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    TUBB3 tubulin beta 3 class III [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

    Gene ID: 10381, updated on 22-Sep-2016
    Official Symbol
    TUBB3provided by HGNC
    Official Full Name
    tubulin beta 3 class IIIprovided by HGNC
    Primary source
    HGNC:HGNC:20772
    See related
    Ensembl:ENSG00000258947 HPRD:04044; MIM:602661; Vega:OTTHUMG00000138985
    Gene type
    protein coding
    RefSeq status
    REVIEWED
    Organism
    Homo sapiens
    Lineage
    Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
    Also known as
    CDCBM; FEOM3; TUBB4; CDCBM1; CFEOM3; beta-4; CFEOM3A
    Summary
    This gene encodes a class III member of the beta tubulin protein family. Beta tubulins are one of two core protein families (alpha and beta tubulins) that heterodimerize and assemble to form microtubules. This protein is primarily expressed in neurons and may be involved in neurogenesis and axon guidance and maintenance. Mutations in this gene are the cause of congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles type 3. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. A pseudogene of this gene is found on chromosome 6. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2010]
    Orthologs
    Location:
    16q24.3
    Exon count:
    5
    Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
    108 current GRCh38.p7 (GCF_000001405.33) 16 NC_000016.10 (89922009..89936097)
    105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 16 NC_000016.9 (89988417..90002505)

    Chromosome 16 - NC_000016.10Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene transcription factor 25 Neighboring gene melanocortin 1 receptor Neighboring gene differentially expressed in FDCP 8 homolog Neighboring gene CENPB DNA-binding domain containing 1 Neighboring gene AFG3 like matrix AAA peptidase subunit 1, pseudogene

    GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

    Protein interactions

    Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
    Envelope surface glycoprotein gp160, precursor env Treatment of cells with actin-depolymerizing agents or tubulin polymerization inhibitors largely reduces the percentage of cells with capped HIV-1 Gag and Env, indicating an intact actin and tubulin cytoskeleton is required for efficient assembly of HIV-1 PubMed
    Pr55(Gag) gag Treatment of cells with actin-depolymerizing agents or tubulin polymerization inhibitors largely reduces the percentage of cells with capped HIV-1 Gag and Env, indicating an intact actin and tubulin cytoskeleton is required for efficient assembly of HIV-1 PubMed
    Rev rev HIV-1 Rev interacting protein, TUBB3, is identified by the in-vitro binding experiments involving cytosolic or nuclear extracts from HeLa cells PubMed
    rev Rev acts to depolymerize microtubules that are formed by tubulin, an effect that is observed during HIV-1 infection PubMed
    Tat tat HIV-1 Tat K29A, K50R, and K51R lysine mutations downregulate the proportion of soluble tubulin in cells, while the majority of other lysine mutations upregulate the percentage of soluble tubulin compared with the wild-type PubMed
    tat In Jurkat cells expressing HIV-1 Tat, decreased expression levels are found for basic cytoskeletal proteins such as actin, beta-tubulin, annexin, cofilin, gelsolin, and Rac/Rho-GDI complex PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat (specifically, amino acids 38-72), enhances tubulin polymerization and triggers the mitochondrial pathway to induce T cell apoptosis as shown in vitro by the release of cytochrome c from isolated mitochondria PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat (amino acids 36-39) binds tubulin alpha/beta dimers and polymerized microtubules leading to the alteration of microtubule dynamics and activation of a mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway that is facilitated by the Bcl-2 relative Bim PubMed
    Vpr vpr Concurrent exposure of HIV-1 Vpr with HCV core protein causes significantly increased human fetal neuron (HFN) injury, as indicated by reduced beta-III-tubulin, than HFN treated with HIV-1 Vpr alone PubMed

    Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

    • Chaperonin-mediated protein folding, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Chaperonin-mediated protein folding, organism-specific biosystemThe eukaryotic chaperonin TCP-1 ring complex (TRiC/ CCT) plays an essential role in the folding of a subset of proteins prominent among which are the actins and tubulins (reviewed in Altschuler and...
    • Cooperation of Prefoldin and TriC/CCT in actin and tubulin folding, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Cooperation of Prefoldin and TriC/CCT in actin and tubulin folding, organism-specific biosystemIn the case of actin and tubulin folding, and perhaps other substrates, the emerging polypeptide chain is transferred from the ribosome to TRiC via Prefoldin (Vainberg et al., 1998).
    • Diurnally regulated genes with circadian orthologs, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Diurnally regulated genes with circadian orthologs, organism-specific biosystemHuman genes regulated in the diurnal comparison with orthologues that display circadian regulation in mouse heart and liver (Panda 2002, Storch 2002), and SCN (Panda 2002). The 608 significantly regu...
    • Formation of tubulin folding intermediates by CCT/TriC, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Formation of tubulin folding intermediates by CCT/TriC, organism-specific biosystemTriC/CCT forms a binary complex with unfolded alpha- or beta-tubulin (Frydman et al., 1992; Gao et al., 1993). The tubulin folding intermediates produced by TriC are unstable (Gao et al., 1993). Fiv...
    • Gap junction, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Gap junction, organism-specific biosystemGap junctions contain intercellular channels that allow direct communication between the cytosolic compartments of adjacent cells. Each gap junction channel is formed by docking of two 'hemichannels'...
    • Gap junction, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Gap junction, conserved biosystemGap junctions contain intercellular channels that allow direct communication between the cytosolic compartments of adjacent cells. Each gap junction channel is formed by docking of two 'hemichannels'...
    • Metabolism of proteins, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Metabolism of proteins, organism-specific biosystemProtein metabolism comprises the pathways of translation, post-translational modification and protein folding.
    • Parkin-Ubiquitin Proteasomal System pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Parkin-Ubiquitin Proteasomal System pathway, organism-specific biosystemThis pathway describes the Parkin-Ubiquitin proteasome degradation system.
    • Pathogenic Escherichia coli infection, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Pathogenic Escherichia coli infection, organism-specific biosystemEnteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) are closely related pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli. The hallmark of EPEC/EHEC infections [DS:H00278 H00277] is induction o...
    • Pathogenic Escherichia coli infection, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Pathogenic Escherichia coli infection, organism-specific biosystemSources: [http://www.genome.jp/kegg/pathway/hsa/hsa05130.html KEGG]
    • Pathogenic Escherichia coli infection, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Pathogenic Escherichia coli infection, conserved biosystemEnteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) are closely related pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli. The hallmark of EPEC/EHEC infections [DS:H00278 H00277] is induction o...
    • Phagosome, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Phagosome, organism-specific biosystemPhagocytosis is the process of taking in relatively large particles by a cell, and is a central mechanism in the tissue remodeling, inflammation, and defense against infectious agents. A phagosome is...
    • Phagosome, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Phagosome, conserved biosystemPhagocytosis is the process of taking in relatively large particles by a cell, and is a central mechanism in the tissue remodeling, inflammation, and defense against infectious agents. A phagosome is...
    • Post-chaperonin tubulin folding pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Post-chaperonin tubulin folding pathway, organism-specific biosystemAlpha and beta tubulin folding intermediates are formed through ATP-dependent interaction with TriC/CCT. In order to form a functional heterodimer, these folding intermediates undergo a series of i...
    • Prefoldin mediated transfer of substrate to CCT/TriC, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Prefoldin mediated transfer of substrate to CCT/TriC, organism-specific biosystemUnfolded actins and tubulins bound to prefoldin are transferred to CCT via a docking mechanism (McCormack and Willison, 2001).
    • Protein folding, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Protein folding, organism-specific biosystemDue to the crowded envirnoment within the cell, many proteins must interact with molecular chaperones to attain their native conformation (reviewed in Young et al., 2004). Chaperones recognize and...
    Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

    Markers

    Homology

    Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

    Function Evidence Code Pubs
    GTP binding IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    GTPase activity IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    peptide binding IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    structural constituent of cytoskeleton IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    Process Evidence Code Pubs
    axon guidance IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    cytoskeleton organization IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    microtubule-based process IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    mitotic nuclear division IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    Component Evidence Code Pubs
    axon IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    cell periphery IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    cytoplasm IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    dendrite ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    extracellular exosome IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    microtubule IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    neuronal cell body IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    nucleus IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    Preferred Names
    tubulin beta-3 chain
    Names
    class III beta-tubulin
    tubulin beta-4 chain
    tubulin beta-III
    tubulin, beta 3

    RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

    These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

    These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

    Genomic

    1. NG_027810.1 RefSeqGene

      Range
      5001..19089
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. NM_001197181.1NP_001184110.1  tubulin beta-3 chain isoform 2

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001184110.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (2) differs in the 5' UTR, lacks a portion of the 5' coding region, and initiates translation at a downstream start codon, compared to variant 1. The encoded isoform (2) is shorter at the N-terminus, compared to isoform 1.
      Source sequence(s)
      AC092143, AK292219, BC003021
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS56012.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      Q13509
      Related
      ENSP00000451617, OTTHUMP00000245288, ENST00000554444, OTTHUMT00000412017
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      PLN00220
      Location:1375
      PLN00220; tubulin beta chain; Provisional
      cd02187
      Location:1354
      beta_tubulin; The beta-tubulin family
    2. NM_006086.3NP_006077.2  tubulin beta-3 chain isoform 1

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_006077.2

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (1) encodes the longest isoform (1).
      Source sequence(s)
      AK223039, BC003021, DA054466
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS10988.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      Q13509
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      Q53G92
      Related
      ENSP00000320295, OTTHUMP00000176846, ENST00000315491, OTTHUMT00000272874
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      PLN00220
      Location:1447
      PLN00220; tubulin beta chain; Provisional
      cd02187
      Location:2426
      beta_tubulin; The beta-tubulin family

    RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 108 details...Open this link in a new tab

    The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

    Reference GRCh38.p7 Primary Assembly

    Genomic

    1. NC_000016.10 Reference GRCh38.p7 Primary Assembly

      Range
      89922009..89936097
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    Alternate CHM1_1.1

    Genomic

    1. NC_018927.2 Alternate CHM1_1.1

      Range
      91400537..91414621
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)
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