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    APOA4 apolipoprotein A4 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

    Gene ID: 337, updated on 23-Aug-2016
    Official Symbol
    APOA4provided by HGNC
    Official Full Name
    apolipoprotein A4provided by HGNC
    Primary source
    HGNC:HGNC:602
    See related
    Ensembl:ENSG00000110244 HPRD:00130; MIM:107690; Vega:OTTHUMG00000046110
    Gene type
    protein coding
    RefSeq status
    REVIEWED
    Organism
    Homo sapiens
    Lineage
    Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
    Summary
    Apoliprotein (apo) A-IV gene contains 3 exons separated by two introns. A sequence polymorphism has been identified in the 3'UTR of the third exon. The primary translation product is a 396-residue preprotein which after proteolytic processing is secreted its primary site of synthesis, the intestine, in association with chylomicron particles. Although its precise function is not known, apo A-IV is a potent activator of lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase in vitro. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
    Orthologs
    Location:
    11q23
    Exon count:
    3
    Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
    108 current GRCh38.p7 (GCF_000001405.33) 11 NC_000011.10 (116820702..116823295, complement)
    105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 11 NC_000011.9 (116691418..116694011, complement)

    Chromosome 11 - NC_000011.10Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene ZPR1 zinc finger Neighboring gene apolipoprotein A5 Neighboring gene apolipoprotein C3 Neighboring gene APOA1 antisense RNA Neighboring gene apolipoprotein A1

    GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

    NHGRI GWAS Catalog

    Description
    A genome wide association study identifies common variants associated with lipid levels in the Chinese population.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog
    A null mutation in human APOC3 confers a favorable plasma lipid profile and apparent cardioprotection.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog
    Biological, clinical and population relevance of 95 loci for blood lipids.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog
    Common variants at 30 loci contribute to polygenic dyslipidemia.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog
    Genetic variants influencing circulating lipid levels and risk of coronary artery disease.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog
    Genome-wide association study identifies multiple loci influencing human serum metabolite levels.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog
    Genome-wide association study of hematological and biochemical traits in a Japanese population.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog
    Genomic study in Mexicans identifies a new locus for triglycerides and refines European lipid loci.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog
    Large-scale association analysis identifies 13 new susceptibility loci for coronary artery disease.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog
    Large-scale genome-wide association studies in East Asians identify new genetic loci influencing metabolic traits.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog
    Loci influencing lipid levels and coronary heart disease risk in 16 European population cohorts.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog
    Newly identified loci that influence lipid concentrations and risk of coronary artery disease.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog
    Novel Loci for metabolic networks and multi-tissue expression studies reveal genes for atherosclerosis.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog
    Six new loci associated with blood low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol or triglycerides in humans.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog
    • Amyloid fiber formation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Amyloid fiber formation, organism-specific biosystemAmyloid is a term used to describe deposits of fibrillar proteins, typically extracellular. The abnormal accumulation of amyloid, amyloidosis, is a term associated with tissue damage caused by amyloi...
    • Chylomicron-mediated lipid transport, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Chylomicron-mediated lipid transport, organism-specific biosystemChylomicrons transport triacylglycerol, phospholipid, and cholesterol derived from dietary lipid from the small intestine to other tissues of the body. Each chylomicron assembles around a single mole...
    • Fat digestion and absorption, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Fat digestion and absorption, organism-specific biosystemFat is an important energy source from food. More than 95% of dietary fat is long-chain triacylglycerols (TAG), the remaining being phospholipids (4.5%) and sterols. In the small intestine lumen, die...
    • Fat digestion and absorption, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Fat digestion and absorption, conserved biosystemFat is an important energy source from food. More than 95% of dietary fat is long-chain triacylglycerols (TAG), the remaining being phospholipids (4.5%) and sterols. In the small intestine lumen, die...
    • Lipid digestion, mobilization, and transport, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Lipid digestion, mobilization, and transport, organism-specific biosystemProcesses annotated here include the digestion of dietary lipids, sterol uptake, the formation and turnover of lipoproteins (chylomicrons, VLDL, LDL, and HDL), and the mobilization of fatty acids thr...
    • Lipoprotein metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Lipoprotein metabolism, organism-specific biosystemBecause of their hydrophobicity, lipids are found in the extracellular spaces of the human body primarily in the form of lipoprotein complexes. Chylomicrons form in the small intestine and transport ...
    • Metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Metabolism, organism-specific biosystemMetabolic processes in human cells generate energy through the oxidation of molecules consumed in the diet and mediate the synthesis of diverse essential molecules not taken in the diet as well as th...
    • Metabolism of fat-soluble vitamins, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Metabolism of fat-soluble vitamins, organism-specific biosystemVitamins A, D, E, and K are classified as fat-soluble. Metabolic pathways by which dietary precursors of vitamins A (Harrison 2005) and K(Shearer et al. 2012) are converted to active forms, and by wh...
    • Metabolism of lipids and lipoproteins, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Metabolism of lipids and lipoproteins, organism-specific biosystemLipids are hydrophobic but otherwise chemically diverse molecules that play a wide variety of roles in human biology. They include ketone bodies, fatty acids, triacylglycerols, phospholipids and sphi...
    • Metabolism of proteins, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Metabolism of proteins, organism-specific biosystemProtein metabolism comprises the pathways of translation, post-translational modification and protein folding.
    • Metabolism of vitamins and cofactors, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Metabolism of vitamins and cofactors, organism-specific biosystemVitamins are a diverse group of organic compounds, classified according to their solubility, either fat-soluble or water-soluble, that are either not synthesized or synthesized only in limited amount...
    • Retinoid metabolism and transport, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Retinoid metabolism and transport, organism-specific biosystemVitamin A (all-trans-retinol) must be taken up, either as carotenes from plants, or as retinyl esters from animal food. The most prominent carotenes are alpha-carotene, lycopene, lutein, beta-cryptox...
    • Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystemSignal transduction is a process in which extracellular signals elicit changes in cell state and activity. Transmembrane receptors sense changes in the cellular environment by binding ligands, such a...
    • Statin Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Statin Pathway, organism-specific biosystemStatins inhibit endogenous cholesterol production by competitive inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR), the enzyme that catalyzes conversion of HMG-CoA to mevalonate, an early rate-limiting step in...
    • Visual phototransduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Visual phototransduction, organism-specific biosystemVisual phototransduction is the process by which photon absorption by visual pigment molecules in photoreceptor cells is converted to an electrical cellular response. The events in this process are p...
    • Vitamin digestion and absorption, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Vitamin digestion and absorption, organism-specific biosystemVitamins are a diverse and chemically unrelated group of organic substances that share a common feature of being essential for normal health and well-being. They catalyze numerous biochemical reactio...
    • Vitamin digestion and absorption, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Vitamin digestion and absorption, conserved biosystemVitamins are a diverse and chemically unrelated group of organic substances that share a common feature of being essential for normal health and well-being. They catalyze numerous biochemical reactio...
    Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

    Markers

    Homology

    Clone Names

    • MGC142154, MGC142156

    Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

    Function Evidence Code Pubs
    antioxidant activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    cholesterol binding IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    cholesterol transporter activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    copper ion binding IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    lipid binding IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    lipid transporter activity TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    phosphatidylcholine binding IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    phosphatidylcholine-sterol O-acyltransferase activator activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    protein binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    protein homodimerization activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    Process Evidence Code Pubs
    cellular protein metabolic process TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    cholesterol biosynthetic process IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    cholesterol efflux IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    cholesterol homeostasis IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    cholesterol metabolic process IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    chylomicron assembly TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    chylomicron remodeling IC
    Inferred by Curator
    more info
    PubMed 
    high-density lipoprotein particle assembly IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    high-density lipoprotein particle remodeling IC
    Inferred by Curator
    more info
    PubMed 
    hydrogen peroxide catabolic process IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    innate immune response in mucosa IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    leukocyte cell-cell adhesion IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    lipid homeostasis IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    lipid transport IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    lipoprotein biosynthetic process TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    lipoprotein metabolic process TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    multicellular organism lipid catabolic process IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of plasma lipoprotein particle oxidation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    neuron projection regeneration IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    phosphatidylcholine metabolic process IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    phospholipid efflux IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of cholesterol esterification IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of fatty acid biosynthetic process IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of lipoprotein lipase activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of triglyceride catabolic process IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    protein-lipid complex assembly IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    regulation of cholesterol transport IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    regulation of intestinal cholesterol absorption IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    removal of superoxide radicals IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    response to lipid hydroperoxide IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    response to stilbenoid IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    retinoid metabolic process TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    reverse cholesterol transport IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    triglyceride homeostasis IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    very-low-density lipoprotein particle remodeling IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    Component Evidence Code Pubs
    blood microparticle IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    colocalizes_with cell surface IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    chylomicron IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    cytosol TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    early endosome TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    endoplasmic reticulum lumen TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    extracellular exosome IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    extracellular region NAS
    Non-traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    extracellular region TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    extracellular space IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    high-density lipoprotein particle IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    very-low-density lipoprotein particle IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    Preferred Names
    apolipoprotein A-IV
    Names
    apo-AIV
    apoA-IV

    RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

    These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

    These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

    Genomic

    1. NG_012044.1 RefSeqGene

      Range
      5001..7594
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. NM_000482.3NP_000473.2  apolipoprotein A-IV precursor

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_000473.2

      Status: REVIEWED

      Source sequence(s)
      AL531739, AP006216
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS31681.1
      Related
      ENSP00000350425, OTTHUMP00000043267, ENST00000357780, OTTHUMT00000106279
      Conserved Domains (3) summary
      pfam01442
      Location:84245
      Apolipoprotein; Apolipoprotein A1/A4/E domain
      pfam06386
      Location:171318
      GvpL_GvpF; Gas vesicle synthesis protein GvpL/GvpF
      cl02073
      Location:76219
      DUF3422; Protein of unknown function (DUF3422)

    RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 108 details...

    The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

    Reference GRCh38.p7 Primary Assembly

    Genomic

    1. NC_000011.10 Reference GRCh38.p7 Primary Assembly

      Range
      116820702..116823295 complement
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    Alternate CHM1_1.1

    Genomic

    1. NC_018922.2 Alternate CHM1_1.1

      Range
      116576178..116578767 complement
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)