistent addictive effects. Most addictive drugs increase extracellular concentrations of dopamine (DA) in nucleus accumbens (NAc) and medial prefr...
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), organism-specific biosystemAmyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive, lethal, degenerative disorder of motor neurons. The hallmark of this disease is the selective death of motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord...
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), conserved biosystemAmyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive, lethal, degenerative disorder of motor neurons. The hallmark of this disease is the selective death of motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord...
  • BDNF signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    BDNF signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemBrain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin essential for growth, differentiation, plasticity, and survival of neurons. BDNF is also required for processes such as energy metabolism, b...
  • Circadian entrainment, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Circadian entrainment, organism-specific biosystemCircadian entrainment is a fundamental property by which the period of the internal biological clock is entrained by recurring exogenous signals, such that the organism's endocrine and behavioral rhy...
  • Circadian entrainment, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Circadian entrainment, conserved biosystemCircadian entrainment is a fundamental property by which the period of the internal biological clock is entrained by recurring exogenous signals, such that the organism's endocrine and behavioral rhy...
  • Cocaine addiction, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Cocaine addiction, organism-specific biosystemDrug addiction is a chronic, relapsing disorder in which compulsive drug-seeking and drug-taking behavior persists despite serious negative consequences.There is strong evidence that the dopaminergic...
  • Cocaine addiction, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Cocaine addiction, conserved biosystemDrug addiction is a chronic, relapsing disorder in which compulsive drug-seeking and drug-taking behavior persists despite serious negative consequences.There is strong evidence that the dopaminergic...
  • Dopaminergic synapse, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Dopaminergic synapse, organism-specific biosystemDopamine (DA) is an important and prototypical slow neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain, where it controls a variety of functions including locomotor activity, motivation and reward, learning an...
  • Dopaminergic synapse, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Dopaminergic synapse, conserved biosystemDopamine (DA) is an important and prototypical slow neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain, where it controls a variety of functions including locomotor activity, motivation and reward, learning an...
  • Glutamate Binding, Activation of AMPA Receptors and Synaptic Plasticity, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Glutamate Binding, Activation of AMPA Receptors and Synaptic Plasticity, organism-specific biosystemExcitatory synaptic transmission in the brain is carried out by glutamate receptors through the activation of both ionotropic and metabotropic receptors. Ionotropic glutamate receptors are of three ...
  • Glutamatergic synapse, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Glutamatergic synapse, organism-specific biosystemGlutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system(CNS). Glutamate is packaged into synaptic vesicles in the presynaptic terminal. Once released into the synap...
  • Glutamatergic synapse, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Glutamatergic synapse, conserved biosystemGlutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system(CNS). Glutamate is packaged into synaptic vesicles in the presynaptic terminal. Once released into the synap...
  • Hypothetical Network for Drug Addiction, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Hypothetical Network for Drug Addiction, organism-specific biosystemAdapted from figure 2 in [http://www.ploscompbiol.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pcbi.0040002 Li et al.].
  • Long-term depression, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Long-term depression, organism-specific biosystemCerebellar long-term depression (LTD), thought to be a molecular and cellular basis for cerebellar learning, is a process involving a decrease in the synaptic strength between parallel fiber (PF) and...
  • Long-term depression, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Long-term depression, conserved biosystemCerebellar long-term depression (LTD), thought to be a molecular and cellular basis for cerebellar learning, is a process involving a decrease in the synaptic strength between parallel fiber (PF) and...
  • Long-term potentiation, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Long-term potentiation, organism-specific biosystemHippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), a long-lasting increase in synaptic efficacy, is the molecular basis for learning and memory. Tetanic stimulation of afferents in the CA1 region of the hippo...
  • Long-term potentiation, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Long-term potentiation, conserved biosystemHippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), a long-lasting increase in synaptic efficacy, is the molecular basis for learning and memory. Tetanic stimulation of afferents in the CA1 region of the hippo...
  • N-cadherin signaling events, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    N-cadherin signaling events, organism-specific biosystem
    N-cadherin signaling events
  • Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, organism-specific biosystem
    Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction
  • Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, conserved biosystem
    Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction
  • Neuronal System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Neuronal System, organism-specific biosystemThe human brain contains at least 100 billion neurons, each with the ability to influence many other cells. Clearly, highly sophisticated and efficient mechanisms are needed to enable communication a...
  • Neurotransmitter Receptor Binding And Downstream Transmission In The Postsynaptic Cell, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Neurotransmitter Receptor Binding And Downstream Transmission In The Postsynaptic Cell, organism-specific biosystemThe neurotransmitter in the synaptic cleft released by the pre-synaptic neuron binds specific receptors located on the post-synaptic terminal. These receptors are either ion channels or G protein cou...
  • Nicotine addiction, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Nicotine addiction, organism-specific biosystemNicotine is one of the main psychoactive ingredients in tobacco that contributes to the harmful tobacco smoking habit. A common feature of addictive drugs, including nicotine, is that they increase d...
  • Nicotine addiction, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Nicotine addiction, conserved biosystemNicotine is one of the main psychoactive ingredients in tobacco that contributes to the harmful tobacco smoking habit. A common feature of addictive drugs, including nicotine, is that they increase d...
  • Retrograde endocannabinoid signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Retrograde endocannabinoid signaling, organism-specific biosystemEndogenous cannabinoids (endocannabinoids) serve as retrograde messengers at synapses in various regions of the brain. The family of endocannabinoids includes at least five derivatives of arachidonic...
  • Retrograde endocannabinoid signaling, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Retrograde endocannabinoid signaling, conserved biosystemEndogenous cannabinoids (endocannabinoids) serve as retrograde messengers at synapses in various regions of the brain. The family of endocannabinoids includes at least five derivatives of arachidonic...
  • Trafficking of AMPA receptors, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Trafficking of AMPA receptors, organism-specific biosystemRepetitive presynaptic activity causes long lasting changes in the postsynaptic transmission by changing the type and the number of AMPA receptors. These changes are brought about by trafficking mec...
  • Trafficking of GluR2-containing AMPA receptors, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Trafficking of GluR2-containing AMPA receptors, organism-specific biosystemTrafficking of GluR2-containing receptors is governed by protein protein interactions that are regulated by phosphorylation events. GluR2 binds NSF and AP2 in the proximal C terminal region and binds...
  • Transmission across Chemical Synapses, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Transmission across Chemical Synapses, organism-specific biosystemChemical synapses are specialized junctions that are used for communication between neurons, neurons and muscle or gland cells. The synapse involves a pre-synaptic neuron and a post-synaptic neuron,...
  • Unblocking of NMDA receptor, glutamate binding and activation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Unblocking of NMDA receptor, glutamate binding and activation, organism-specific biosystemAt resting membrane potential the NMDA receptor is blocked by extracellular Mg2+ ions and therefore is not activated in this state by ligands (glutamate, glycine, NMDA). The voltage block is removed ...
Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

Markers

Homology

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate selective glutamate receptor activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
 
alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate selective glutamate receptor activity ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
extracellular-glutamate-gated ion channel activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
 
ionotropic glutamate receptor activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 
protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
ion transmembrane transport IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
 
ion transmembrane transport IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
ionotropic glutamate receptor signaling pathway IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 
signal transduction TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
synaptic transmission TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
synaptic transmission, glutamatergic IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid selective glutamate receptor complex IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
 
alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid selective glutamate receptor complex ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
cell junction IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
dendrite IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
 
endocytic vesicle membrane TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
endoplasmic reticulum membrane IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
integral component of plasma membrane ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
plasma membrane TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
postsynaptic membrane IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
 
synaptic vesicle IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
Preferred Names
glutamate receptor 2
Names
glutamate receptor 2
gluR-2
gluR-B
AMPA-selective glutamate receptor 2

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_000826.3NP_000817.2  glutamate receptor 2 isoform 1 precursor

    See proteins identical to NP_000817.2

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1) encodes isoform 1 (also known as flip isoform). RNA editing (CAG->CGG) changes aa Gln607Arg.
    Source sequence(s)
    AC079233, BC010574, BC028736, BP202382, DA228330, DA810082, L20814
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS3797.1
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    I6L997
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P42262
    Related
    ENSP00000296526, OTTHUMP00000165322, ENST00000296526, OTTHUMT00000258366
    Conserved Domains (5) summary
    cd06389
    Location:28397
    Blast Score: 1968
    PBP1_iGluR_AMPA_GluR2; N-terminal leucine/isoleucine/valine-binding protein (LIVBP)-like domain of the GluR2 subunit of the AMPA receptor
    smart00079
    Location:653790
    Blast Score: 472
    PBPe; Eukaryotic homologues of bacterial periplasmic substrate binding proteins
    cd00134
    Location:416527
    Blast Score: 207
    PBPb; Bacterial periplasmic transport systems use membrane-bound complexes and substrate-bound, membrane-associated, periplasmic binding proteins (PBPs) to transport a wide variety of substrates, such as, amino acids, peptides, sugars, vitamins and inorganic ...
    pfam00060
    Location:545824
    Blast Score: 1015
    Lig_chan; Ligand-gated ion channel
    pfam01094
    Location:56379
    Blast Score: 450
    ANF_receptor; Receptor family ligand binding region
  2. NM_001083619.1NP_001077088.1  glutamate receptor 2 isoform 2 precursor

    See proteins identical to NP_001077088.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (2) uses an alternate coding exon compared to transcript variant 1, and encodes an isoform (2, also known as flop isoform) that is the same length, but with a few amino acid differences from isoform 1. RNA editing (CAG->CGG) changes aa Gln607Arg.
    Source sequence(s)
    AC079233, BC010574, BC028736, BP202382, DA228330, DA810082, L20814
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS43274.1
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    I6L997
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P42262
    Conserved Domains (5) summary
    cd06389
    Location:28397
    Blast Score: 1968
    PBP1_iGluR_AMPA_GluR2; N-terminal leucine/isoleucine/valine-binding protein (LIVBP)-like domain of the GluR2 subunit of the AMPA receptor
    smart00079
    Location:653790
    Blast Score: 464
    PBPe; Eukaryotic homologues of bacterial periplasmic substrate binding proteins
    cd00134
    Location:416527
    Blast Score: 207
    PBPb; Bacterial periplasmic transport systems use membrane-bound complexes and substrate-bound, membrane-associated, periplasmic binding proteins (PBPs) to transport a wide variety of substrates, such as, amino acids, peptides, sugars, vitamins and inorganic ...
    pfam00060
    Location:545824
    Blast Score: 1007
    Lig_chan; Ligand-gated ion channel
    pfam01094
    Location:56379
    Blast Score: 450
    ANF_receptor; Receptor family ligand binding region
  3. NM_001083620.1NP_001077089.1  glutamate receptor 2 isoform 3

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (3) contains a different 5' end exon compared to transcript variant 1, resulting in translation initiation from an in-frame downstream AUG, and an isoform (3) with a shorter N-terminus compared to isoform 1. RNA editing (CAG->CGG) changes aa Gln560Arg.
    Source sequence(s)
    AC079233, BC010574, BC028736, BP202686, L20814
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS43275.1
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    I6L997
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P42262
    Related
    ENSP00000377403, OTTHUMP00000165324, ENST00000393815, OTTHUMT00000258369
    Conserved Domains (5) summary
    smart00079
    Location:606743
    Blast Score: 472
    PBPe; Eukaryotic homologues of bacterial periplasmic substrate binding proteins
    cd00134
    Location:369480
    Blast Score: 206
    PBPb; Bacterial periplasmic transport systems use membrane-bound complexes and substrate-bound, membrane-associated, periplasmic binding proteins (PBPs) to transport a wide variety of substrates, such as, amino acids, peptides, sugars, vitamins and inorganic ...
    pfam00060
    Location:498777
    Blast Score: 1018
    Lig_chan; Ligand-gated ion channel
    pfam01094
    Location:9332
    Blast Score: 450
    ANF_receptor; Receptor family ligand binding region
    cl10011
    Location:1350
    Blast Score: 1852
    Periplasmic_Binding_Protein_Type_1; Type 1 periplasmic binding fold superfamily

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 106

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000004.12 

    Range
    157220584..157366075
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

Alternate HuRef

Genomic

  1. AC_000136.1 

    Range
    153892713..154037902
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

Alternate CHM1_1.1

Genomic

  1. NC_018915.2 

    Range
    158118907..158264349
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

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