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GCG glucagon [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 2641, updated on 19-Jul-2014
Official Symbol
GCGprovided by HGNC
Official Full Name
glucagonprovided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:4191
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000115263; HPRD:00676; MIM:138030; Vega:OTTHUMG00000153892
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
GLP1; GLP2; GRPP
Summary
The protein encoded by this gene is actually a preproprotein that is cleaved into four distinct mature peptides. One of these, glucagon, is a pancreatic hormone that counteracts the glucose-lowering action of insulin by stimulating glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis. Glucagon is a ligand for a specific G-protein linked receptor whose signalling pathway controls cell proliferation. Two of the other peptides are secreted from gut endocrine cells and promote nutrient absorption through distinct mechanisms. Finally, the fourth peptide is similar to glicentin, an active enteroglucagon. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Location:
2q36-q37
Exon count :
6
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
106 current GRCh38 (GCF_000001405.26) 2 NC_000002.12 (162142869..162152404, complement)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 2 NC_000002.11 (162999379..163008914, complement)

Chromosome 2 - NC_000002.12Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene translocase of inner mitochondrial membrane 8 homolog A (yeast) pseudogene 1 Neighboring gene eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, subunit E pseudogene 2 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC101929532 Neighboring gene fibroblast activation protein, alpha Neighboring gene interferon induced with helicase C domain 1

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

  • Class B/2 (Secretin family receptors), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Class B/2 (Secretin family receptors), organism-specific biosystemThis family is known as Family B (secretin-receptor family, family 2) G-protein-coupled receptors. Family B GPCRs include secretin, calcitonin, parathyroid hormone/parathyroid hormone-related peptide...
  • FOXA1 transcription factor network, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    FOXA1 transcription factor network, organism-specific biosystem
    FOXA1 transcription factor network
  • G alpha (q) signalling events, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    G alpha (q) signalling events, organism-specific biosystemThe classic signalling route for G alpha (q) is activation of phospholipase C beta thereby triggering phosphoinositide hydrolysis, calcium mobilization and protein kinase C activation. This provides ...
  • G alpha (s) signalling events, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    G alpha (s) signalling events, organism-specific biosystemThe general function of the G alpha (s) subunit (Gs) is to activate adenylate cyclase, which in turn produces cAMP, leading to the activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinases (often referred to col...
  • GPCR downstream signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    GPCR downstream signaling, organism-specific biosystemG protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are classically defined as the receptor, G-protein and downstream effectors, the alpha subunit of the G-protein being the primary signaling molecule. However, it h...
  • GPCR ligand binding, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    GPCR ligand binding, organism-specific biosystemThere are more than 800 G-protein coupled receptor (GPCRs) in the human genome, making it the largest receptor superfamily. GPCRs are also the largest class of drug targets, involved in virtually all...
  • Gastrin-CREB signalling pathway via PKC and MAPK, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Gastrin-CREB signalling pathway via PKC and MAPK, organism-specific biosystemGastrin is a hormone whose main function is to stimulate secretion of hydrochloric acid by the gastric mucosa, which results in gastrin formation inhibition. This hormone also acts as a mitogenic fac...
  • Glucagon signaling in metabolic regulation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Glucagon signaling in metabolic regulation, organism-specific biosystemGlucagon and insulin are peptide hormones released from the pancreas into the blood, that normally act in complementary fashion to stabilize blood glucose concentration. When blood glucose levels ris...
  • Glucagon-like Peptide-1 (GLP1) regulates insulin secretion, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Glucagon-like Peptide-1 (GLP1) regulates insulin secretion, organism-specific biosystemGlucagon-like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) is secreted by L-cells in the intestine in response to glucose and fatty acids. GLP-1 circulates to the beta cells of the pancreas where it binds a G-protein coupled r...
  • Glucagon-type ligand receptors, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Glucagon-type ligand receptors, organism-specific biosystemThe glucagon hormone family regulates the activity of GPCRs from the secretin receptor subfamily in Class II/B (Mayo KE et al, 2003).
  • Incretin synthesis, secretion, and inactivation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Incretin synthesis, secretion, and inactivation, organism-specific biosystemIncretins are peptide hormones produced by the gut that enhance the ability of glucose to stimulate insulin secretion from beta cells in the pancreas. Two incretins have been identified: Glucagon-lik...
  • Insulin secretion, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Insulin secretion, organism-specific biosystemPancreatic beta cells are specialised endocrine cells that continuously sense the levels of blood sugar and other fuels and, in response, secrete insulin to maintain normal fuel homeostasis. Glucose-...
  • Integration of energy metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Integration of energy metabolism, organism-specific biosystemMany hormones that affect individual physiological processes including the regulation of appetite, absorption, transport, and oxidation of foodstuffs influence energy metabolism pathways. While insul...
  • Metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Metabolism, organism-specific biosystemMetabolic processes in human cells generate energy through the oxidation of molecules consumed in the diet and mediate the synthesis of diverse essential molecules not taken in the diet as well as th...
  • Metabolism of proteins, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Metabolism of proteins, organism-specific biosystemProtein metabolism comprises the pathways of translation, post-translational modification and protein folding.
  • Peptide hormone metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Peptide hormone metabolism, organism-specific biosystemPeptide hormones are cleaved from larger precursors in the secretory system (endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, secretory granules) of the cell. After secretion peptide hormones are modified and...
  • Regulation of insulin secretion, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Regulation of insulin secretion, organism-specific biosystemPancreatic beta cells integrate signals from several metabolites and hormones to control the secretion of insulin. In general, glucose triggers insulin secretion while other factors can amplify or in...
  • Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystemSignal transduction is a process in which extracellular signals elicit changes in cell state and activity. Transmembrane receptors sense changes in the cellular environment by binding ligands, such a...
  • Signaling by GPCR, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by GPCR, organism-specific biosystemG protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs; 7TM receptors; seven transmembrane domain receptors; heptahelical receptors; G protein-linked receptors [GPLR]) are the largest family of transmembrane receptors i...
  • Synthesis, secretion, and deacylation of Ghrelin, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Synthesis, secretion, and deacylation of Ghrelin, organism-specific biosystemGhrelin is a peptide hormone of 28 amino acid residues which is acylated at the serine-3 of the mature peptide. Ghrelin is synthesized in several tissues: X/A-like cells of the gastric mucosa (the ma...
  • Synthesis, secretion, and inactivation of Glucagon-like Peptide-1 (GLP-1), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Synthesis, secretion, and inactivation of Glucagon-like Peptide-1 (GLP-1), organism-specific biosystemIn L cells of the intestine the transcription factors TCF-4 (TCF7L2) and Beta-catenin form a heterodimer and bind the G2 enhancer of the Proglucagon gene GCG,activating its transcription to yield Pro...
Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

Markers

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
glucagon receptor binding IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
 
hormone activity IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
 
identical protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
 
protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
 
receptor binding TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
adenylate cyclase-modulating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
 
cell proliferation TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
cellular protein metabolic process TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
cellular response to glucagon stimulus TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
energy reserve metabolic process TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
feeding behavior TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of apoptotic process IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
 
negative regulation of execution phase of apoptosis IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
negative regulation of intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of cAMP biosynthetic process IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of calcium ion import IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of insulin secretion involved in cellular response to glucose stimulus IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
 
positive regulation of peptidyl-serine phosphorylation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of peptidyl-threonine phosphorylation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of protein binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of protein kinase activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
protein kinase A signaling IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
 
regulation of insulin secretion TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
response to starvation IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
 
signal transduction TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
small molecule metabolic process TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
endoplasmic reticulum lumen TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
extracellular region TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
extracellular space IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
 
plasma membrane TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
secretory granule lumen TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
Preferred Names
glucagon
Names
glucagon
preproglucagon
glucagon-like peptide 1
glucagon-like peptide 2
glicentin-related polypeptide

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_002054.4NP_002045.1  glucagon preproprotein

    See proteins identical to NP_002045.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Source sequence(s)
    BC005278, BM272442, CB069629
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS46439.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P01275
    Related
    ENSP00000387662, OTTHUMP00000204570, ENST00000418842, OTTHUMT00000332860
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    pfam00123
    Location:5380
    Blast Score: 147
    Hormone_2; Peptide hormone

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 106

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000002.12 

    Range
    162142869..162152404
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

Alternate HuRef

Genomic

  1. AC_000134.1 

    Range
    154881734..154891273
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

Alternate CHM1_1.1

Genomic

  1. NC_018913.2 

    Range
    163005267..163014802
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

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