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    AKR1C3 aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C3 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

    Gene ID: 8644, updated on 22-Aug-2016
    Official Symbol
    AKR1C3provided by HGNC
    Official Full Name
    aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C3provided by HGNC
    Primary source
    HGNC:HGNC:386
    See related
    Ensembl:ENSG00000196139 HPRD:04911; MIM:603966; Vega:OTTHUMG00000017585
    Gene type
    protein coding
    RefSeq status
    REVIEWED
    Organism
    Homo sapiens
    Lineage
    Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
    Also known as
    DD3; DDX; PGFS; HAKRB; HAKRe; HA1753; HSD17B5; hluPGFS
    Summary
    This gene encodes a member of the aldo/keto reductase superfamily, which consists of more than 40 known enzymes and proteins. These enzymes catalyze the conversion of aldehydes and ketones to their corresponding alcohols by utilizing NADH and/or NADPH as cofactors. The enzymes display overlapping but distinct substrate specificity. This enzyme catalyzes the reduction of prostaglandin (PG) D2, PGH2 and phenanthrenequinone (PQ), and the oxidation of 9alpha,11beta-PGF2 to PGD2. It may play an important role in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases such as asthma, and may also have a role in controlling cell growth and/or differentiation. This gene shares high sequence identity with three other gene members and is clustered with those three genes at chromosome 10p15-p14. Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]
    Orthologs
    Location:
    10p15-p14
    Exon count:
    10
    Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
    108 current GRCh38.p7 (GCF_000001405.33) 10 NC_000010.11 (5048766..5107686)
    105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 10 NC_000010.10 (5090958..5149878)

    Chromosome 10 - NC_000010.11Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C1 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC101928051 Neighboring gene aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C2 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC107984198 Neighboring gene aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C8, pseudogene Neighboring gene aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C4 Neighboring gene ADP ribosylation factor like GTPase 4A pseudogene 3

    GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

    NHGRI GWAS Catalog

    Description
    Human metabolic individuality in biomedical and pharmaceutical research.
    NHGRI GWA Catalog
    • Arachidonic acid metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Arachidonic acid metabolism, organism-specific biosystem
      Arachidonic acid metabolism
    • Arachidonic acid metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Arachidonic acid metabolism, organism-specific biosystemEicosanoids, oxygenated, 20-carbon fatty acids, are autocrine and paracrine signaling molecules that modulate physiological processes including pain, fever, inflammation, blood clot formation, smooth...
    • Arachidonic acid metabolism, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Arachidonic acid metabolism, conserved biosystem
      Arachidonic acid metabolism
    • Benzo(a)pyrene metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      Benzo(a)pyrene metabolism, organism-specific biosystem
      Benzo(a)pyrene metabolism
    • Bile acid and bile salt metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Bile acid and bile salt metabolism, organism-specific biosystemIn a healthy adult human, about 500 mg of cholesterol is converted to bile salts daily. Newly synthesized bile salts are secreted into the bile and released into the small intestine where they emulsi...
    • Metabolic pathways, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Metabolic pathways, organism-specific biosystem
      Metabolic pathways
    • Metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Metabolism, organism-specific biosystemMetabolic processes in human cells generate energy through the oxidation of molecules consumed in the diet and mediate the synthesis of diverse essential molecules not taken in the diet as well as th...
    • Metabolism of fat-soluble vitamins, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Metabolism of fat-soluble vitamins, organism-specific biosystemVitamins A, D, E, and K are classified as fat-soluble. Metabolic pathways by which dietary precursors of vitamins A (Harrison 2005) and K(Shearer et al. 2012) are converted to active forms, and by wh...
    • Metabolism of lipids and lipoproteins, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Metabolism of lipids and lipoproteins, organism-specific biosystemLipids are hydrophobic but otherwise chemically diverse molecules that play a wide variety of roles in human biology. They include ketone bodies, fatty acids, triacylglycerols, phospholipids and sphi...
    • Metabolism of vitamins and cofactors, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Metabolism of vitamins and cofactors, organism-specific biosystemVitamins are a diverse group of organic compounds, classified according to their solubility, either fat-soluble or water-soluble, that are either not synthesized or synthesized only in limited amount...
    • Ovarian steroidogenesis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Ovarian steroidogenesis, organism-specific biosystemThe ovarian steroids, 17-beta estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4), are critical for normal uterine function, establishment and maintenance of pregnancy, and mammary gland development. Furthermore, t...
    • Ovarian steroidogenesis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Ovarian steroidogenesis, conserved biosystemThe ovarian steroids, 17-beta estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4), are critical for normal uterine function, establishment and maintenance of pregnancy, and mammary gland development. Furthermore, t...
    • RA biosynthesis pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      RA biosynthesis pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe major activated retinoid, all-trans-retinoic acid (atRA) is produced by the dehydrogenation of all-trans-retinol (atROL) by members of the short chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) and aldehyde d...
    • Retinoid metabolism and transport, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Retinoid metabolism and transport, organism-specific biosystemVitamin A (all-trans-retinol) must be taken up, either as carotenes from plants, or as retinyl esters from animal food. The most prominent carotenes are alpha-carotene, lycopene, lutein, beta-cryptox...
    • Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystemSignal transduction is a process in which extracellular signals elicit changes in cell state and activity. Transmembrane receptors sense changes in the cellular environment by binding ligands, such a...
    • Signaling by Retinoic Acid, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Signaling by Retinoic Acid, organism-specific biosystemVitamin A (retinol) can be metabolised into active retinoid metabolites that function either as a chromophore in vision or in regulating gene expression transcriptionally and post-transcriptionally. ...
    • Steroid hormone biosynthesis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
      Steroid hormone biosynthesis, organism-specific biosystemSteroid hormones derived from cholesterol are a class of biologically active compounds in vertebrates. The cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme CYP11A1 catalyzes conversion of cholesterol, a C27 co...
    • Steroid hormone biosynthesis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
      Steroid hormone biosynthesis, conserved biosystemSteroid hormones derived from cholesterol are a class of biologically active compounds in vertebrates. The cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme CYP11A1 catalyzes conversion of cholesterol, a C27 co...
    • Synthesis of Prostaglandins (PG) and Thromboxanes (TX), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Synthesis of Prostaglandins (PG) and Thromboxanes (TX), organism-specific biosystemThe bioactive prostaglandin (PG) signalling molecules, including PGA2, PGE2, PGF2a, and PGI2 (prostacyclin) are synthesised from arachidonic acid and its products by various prostaglandin synthase ty...
    • Synthesis of bile acids and bile salts, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Synthesis of bile acids and bile salts, organism-specific biosystemIn a healthy adult human, about 500 mg of cholesterol is converted to bile salts daily (Russell 2003). The major pathway for bile salt synthesis in the liver begins with the conversion of cholesterol...
    • Synthesis of bile acids and bile salts via 24-hydroxycholesterol, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Synthesis of bile acids and bile salts via 24-hydroxycholesterol, organism-specific biosystemIn the body, 24-hydroxycholesterol is synthesized in the brain, exported to the liver, and converted there to bile acids and bile salts. This pathway is only a minor source of bile acids and bile sal...
    • Synthesis of bile acids and bile salts via 27-hydroxycholesterol, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Synthesis of bile acids and bile salts via 27-hydroxycholesterol, organism-specific biosystemIn the body, 27-hydroxycholesterol is synthesized in multiple tissues, exported to the liver, and converted there to bile acids and bile salts. This pathway is only a minor source of bile acids and b...
    • Synthesis of bile acids and bile salts via 7alpha-hydroxycholesterol, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Synthesis of bile acids and bile salts via 7alpha-hydroxycholesterol, organism-specific biosystemIn the liver, synthesis of bile acids and bile salts is initiated with the conversion of cholesterol to 7alpha-hydroxycholesterol and of 7alpha-hydroxycholesterol to 4-cholesten-7alpha-ol-3-one. The ...
    • Visual phototransduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
      Visual phototransduction, organism-specific biosystemVisual phototransduction is the process by which photon absorption by visual pigment molecules in photoreceptor cells is converted to an electrical cellular response. The events in this process are p...
    • allopregnanolone biosynthesis, organism-specific biosystem (from BIOCYC)
      allopregnanolone biosynthesis, organism-specific biosystemGeneral Background : 3-BETA-HYDROXY-5-ALPHA-PREGNANE-20-ONE is a neuroactive steroid which is a steroid that is able to regulate neural functions. It is derived from : PROGESTERONE and is synthesiz...
    • allopregnanolone biosynthesis, conserved biosystem (from BIOCYC)
      allopregnanolone biosynthesis, conserved biosystemGeneral Background |FRAME: 3-BETA-HYDROXY-5-ALPHA-PREGNANE-20-ONE Allopregnanolone| is a neuroactive steroid which is a steroid that is able to regulate neural functions. It is derived from |FRAME:...
    • androgen biosynthesis, organism-specific biosystem (from BIOCYC)
      androgen biosynthesis, organism-specific biosystemThis pathway describes the conversion of the inactive C21 steroid hormone precursor pregnenolone to the androgens: androstenedione, testosterone and 17beta-hydroxy-5alpha-androstan-3-one. Androstened...
    • androgen biosynthesis, conserved biosystem (from BIOCYC)
      androgen biosynthesis, conserved biosystemThis pathway describes the conversion of the inactive C21 steroid hormone precursor |FRAME: PREGNENOLONE| to the androgens: |FRAME: ANDROST4ENE androstenedione|, |FRAME: TESTOSTERONE| and |FRAME: 17-...
    • metapathway biotransformation, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
      metapathway biotransformation, organism-specific biosystem
      metapathway biotransformation
    • superpathway of steroid hormone biosynthesis, organism-specific biosystem (from BIOCYC)
      superpathway of steroid hormone biosynthesis, organism-specific biosystemAs their name implies, : Steroid-Hormones "steroid hormones" are steroids that act as hormones. Steroid hormones are divided into five groups based on the receptors to which they bind: : Glucocortico...
    • superpathway of steroid hormone biosynthesis, conserved biosystem (from BIOCYC)
      superpathway of steroid hormone biosynthesis, conserved biosystemAs their name implies, |FRAME: Steroid-Hormones "steroid hormones"| are steroids that act as hormones. Steroid hormones are divided into five groups based on the receptors to which they bind: |FRAME:...
    Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

    Markers

    Homology

    Clone Names

    • KIAA0119

    Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

    Function Evidence Code Pubs
    15-hydroxyprostaglandin-D dehydrogenase (NADP+) activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    NADP-retinol dehydrogenase activity TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    alditol:NADP+ 1-oxidoreductase activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    aldo-keto reductase (NADP) activity TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    androsterone dehydrogenase activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    delta4-3-oxosteroid 5beta-reductase activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    dihydrotestosterone 17-beta-dehydrogenase activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    geranylgeranyl reductase activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    indanol dehydrogenase activity IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    ketoreductase activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    ketosteroid monooxygenase activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    oxidoreductase activity, acting on NAD(P)H, quinone or similar compound as acceptor IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    phenanthrene 9,10-monooxygenase activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    prostaglandin D2 11-ketoreductase activity TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    prostaglandin H2 endoperoxidase reductase activity TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    prostaglandin-F synthase activity IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    retinal dehydrogenase activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    retinol dehydrogenase activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    testosterone 17-beta-dehydrogenase (NADP+) activity IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    testosterone dehydrogenase (NAD+) activity IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    trans-1,2-dihydrobenzene-1,2-diol dehydrogenase activity IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    Process Evidence Code Pubs
    G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    cellular response to cadmium ion IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    cellular response to calcium ion IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    cellular response to corticosteroid stimulus IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    cellular response to jasmonic acid stimulus IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    cellular response to prostaglandin D stimulus IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    cellular response to prostaglandin stimulus IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    cellular response to reactive oxygen species IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    cellular response to starvation IEP
    Inferred from Expression Pattern
    more info
    PubMed 
    cyclooxygenase pathway TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    daunorubicin metabolic process IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    doxorubicin metabolic process IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    farnesol catabolic process IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    keratinocyte differentiation IEP
    Inferred from Expression Pattern
    more info
    PubMed 
    male gonad development IEP
    Inferred from Expression Pattern
    more info
    PubMed 
    multicellular organismal macromolecule metabolic process IEP
    Inferred from Expression Pattern
    more info
    PubMed 
    negative regulation of retinoic acid biosynthetic process IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    oxidation-reduction process IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    oxidation-reduction process TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of cell death IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of cell proliferation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of cell proliferation IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of endothelial cell apoptotic process IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of protein kinase B signaling IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    positive regulation of reactive oxygen species metabolic process IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    progesterone metabolic process IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    prostaglandin metabolic process IEP
    Inferred from Expression Pattern
    more info
    PubMed 
    prostaglandin metabolic process TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    protein import into nucleus, translocation IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    regulation of retinoic acid receptor signaling pathway IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    regulation of testosterone biosynthetic process IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    renal absorption NAS
    Non-traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    response to nutrient IEP
    Inferred from Expression Pattern
    more info
    PubMed 
    retinal metabolic process IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    retinoid metabolic process TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    retinol metabolic process IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    steroid metabolic process IEP
    Inferred from Expression Pattern
    more info
    PubMed 
    testosterone biosynthetic process IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    Component Evidence Code Pubs
    cytoplasm IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    cytosol TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    extracellular exosome IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    intracellular IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
     
    nucleus IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    Preferred Names
    aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C3
    Names
    3-alpha hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, type II
    3-alpha-HSD type II, brain
    chlordecone reductase homolog HAKRb
    dihydrodiol dehydrogenase 3
    dihydrodiol dehydrogenase X
    indanol dehydrogenase
    prostaglandin F synthase
    testosterone 17-beta-dehydrogenase 5
    trans-1,2-dihydrobenzene-1,2-diol dehydrogenase
    type IIb 3-alpha hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase
    NP_001240837.1
    NP_001240838.1
    NP_003730.4

    RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

    These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

    These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

    Genomic

    1. NG_047094.1 RefSeqGene

      Range
      5001..63921
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. NM_001253908.1NP_001240837.1  aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C3 isoform 2

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (2) differs in the 5' UTR and coding sequence compared to variant 1. The resulting isoform (2) is the same length as isoform 1 but differs by 1 aa in the N-terminus.
      Source sequence(s)
      BC019230, BG547635, H79159
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS73062.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P42330
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      A0A0A0MSS8
      Related
      ENSP00000401327, ENST00000439082
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      COG0656
      Location:9305
      ARA1; Aldo/keto reductase, related to diketogulonate reductase [Secondary metabolites biosynthesis, transport and catabolism]
      COG0667
      Location:17297
      Tas; Predicted oxidoreductase (related to aryl-alcohol dehydrogenase) [General function prediction only]
    2. NM_001253909.1NP_001240838.1  aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C3 isoform 3

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001240838.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (3) lacks several exons at its 3' end, which extends into an intron compared to variant 1. The resulting isoform (3) has a shorter and distinct C-terminus compared to isoform 1.
      Source sequence(s)
      AK296701, AL391427, AV761799
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      B4DKT3
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      COG0656
      Location:8134
      ARA1; Aldo/keto reductase, related to diketogulonate reductase [Secondary metabolites biosynthesis, transport and catabolism]
      COG0667
      Location:17119
      Tas; Predicted oxidoreductase (related to aryl-alcohol dehydrogenase) [General function prediction only]
    3. NM_003739.5NP_003730.4  aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C3 isoform 1

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_003730.4

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (1) represents the longest transcript and encodes one of the larger isoforms (1).
      Source sequence(s)
      AV761799, BC019230
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS7063.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P42330
      Related
      ENSP00000369927, OTTHUMP00000018996, ENST00000380554, OTTHUMT00000046533
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      COG0656
      Location:8305
      ARA1; Aldo/keto reductase, related to diketogulonate reductase [Secondary metabolites biosynthesis, transport and catabolism]
      COG0667
      Location:17297
      Tas; Predicted oxidoreductase (related to aryl-alcohol dehydrogenase) [General function prediction only]

    RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 108 details...

    The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

    Reference GRCh38.p7 Primary Assembly

    Genomic

    1. NC_000010.11 Reference GRCh38.p7 Primary Assembly

      Range
      5048766..5107686
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    Alternate CHM1_1.1

    Genomic

    1. NC_018921.2 Alternate CHM1_1.1

      Range
      5091312..5150193
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)