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EREG epiregulin [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 2069, updated on 11-Sep-2014
Official Symbol
EREGprovided by HGNC
Official Full Name
epiregulinprovided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:3443
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000124882; HPRD:03638; MIM:602061; Vega:OTTHUMG00000130005
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
VALIDATED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
ER
Summary
Epiregulin is a member of the epidermal growth factor family. Epiregulin can function as a ligand of EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor), as well as a ligand of most members of the ERBB (v-erb-b2 oncogene homolog) family of tyrosine-kinase receptors. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
See EREG in Epigenomics, MapViewer
Location:
4q13.3
Exon count:
5
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
106 current GRCh38 (GCF_000001405.26) 4 NC_000004.12 (74365143..74388760)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 4 NC_000004.11 (75230860..75254477)

Chromosome 4 - NC_000004.12Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (NADP+ dependent) 2-like Neighboring gene epithelial mitogen Neighboring gene amphiregulin Neighboring gene betacellulin

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

NHGRI GWAS Catalog

Description
Genetic variants associated with breast size also influence breast cancer risk.
NHGRI GWA Catalog
Genome-wide association scan of quantitative traits for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder identifies novel associations and confirms candidate gene associations.
NHGRI GWA Catalog
Novel Loci for metabolic networks and multi-tissue expression studies reveal genes for atherosclerosis.
NHGRI GWA Catalog

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Envelope transmembrane glycoprotein gp41 env A synthetic peptide corresponding to the immunosuppressive domain (amino acids 574-592) of HIV-1 gp41 upregulates the expression of epiregulin (EREG) in peptide-treated PBMCs PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

  • Adaptive Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Adaptive Immune System, organism-specific biosystemAdaptive immunity refers to antigen-specific immune response efficiently involved in clearing the pathogens. The adaptive immune system is comprised of B and T lymphocytes that express receptors with...
  • Constitutive PI3K/AKT Signaling in Cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Constitutive PI3K/AKT Signaling in Cancer, organism-specific biosystemClass IA PI3K is a heterodimer of a p85 regulatory subunit (encoded by PIK3R1, PIK3R2 or PIK3R3) and a p110 catalytic subunit (encoded by PIK3CA, PIK3CB or PIK3CD). In the absence of activating signa...
  • DAP12 interactions, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    DAP12 interactions, organism-specific biosystemDNAX activation protein of 12kDa (DAP12) is an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-bearing adapter molecule that transduces activating signals in natural killer (NK) and myeloid cel...
  • DAP12 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    DAP12 signaling, organism-specific biosystemIn response to receptor ligation, the tyrosine residues in DAP12's immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) are phosphorylated by Src family kinases. These phosphotyrosines form the dock...
  • Disease, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Disease, organism-specific biosystemBiological processes are captured in Reactome by identifying the molecules (DNA, RNA, protein, small molecules) involved in them and describing the details of their interactions. From this molecular ...
  • Downstream signal transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Downstream signal transduction, organism-specific biosystemThe role of autophosphorylation sites on PDGF receptors are to provide docking sites for downstream signal transduction molecules which contain SH2 domains. The SH2 domain is a conserved motif of aro...
  • Downstream signaling events of B Cell Receptor (BCR), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Downstream signaling events of B Cell Receptor (BCR), organism-specific biosystemSecond messengers (calcium, diacylglycerol, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, and phosphatidyinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate) trigger signaling pathways: NF-kappaB is activated via protein kinase C beta, RA...
  • Downstream signaling of activated FGFR, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Downstream signaling of activated FGFR, organism-specific biosystemSignaling via FGFRs is mediated via direct recruitment of signaling proteins that bind to tyrosine auto-phosphorylation sites on the activated receptor and via closely linked docking proteins that be...
  • ErbB receptor signaling network, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    ErbB receptor signaling network, organism-specific biosystem
    ErbB receptor signaling network
  • ErbB signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    ErbB signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe ErbB protein family or epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family is a family of four structurally related receptor tyrosine kinases. Insufficient ErbB signaling in humans is associated with ...
  • ErbB signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    ErbB signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) couples binding of extracellular growth factor ligands to intracellular signaling pathways regulating diverse biologic responses, including prolife...
  • ErbB signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    ErbB signaling pathway, conserved biosystemThe ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) couples binding of extracellular growth factor ligands to intracellular signaling pathways regulating diverse biologic responses, including prolife...
  • ErbB4 signaling events, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    ErbB4 signaling events, organism-specific biosystem
    ErbB4 signaling events
  • Fc epsilon receptor (FCERI) signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Fc epsilon receptor (FCERI) signaling, organism-specific biosystemMast cells (MC) are distributed in tissues throughout the human body and have long been recognized as key cells of type I hypersensitivity reactions. They also play important roles in inflammatory an...
  • GAB1 signalosome, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    GAB1 signalosome, organism-specific biosystemGAB1 is recruited to the activated EGFR indirectly, through GRB2. GAB1 acts as an adaptor protein that enables formation of an active PIK3, through recruitment of PIK3 regulatory subunit PIK3R1 (also...
  • GRB2 events in ERBB2 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    GRB2 events in ERBB2 signaling, organism-specific biosystemERBB2:EGFR and ERBB2:ERBB4 can directly recruit GRB2:SOS1 complex through phosphorylated C-tail tyrosines of EGFR (Y1068 and Y1086) and ERBB2 (Y1139) that serve as docking sites for GRB2 (Xie et al. ...
  • Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Immune System, organism-specific biosystemHumans are exposed to millions of potential pathogens daily, through contact, ingestion, and inhalation. Our ability to avoid infection depends on the adaptive immune system and during the first crit...
  • Innate Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Innate Immune System, organism-specific biosystemInnate immunity encompases the nonspecific part of immunity tha are part of an individual's natural biologic makeup
  • NGF signalling via TRKA from the plasma membrane, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    NGF signalling via TRKA from the plasma membrane, organism-specific biosystemTrk receptors signal from the plasma membrane and from intracellular membranes, particularly from early endosomes. Signalling from the plasma membrane is fast but transient; signalling from endosomes...
  • Nuclear signaling by ERBB4, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Nuclear signaling by ERBB4, organism-specific biosystemBesides signaling as a transmembrane receptor, ligand activated homodimers of ERBB4 JM-A isoforms (ERBB4 JM-A CYT1 and ERBB4 JM-A CYT2) undergo proteolytic cleavage by ADAM17 (TACE) in the juxtamembr...
  • PI-3K cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    PI-3K cascade, organism-specific biosystemThe ability of growth factors to protect from apoptosis is primarily due to the activation of the AKT survival pathway. P-I-3-kinase dependent activation of PDK leads to the activation of AKT which i...
  • PI3K events in ERBB2 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    PI3K events in ERBB2 signaling, organism-specific biosystemERBB2:ERBB3 and ERBB2:ERBB4cyt1 heterodimers activate PI3K signaling by direct binding of PI3K regulatory subunit p85 (Yang et al. 2007, Cohen et al. 1996, Kaushansky et al. 2008) to phosphorylated t...
  • PI3K events in ERBB4 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    PI3K events in ERBB4 signaling, organism-specific biosystemThe CYT1 isoforms of ERBB4 possess a C-tail tyrosine residue that, upon trans-autophosphorylation, serves as a docking site for the p85 alpha subunit of PI3K - PIK3R1 (Kaushansky et al. 2008, Cohen e...
  • PI3K/AKT Signaling in Cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    PI3K/AKT Signaling in Cancer, organism-specific biosystemThis pathway describes how normal signaling by PI3K/AKT, presented in the contained module 'PIP3 Activates AKT Signaling' and recently reviewed by Manning and Cantley in 2007, is perturbed in cancer,...
  • PI3K/AKT activation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    PI3K/AKT activation, organism-specific biosystemPI3K/AKT signalling is a major regulator of neuron survival. It blocks cell death by both impinging on the cytoplasmic cell death machinery and by regulating the expression of genes involved in cell...
  • PIP3 activates AKT signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    PIP3 activates AKT signaling, organism-specific biosystemSignaling by AKT is one of the key outcomes of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) activation. AKT is activated by the cellular second messenger PIP3, a phospholipid that is generated by PI3K. In ustimula...
  • Role of LAT2/NTAL/LAB on calcium mobilization, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Role of LAT2/NTAL/LAB on calcium mobilization, organism-specific biosystemThe lipid raft resident adaptor molecules LAT1 and Non-T cell activation linker (NTAL), also known as linker for activation of B cells (LAB)/LAT2 are known participants in the regulation of mast cell...
  • SHC1 events in ERBB2 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    SHC1 events in ERBB2 signaling, organism-specific biosystemAll ERBB2 heterodimers, ERBB2:EGFR, ERBB2:ERBB3 and ERBB2:ERBB4, are able to activate RAF/MAP kinase cascade by recruiting SHC1 (Pinkas-Kramarski et al. 1996, Sepp-Lorenzino et al. 1996) to phosphory...
  • SHC1 events in ERBB4 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    SHC1 events in ERBB4 signaling, organism-specific biosystemAll splicing isoforms of ERBB4 possess two tyrosine residues in the C-tail that serve as docking sites for SHC1 (Kaushansky et al. 2008, Pinkas-Kramarski et al. 1996, Cohen et al. 1996). Once bound t...
  • Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystemSignal transduction is a process in which extracellular signals elicit changes in cell state and activity. Transmembrane receptors sense changes in the cellular environment by binding ligands, such a...
  • Signaling by EGFR, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by EGFR, organism-specific biosystemThe epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is one member of the ERBB family of transmembrane glycoprotein tyrosine receptor kinases (RTK). Binding of EGFR to its ligands induces conformational chang...
  • Signaling by EGFR in Cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by EGFR in Cancer, organism-specific biosystemThe pathway "Signaling by EGFR in Cancer" shows "Signaling by constitutively active EGFR" in parallel with "Signaling by EGFR". This allows users to compare signaling by constitutively active EGFR ca...
  • Signaling by ERBB2, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by ERBB2, organism-specific biosystemERBB2, also known as HER2 or NEU, is a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) belonging to the EGFR family. ERBB2 possesses an extracellular domain that does not bind any known ligand, contrary to other EGFR...
  • Signaling by ERBB4, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by ERBB4, organism-specific biosystemERBB4, also known as HER4, belongs to the ERBB family of receptors, which also includes ERBB1 (EGFR i.e. HER1), ERBB2 (HER2 i.e. NEU) and ERBB3 (HER3). Similar to EGFR, ERBB4 has an extracellular lig...
  • Signaling by FGFR, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by FGFR, organism-specific biosystemThe 22 members of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family of growth factors mediate their cellular responses by binding to and activating the different isoforms encoded by the four receptor tyrosin...
  • Signaling by FGFR in disease, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by FGFR in disease, organism-specific biosystemThe pathway 'Signaling by FGFR in disease' shows 'Signaling by FGFR mutants' in parallel with the wild-type pathway 'Signaling by FGFR', allowing users to compare disease and normal events. FGFR mut...
  • Signaling by PDGF, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by PDGF, organism-specific biosystemPlatelet-derived Growth Factor (PDGF) is a potent stimulator of growth and motility of connective tissue cells such as fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells as well as other cells such as capillary end...
  • Signaling by SCF-KIT, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by SCF-KIT, organism-specific biosystemStem cell factor (SCF) is a growth factor with membrane bound and soluble forms. It is expressed by fibroblasts and endothelial cells throughout the body, promoting proliferation, migration, survival...
  • Signaling by the B Cell Receptor (BCR), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by the B Cell Receptor (BCR), organism-specific biosystemMature B cells express IgM and IgD immunoglobulins which are complexed at the plasma membrane with Ig-alpha (CD79A, MB-1) and Ig-beta (CD79B, B29) to form the B cell receptor (BCR) (Fu et al. 1974, F...
  • Signalling by NGF, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signalling by NGF, organism-specific biosystemNeurotrophins (NGF, BDNF, NT-3, NT-4/5) play pivotal roles in survival, differentiation, and plasticity of neurons in the peripheral and central nervous system. They are produced, and secreted in mi...
Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

Markers

Homology

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
epidermal growth factor receptor binding ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
epidermal growth factor receptor binding TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
growth factor activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
Fc-epsilon receptor signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
anatomical structure morphogenesis TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
angiogenesis IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cell-cell signaling IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cytokine-mediated signaling pathway IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
female meiotic division ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
innate immune response TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
keratinocyte differentiation TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
keratinocyte proliferation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
luteinizing hormone signaling pathway ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
mRNA transcription IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of cell proliferation ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
negative regulation of epithelial cell proliferation TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of smooth muscle cell differentiation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of transcription, DNA-templated IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
neurotrophin TRK receptor signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
oocyte maturation ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
organ morphogenesis TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
ovarian cumulus expansion ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
ovulation ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
phosphatidylinositol-mediated signaling TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
positive regulation of DNA replication IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of DNA replication ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of cell division IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of cell proliferation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of cell proliferation ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of cytokine biosynthetic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of cytokine production ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of epidermal growth factor-activated receptor activity ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of fibroblast proliferation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of innate immune response ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of interleukin-6 biosynthetic process ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of mitosis ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of phosphorylation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of phosphorylation ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of protein kinase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
PubMed 
primary follicle stage ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
response to peptide hormone IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
wound healing TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
extracellular region TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
extracellular space IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
integral component of plasma membrane TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
Preferred Names
proepiregulin
Names
proepiregulin

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_001432.2NP_001423.1  proepiregulin preproprotein

    See proteins identical to NP_001423.1

    Status: VALIDATED

    Source sequence(s)
    AC021180, D30783
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS3564.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    O14944
    Related
    ENSP00000244869, OTTHUMP00000160472, ENST00000244869, OTTHUMT00000252276
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    PHA03099
    Location:64148
    PHA03099; epidermal growth factor-like protein (EGF-like protein); Provisional

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 106

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000004.12 

    Range
    74365143..74388760
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

Alternate HuRef

Genomic

  1. AC_000136.1 

    Range
    71041824..71065447
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

Alternate CHM1_1.1

Genomic

  1. NC_018915.2 

    Range
    75266712..75290347
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)