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    PTGS2 prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (prostaglandin G/H synthase and cyclooxygenase) [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

    Gene ID: 5743, updated on 28-Jun-2015
    Official Symbol
    PTGS2provided by HGNC
    Official Full Name
    prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (prostaglandin G/H synthase and cyclooxygenase)provided by HGNC
    Primary source
    HGNC:HGNC:9605
    See related
    Ensembl:ENSG00000073756; HPRD:02599; MIM:600262; Vega:OTTHUMG00000035473
    Gene type
    protein coding
    RefSeq status
    REVIEWED
    Organism
    Homo sapiens
    Lineage
    Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
    Also known as
    COX2; COX-2; PHS-2; PGG/HS; PGHS-2; hCox-2; GRIPGHS
    Summary
    Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase (PTGS), also known as cyclooxygenase, is the key enzyme in prostaglandin biosynthesis, and acts both as a dioxygenase and as a peroxidase. There are two isozymes of PTGS: a constitutive PTGS1 and an inducible PTGS2, which differ in their regulation of expression and tissue distribution. This gene encodes the inducible isozyme. It is regulated by specific stimulatory events, suggesting that it is responsible for the prostanoid biosynthesis involved in inflammation and mitogenesis. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2009]
    Orthologs
    See PTGS2 in Epigenomics, MapViewer
    Location:
    1q25.2-q25.3
    Exon count:
    10
    Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
    107 current GRCh38.p2 (GCF_000001405.28) 1 NC_000001.11 (186671812..186680427, complement)
    105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 1 NC_000001.10 (186640944..186649559, complement)

    Chromosome 1 - NC_000001.11Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC102724919 Neighboring gene phosducin Neighboring gene PARK2 co-regulated-like pseudogene Neighboring gene PTGS2 antisense NFKB1 complex-mediated expression regulator RNA Neighboring gene phospholipase A2, group IVA (cytosolic, calcium-dependent)

    GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

    NHGRI GWAS Catalog

    Description
    Genome-wide association scan identifies a prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 variant involved in risk of knee osteoarthritis.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog

    Protein interactions

    Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
    Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 env HIV-1 gp120 upregulates the expression of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2) in human B cells PubMed
    env Overexpression of NF-kappaB inhibitory subunit, IkappaBalpha, completely abrogates gp120-induced COX-2 activity PubMed
    env HIV-1 envelope protein gp120 is able to induce COX-2 mRNA and protein in human neuroblastoma cell lines that express CXCR4 and CCR5 but not CD4; gp120 induces COX-2 promoter transcription through NF-kappaB and activating protein-1 (AP-1) sites PubMed
    env HIV-1 clade B gp120 induces higher levels of expression of the neuropathogenic molecule cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)-mediated arachidonic acid by-products, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and thromboxane A2 receptor (TBXA2R) compared to clade C gp120 PubMed
    env HIV-1 gp120 increases the intracellular concentrations of prostaglandin E2 and leukotriene B4 by upregulating the activity and expression of the arachidonate-metabolizing enzymes prostaglandin H synthase and 5-lipoxygenase, respectively PubMed
    env Preincubation of human astrocytoma cells with HIV-1 gp120 produces a significant increase of nitrite and PGE2 in cell supernatants; the effect of gp120 on both nitrite and PGE2 production is inhibited by antagonists of NO synthase or cyclooxygenase PubMed
    Envelope transmembrane glycoprotein gp41 env A synthetic peptide corresponding to the immunosuppressive domain (amino acids 574-592) of HIV-1 gp41 upregulates the expression of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2; prostaglandin G/H synthase and cyclooxygenase) in peptide-treated PBMCs PubMed
    Tat tat Transcription factors NFAT and AP-1 (c-Jun/c-Fos) are required for HIV-1 Tat-induced upregulation of COX-2 PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat-induced cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis increase Leishmania growth in HIV-1-infected macrophages PubMed
    Vpr vpr Treatment of human primary astrocytes with HIV-1 Vpr downregulates expression of eleven genes, BNIP3, CYGB, DUOX2, DUSP1, FOXM1, GAPDH, HPRT1, MT3, MTL5, PTGS2, and SCARA3 PubMed

    Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

    Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

    Markers

    Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

    Function Evidence Code Pubs
    arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase activity TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    enzyme binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    heme binding ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    lipid binding IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    metal ion binding IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    peroxidase activity NAS
    Non-traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    protein binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    protein homodimerization activity IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    Process Evidence Code Pubs
    NAD metabolic process TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    angiogenesis IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    arachidonic acid metabolic process TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    bone mineralization IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    brown fat cell differentiation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    cellular response to ATP IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    cellular response to UV IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    cellular response to fluid shear stress IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    cellular response to hypoxia IEP
    Inferred from Expression Pattern
    more info
    PubMed 
    cellular response to mechanical stimulus IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    cyclooxygenase pathway IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    cyclooxygenase pathway TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    decidualization IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    embryo implantation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    hair cycle IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    inflammatory response IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    learning IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    lipoxygenase pathway TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    maintenance of blood-brain barrier IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    memory IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    movement of cell or subcellular component TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of calcium ion transport IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    negative regulation of cell cycle IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    negative regulation of cell proliferation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    negative regulation of smooth muscle contraction IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    negative regulation of synaptic transmission, dopaminergic IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    nicotinamide metabolic process TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    ovulation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    oxidation-reduction process IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    positive regulation of NF-kappaB import into nucleus IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    positive regulation of apoptotic process IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    positive regulation of brown fat cell differentiation ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of cell migration involved in sprouting angiogenesis ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of fever generation ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    positive regulation of fibroblast growth factor production ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of nitric oxide biosynthetic process ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of platelet-derived growth factor production ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    positive regulation of prostaglandin biosynthetic process NAS
    Non-traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    positive regulation of smooth muscle contraction IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    positive regulation of synaptic plasticity IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    positive regulation of synaptic transmission, glutamatergic IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    positive regulation of transforming growth factor beta production ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor production ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of vasoconstriction IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    prostaglandin biosynthetic process ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    prostaglandin biosynthetic process NAS
    Non-traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    prostaglandin metabolic process TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    regulation of blood pressure ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    regulation of inflammatory response NAS
    Non-traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    response to drug IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    response to estradiol IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    response to fatty acid IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    response to fructose IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    response to glucocorticoid IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    response to lipopolysaccharide IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    response to lithium ion IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    response to manganese ion IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    response to oxidative stress IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    response to tumor necrosis factor IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    response to vitamin D IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    sensory perception of pain IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    small molecule metabolic process TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    vitamin metabolic process TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    water-soluble vitamin metabolic process TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    Component Evidence Code Pubs
    caveola IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    cytoplasm IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    cytoplasm ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    endoplasmic reticulum IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    endoplasmic reticulum lumen TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    endoplasmic reticulum membrane TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    neuron projection IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    nucleus ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    protein complex IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    Preferred Names
    prostaglandin G/H synthase 2
    Names
    prostaglandin G/H synthase 2
    PGH synthase 2
    PHS II
    cyclooxygenase 2b
    prostaglandin H2 synthase 2
    NP_000954.1

    RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

    These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

    These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

    Genomic

    1. NG_028206.2 RefSeqGene

      Range
      5001..13616
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. NM_000963.3NP_000954.1  prostaglandin G/H synthase 2 precursor

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_000954.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Source sequence(s)
      AL033533, BC013734, BM978796, DA277667, KF455116
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS1371.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P35354
      Related
      ENSP00000356438, OTTHUMP00000033524, ENST00000367468, OTTHUMT00000086157
      Conserved Domains (3) summary
      cd09816
      Location:75562
      prostaglandin_endoperoxide_synthase; Animal prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase and related bacterial proteins
      cd00054
      Location:1954
      EGF_CA; Calcium-binding EGF-like domain, present in a large number of membrane-bound and extracellular (mostly animal) proteins. Many of these proteins require calcium for their biological function and calcium-binding sites have been found to be located at the ...
      pfam03098
      Location:122560
      An_peroxidase; Animal haem peroxidase

    RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 107

    The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

    Reference GRCh38.p2 Primary Assembly

    Genomic

    1. NC_000001.11 Reference GRCh38.p2 Primary Assembly

      Range
      186671812..186680427
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    Alternate CHM1_1.1

    Genomic

    1. NC_018912.2 Alternate CHM1_1.1

      Range
      188062673..188071288
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)