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PARP1 poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 142, updated on 11-Sep-2014
Official Symbol
PARP1provided by HGNC
Official Full Name
poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1provided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:270
Locus tag
RP11-125A15.2
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000143799; HPRD:01435; MIM:173870; Vega:OTTHUMG00000037556
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
PARP; PPOL; ADPRT; ARTD1; ADPRT1; PARP-1; ADPRT 1; pADPRT-1
Summary
This gene encodes a chromatin-associated enzyme, poly(ADP-ribosyl)transferase, which modifies various nuclear proteins by poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation. The modification is dependent on DNA and is involved in the regulation of various important cellular processes such as differentiation, proliferation, and tumor transformation and also in the regulation of the molecular events involved in the recovery of cell from DNA damage. In addition, this enzyme may be the site of mutation in Fanconi anemia, and may participate in the pathophysiology of type I diabetes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
See PARP1 in Epigenomics, MapViewer
Location:
1q41-q42
Exon count:
23
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
106 current GRCh38 (GCF_000001405.26) 1 NC_000001.11 (226360691..226408100, complement)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 1 NC_000001.10 (226548392..226595801, complement)

Chromosome 1 - NC_000001.11Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene signal peptidase complex subunit 3-like Neighboring gene Y box binding protein 1 pseudogene 9 Neighboring gene ribosomal protein S3a pseudogene 7 Neighboring gene CDKN2A interacting protein N-terminal like pseudogene 1

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 env The mRNA expression levels for alpha-tubulin, TRADD, IFN-gamma R2, GAS1, MADD, NF-kappaB, I-kappa B, 14-3-3 protein, APaf1, PARP, IGF-1 receptor, RB1, Rb2/p130, ARC, and caspase 6 are upregulated in human neuronal cells after treatment with HIV-1 gp120 PubMed
env Contact of CD4+ T cells with HIV-1 infected or HIV-1 gp120-expressing cells induces PARP hydrolysis, which leads to the cleavage of 116 kDa PARP into two fragments PubMed
Nef nef HIV-1 Nef enhances apoptosis in CD4+ T lymphoblastoid cell lines through mechanisms that include the cleavage of the caspase target poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase PubMed
nef Expression of HIV-1 Nef in human brain micro vascular endothelial cells induces the cleavage of PARP protein, which is involved in DNA repair PubMed
Tat tat The levels of PARP1 protein are reduced after Caco-2 cells exposure to HIV-1 Tat compared with control PubMed
tat PARP1 negatively regulates HIV-1 transcription by directly competing with Tat-P-TEFb complex for binding to TAR RNA PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat induces the cleavage of PARP and activation of apoptosis through a p56lck dependent mechanism PubMed
tat Treatment of primary human microvascular endothelial cells of lung origin with HIV-1 Tat caused cleavage of poly(A/DP)-ribose polymerase as a result of caspase activation PubMed
tat The poly(A) site in the HIV-1 5'-LTR is occluded in a Tat-dependent manner, suggesting a role for Tat in regulating this nucleotide signal PubMed
tat Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase modifies HIV-1 Tat with poly(ADP-ribose), suggesting a role for this enzyme in the regulation of HIV-1 gene expression PubMed
tat Purified recombinant HIV-1 Tat protein stimulates poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase in a dose dependent manner PubMed
Vpr vpr Recruitment of PARP-1 by HIV-1 Vpr-glucocorticoid receptor (GR) complex prevents its nuclear localization, which is necessary for Vpr to suppress NF-kappaB PubMed
vpr HIV-1 Vpr induces apoptosis and the cleavage of ADPRT in a manner that is signaled through the DNA damage signaling protein ataxia telangiectasia Rad3-related protein (ATR) PubMed
integrase gag-pol PARP has been described as a requirement for efficient HIV-1 integration, however a conflicting report indicates it is not essential for efficient lentivirus integration PubMed
retropepsin gag-pol Positional proteomics analysis identifies the cleavage of human poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase family, member 1 (PARP1) at amino acid residues 185-186 by the HIV-1 protease PubMed
gag-pol Inhibition of HIV-1 protease by saquinavir and leu3.a blocks PARP cleavage and protects cells from apoptosis and necrosis PubMed
gag-pol HIV-1 protease directly cleaves and activates procaspase 8 in T cells, which is associated with cleavage of BID, mitochondrial release of cytochrome c, activation of the downstream caspases 9 and 3, and cleavage of DFF and PARP PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

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Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

Markers

Homology

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
DNA binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
NAD binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
NAD+ ADP-ribosyltransferase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
NAD+ ADP-ribosyltransferase activity TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
R-SMAD binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
enzyme binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
 
identical protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
poly(A) RNA binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 
protein N-terminus binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
transcription factor binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
zinc ion binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
DNA damage response, detection of DNA damage IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
DNA repair TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
base-excision repair IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cellular response to insulin stimulus IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
double-strand break repair IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
 
gene expression TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
macrophage differentiation TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
positive regulation of SMAD protein import into nucleus IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of transcription regulatory region DNA binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
protein ADP-ribosylation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
protein autoprocessing IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
protein poly-ADP-ribosylation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
regulation of growth rate IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
signal transduction involved in regulation of gene expression IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
telomere maintenance IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
transcription initiation from RNA polymerase II promoter TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
transcription, DNA-templated TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
membrane IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
nuclear envelope IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
nucleolus IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
nucleoplasm TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
nucleus IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 
transcription factor complex IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
Preferred Names
poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase 1
Names
poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase 1
poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase
poly(ADP-ribose) synthetase
poly[ADP-ribose] synthase 1
poly(ADP-ribosyl)transferase
ADP-ribosyltransferase NAD(+)
NAD(+) ADP-ribosyltransferase 1
poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase family, member 1
ADP-ribosyltransferase diphtheria toxin-like 1
ADP-ribosyltransferase (NAD+; poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase)
NP_001609.2

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_001618.3NP_001609.2  poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase 1

    See proteins identical to NP_001609.2

    Status: REVIEWED

    Source sequence(s)
    AK225654, BC037545, DB097441, J03473
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS1554.1
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A0A024R3T8
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P09874
    Related
    ENSP00000355759, OTTHUMP00000035663, ENST00000366794, OTTHUMT00000091519
    Conserved Domains (6) summary
    cd08001
    Location:543645
    WGR_PARP1_like; WGR domain of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 and similar proteins
    PLN03123
    Location:61010
    PLN03123; poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase; Provisional
    cd00027
    Location:392461
    BRCT; Breast Cancer Suppressor Protein (BRCA1), carboxy-terminal domain. The BRCT domain is found within many DNA damage repair and cell cycle checkpoint proteins. The unique diversity of this domain superfamily allows BRCT modules to interact forming homo ...
    cd01437
    Location:6621006
    parp_like; Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (parp) catalytic domain catalyses the covalent attachment of ADP-ribose units from NAD+ to itself and to a limited number of other DNA binding proteins, which decreases their affinity for DNA. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase is a ...
    pfam00645
    Location:1290
    zf-PARP; Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and DNA-Ligase Zn-finger region
    pfam08063
    Location:279332
    PADR1; PADR1 (NUC008) domain

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 106

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000001.11 

    Range
    226360691..226408100
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

Alternate HuRef

Genomic

  1. AC_000133.1 

    Range
    197065678..197113094
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

Alternate CHM1_1.1

Genomic

  1. NC_018912.2 

    Range
    227821256..227868667
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)