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TXN thioredoxin [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 7295, updated on 11-Sep-2014
Official Symbol
TXNprovided by HGNC
Official Full Name
thioredoxinprovided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:12435
Locus tag
RP11-427L11.1
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000136810; HPRD:01761; MIM:187700; Vega:OTTHUMG00000020480
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
TRX; TRDX; TRX1
Summary
The protein encoded by this gene acts as a homodimer and is involved in many redox reactions. The encoded protein is active in the reversible S-nitrosylation of cysteines in certain proteins, which is part of the response to intracellular nitric oxide. This protein is found in the cytoplasm. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]
Location:
9q31
Exon count:
5
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
106 current GRCh38 (GCF_000001405.26) 9 NC_000009.12 (110243812..110256640, complement)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 9 NC_000009.11 (113006092..113018920, complement)

Chromosome 9 - NC_000009.12Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene transfer RNA-Arg (TCG) 6-1 Neighboring gene chromosome 9 open reading frame 152 Neighboring gene thioredoxin domain containing 8 (spermatozoa) Neighboring gene sushi, von Willebrand factor type A, EGF and pentraxin domain containing 1

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 env Using specific anti-Trx monoclonal antibody significantly reduces HIV-1 entry and infection in human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs), suggesting Trx plays a great role in HIV-1 infection of MDMs PubMed
env The ability of thioredoxin, a protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), to reduce the disulfide bond in CD4 is enhanced in the presence of HIV-1 gp120 and thioredoxin also reduces disulfide bonds in gp120 directly in the absence of CD4 PubMed
env Cleavage of the CD4 domain 2 disulfide bond (Cys130-Cys159) by thioredoxin enhances HIV-1 gp120/gp41-mediated cell-cell fusion and virus entry PubMed
env Thioredoxin cleaves the gp120 disulfide bond (Cys296-Cys331) in the V3 domain and the cleavage is enhanced by CD4-expressing cells PubMed
Envelope transmembrane glycoprotein gp41 env Cleavage of the CD4 domain 2 disulfide bond (Cys130-Cys159) by thioredoxin enhances HIV-1 gp120/gp41-mediated cell-cell fusion and virus entry PubMed
Nef nef HIV-1 Nef stabilizes the association of thioredoxin with ASK1, thereby inhibiting the catalytic activity of ASK1, Fas- and TNFalpha-mediated apoptosis, and activation of c-Jun amino-terminal kinase PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

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Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

Markers

Homology

Clone Names

  • MGC61975, DKFZp686B1993

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
peptide disulfide oxidoreductase activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
poly(A) RNA binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 
protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
protein disulfide oxidoreductase activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
cell proliferation TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
cell redox homeostasis IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cell-cell signaling TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
cellular component movement TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
glycerol ether metabolic process IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
innate immune response TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
negative regulation of protein export from nucleus IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
nucleobase-containing small molecule interconversion TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
nucleobase-containing small molecule metabolic process TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
nucleotide-binding domain, leucine rich repeat containing receptor signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
oxidation-reduction process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of DNA binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
regulation of protein import into nucleus, translocation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
response to radiation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
signal transduction TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
small molecule metabolic process TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
transcription, DNA-templated IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
cytoplasm IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 
cytosol TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
extracellular vesicular exosome IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
mitochondrion IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
nucleoplasm TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
nucleus IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 
Preferred Names
thioredoxin
Names
thioredoxin
ADF
SASP
TXN delta 3
ATL-derived factor
thioredoxin delta 3
surface-associated sulphydryl protein

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_001244938.1NP_001231867.1  thioredoxin isoform 2

    See proteins identical to NP_001231867.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (2) lacks an alternate in-frame exon compared to variant 1. The resulting isoform (2) has the same N- and C-termini but is shorter compared to isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AF065241, AW160756, BC054866, BQ774337
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS59139.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P10599
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cd02947
    Location:1182
    TRX_family; TRX family; composed of two groups: Group I, which includes proteins that exclusively encode a TRX domain; and Group II, which are composed of fusion proteins of TRX and additional domains. Group I TRX is a small ancient protein that alter the redox ...
  2. NM_003329.3NP_003320.2  thioredoxin isoform 1

    See proteins identical to NP_003320.2

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1) represents the longer transcript and encodes the longer isoform (1).
    Source sequence(s)
    AW160756, BC054866, BQ774337
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS35103.1
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    H9ZYJ2
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P10599
    Related
    ENSP00000363641, OTTHUMP00000021892, ENST00000374517, OTTHUMT00000053614
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cd02947
    Location:11102
    TRX_family; TRX family; composed of two groups: Group I, which includes proteins that exclusively encode a TRX domain; and Group II, which are composed of fusion proteins of TRX and additional domains. Group I TRX is a small ancient protein that alter the redox ...

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 106

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000009.12 

    Range
    110243812..110256640
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. XM_006717276.1XP_006717339.1  

    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cd02947
    Location:1163
    TRX_family; TRX family; composed of two groups: Group I, which includes proteins that exclusively encode a TRX domain; and Group II, which are composed of fusion proteins of TRX and additional domains. Group I TRX is a small ancient protein that alter the redox ...

Alternate HuRef

Genomic

  1. AC_000141.1 

    Range
    82607811..82620710
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

Alternate CHM1_1.1

Genomic

  1. NC_018920.2 

    Range
    113152543..113165343
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)