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CYCS cytochrome c, somatic [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 54205, updated on 26-Nov-2014
Official Symbol
CYCSprovided by HGNC
Official Full Name
cytochrome c, somaticprovided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:19986
See related
HPRD:00479; MIM:123970
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
CYC; HCS; THC4
Summary
This gene encodes a small heme protein that functions as a central component of the electron transport chain in mitochondria. The encoded protein associates with the inner membrane of the mitochondrion where it accepts electrons from cytochrome b and transfers them to the cytochrome oxidase complex. This protein is also involved in initiation of apoptosis. Mutations in this gene are associated with autosomal dominant nonsyndromic thrombocytopenia. Numerous processed pseudogenes of this gene are found throughout the human genome.[provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]
See CYCS in Epigenomics, MapViewer
Location:
7p15.3
Exon count:
3
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
106 current GRCh38 (GCF_000001405.26) 7 NC_000007.14 (25118651..25125361, complement)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 7 NC_000007.13 (25158270..25164980, complement)

Chromosome 7 - NC_000007.14Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene deafness, autosomal dominant 5 Neighboring gene oxysterol binding protein-like 3 Neighboring gene small nuclear ribonucleoprotein polypeptide C pseudogene 19 Neighboring gene chromosome 7 open reading frame 31 Neighboring gene ribosomal protein L7a pseudogene 41 Neighboring gene neuropeptide VF precursor

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

Associated conditions

Description Tests
Thrombocytopenia 4
MedGen: C2677608 OMIM: 612004 GeneReviews: Not available
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NHGRI GWAS Catalog

Description
Genome-wide association study of the rate of cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease.
NHGRI GWA Catalog

Replication interactions

Interaction Pubs
Knockdown of cytochrome c, somatic (CYCS) by siRNA inhibits HIV-1 replication in HeLa P4/R5 cells PubMed

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 env PDGF protects neurons from gp120-induced cytotoxicity through an increased phosphorylation of both GSK-3beta and Bad, the downregulation of the proapoptotic protein Bax, and inhibition of gp120-induced release of mitochondrial cytochrome C PubMed
env Apoptosis induced by HIV-1 gp120/gp41 is involved in the translocation of cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) from mitochondria to an extra-mitochondrial localization and in the dissipation of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential PubMed
env Treatment of cerebrocortical cultures with HIV-1 gp120 results in increased caspase-3 proteolytic activity, mitochondrial release of cytochrome c, and neuronal apoptosis PubMed
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp160, precursor env Treatment of CD4+ cells with HIV-1 gp160 causes intracellular calcium increase followed by the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria; association of BAD with Bcl-xL is observed, and a portion of BAD is dephosphorylated after gp160 induction PubMed
Nef nef eEF1A/Nef complexes contain tRNAs and block stress-induced apoptosis in monocyte-derived macrophages through tRNA binding to cytochrome c PubMed
Tat tat HIV-1 Tat induces apoptosis of human blood-retinal barrier-associated cells by downregulation of BCL2 and upregulation of BAK, BAX, and cytochrome c in a dose-dependent manner PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat-induced PARP cleavage during mitotic arrest occurs downstream of Tat-induced cytochrome c release during mitotic arrest in CD4+ T-lymphocytes PubMed
tat FasL-induced release of cytochrome c and activation of caspase-9 are inhibited in HIV-1 Tat101-expressing Jurkat cells due to high stability of the mitochondrial inner membrane electrochemical potential PubMed
tat Both HIV-1 Tat 47-59 and FITC-labeled Tat 47-59 peptides upregulate gene expression of cytochrome c, somatic (CYCS) in U-937 macrophages PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat (specifically, amino acids 38-72), enhances tubulin polymerization and triggers the mitochondrial pathway to induce T cell apoptosis as shown in vitro by the release of cytochrome c from isolated mitochondria PubMed
Vpr vpr HIV-1 Vpr induces downregulation of the Bcl-xl protein, upregulation of the Bax expression, and the cytochrome c release from the mitochondria in multidrug-resistant human colorectal cancer cells PubMed
vpr Overproduction of EEF2 blocks HIV-1 Vpr-induced cell death both in fission yeast and human cells, suppresses caspase 9 and caspase 3-mediated apoptosis induced by Vpr, and reduces cytochrome c release induced by Vpr PubMed
retropepsin gag-pol HIV-1 protease directly cleaves and activates procaspase 8 in T cells, which is associated with cleavage of BID, mitochondrial release of cytochrome c, activation of the downstream caspases 9 and 3, and cleavage of DFF and PARP PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

  • AGE/RAGE pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    AGE/RAGE pathway, organism-specific biosystemAdvanced glycation end products (AGEs) are heterogeneous group of non-enzymatic malliard reaction products of aldose sugar with proteins and lipids. Formation of AGEs is an indicator of one of the ma...
  • Activation of caspases through apoptosome-mediated cleavage, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Activation of caspases through apoptosome-mediated cleavage, organism-specific biosystemProcaspase-3 and 7 are cleaved by the apoptosome.
  • Alzheimer's disease, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Alzheimer's disease, organism-specific biosystemAlzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic disorder that slowly destroys neurons and causes serious cognitive disability. AD is associated with senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). Amyloid-b...
  • Alzheimer's disease, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
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  • Alzheimers Disease, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
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  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
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  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
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  • Apoptosis, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Apoptosis, organism-specific biosystemApoptosis is a distinct form of cell death that is functionally and morphologically different from necrosis. Nuclear chromatin condensation, cytoplasmic shrinking, dilated endoplasmic reticulum, and ...
  • Apoptosis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Apoptosis, organism-specific biosystemApoptosis is a genetically controlled mechanisms of cell death involved in the regulation of tissue homeostasis. The 2 major pathways of apoptosis are the extrinsic (Fas and other TNFR superfamily me...
  • Apoptosis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Apoptosis, conserved biosystemApoptosis is a genetically controlled mechanisms of cell death involved in the regulation of tissue homeostasis. The 2 major pathways of apoptosis are the extrinsic (Fas and other TNFR superfamily me...
  • Apoptosis, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Apoptosis, organism-specific biosystemApoptosis is a distinct form of cell death that is functionally and morphologically different from necrosis. Nuclear chromatin condensation, cytoplasmic shrinking, dilated endoplasmic reticulum, and ...
  • Apoptosis Modulation and Signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Apoptosis Modulation and Signaling, organism-specific biosystemApoptosis, or cell death program, can be activated by various mechanisms within the extrinsic and the intrinsic pathway. While activation of cell death receptors leads to the engagement of the extrin...
  • Apoptosis Modulation by HSP70, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Apoptosis Modulation by HSP70, organism-specific biosystem
    Apoptosis Modulation by HSP70
  • Apoptotic factor-mediated response, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • B Cell Receptor Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
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  • Caspase cascade in apoptosis, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Caspase cascade in apoptosis, organism-specific biosystem
    Caspase cascade in apoptosis
  • Cellular responses to stress, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Cellular responses to stress, organism-specific biosystemCells are subject to external molecular and physical stresses such as foreign molecules that perturb metabolic or signaling processes, and changes in temperature or pH. The ability of cells and tissu...
  • Ceramide signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Ceramide signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem
    Ceramide signaling pathway
  • Colorectal cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
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  • Colorectal cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
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  • Cytochrome c-mediated apoptotic response, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Cytochrome c-mediated apoptotic response, organism-specific biosystemUpon its release from the mitochondrial intermembrane space, Cytochrome c binds to and causes a conformational change in the cytoplasmic protein Apaf1. This conformational change allows the Cytochrom...
  • DNA damage response, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
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  • Detoxification of Reactive Oxygen Species, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • FAS pathway and Stress induction of HSP regulation, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    FAS pathway and Stress induction of HSP regulation, organism-specific biosystemThis pathway describes the Fas induced apoptosis and interplay with Hsp27 in response to stress. More info: [http://www.biocarta.com/pathfiles/h_hsp27Pathway.asp BioCarta].
  • Formation of apoptosome, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Formation of apoptosome, organism-specific biosystemCytoplasmic cytochrome c binds to apoptotic protease activating factor-1 (Apaf-1) promoting the formation of an Apaf-1 oligomer (the apoptosome) which in turn binds and activates caspase-9.
  • HIV-1 Nef: Negative effector of Fas and TNF-alpha, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    HIV-1 Nef: Negative effector of Fas and TNF-alpha, organism-specific biosystem
    HIV-1 Nef: Negative effector of Fas and TNF-alpha
  • Hepatitis B, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Hepatitis B, organism-specific biosystemHepatitis B virus (HBV) is an enveloped virus and contains a partially double-stranded relaxed circular DNA (RC-DNA) genome. After entry into hepatocytes, HBV RC-DNA is transported to the nucleus and...
  • Herpes simplex infection, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
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  • Herpes simplex infection, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
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  • Huntington's disease, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Huntington's disease, organism-specific biosystemHuntington disease (HD) is an autosomal-dominant neurodegenerative disorder that primarily affects medium spiny striatal neurons (MSN). The symptoms are choreiform, involuntary movements, personality...
  • Huntington's disease, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
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  • Influenza A, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
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  • Influenza A, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
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  • Intrinsic Pathway for Apoptosis, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • Legionellosis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Legionellosis, organism-specific biosystemLegionellosis is a potentially fatal infectious disease caused by the bacterium Legionella pneumophila and other legionella species. Two distinct clinical and epidemiological syndromes are associated...
  • Legionellosis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Legionellosis, conserved biosystemLegionellosis is a potentially fatal infectious disease caused by the bacterium Legionella pneumophila and other legionella species. Two distinct clinical and epidemiological syndromes are associated...
  • Metabolic pathways, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Metabolic pathways, organism-specific biosystem
    Metabolic pathways
  • Metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • Mitochondrial biogenesis, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Mitochondrial biogenesis, organism-specific biosystemMitochondrial biogenesis and remodeling occur in response to exercise and redox state (reviewed in Scarpulla et al. 2012, Handy and Loscalzo 2012, Piantadosi and Suliman 2012, Scarpulla 2011, Wenz et...
  • Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), organism-specific biosystemNon-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents a spectrum ranging from simple steatosis to more severe steatohepatitis with hepatic inflammation and fibrosis, known as nonalcoholic steatohepati...
  • Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), conserved biosystemNon-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents a spectrum ranging from simple steatosis to more severe steatohepatitis with hepatic inflammation and fibrosis, known as nonalcoholic steatohepati...
  • Organelle biogenesis and maintenance, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Organelle biogenesis and maintenance, organism-specific biosystemThis module describes the biogenesis of organelles. Organelles are subcellular structures of distinctive morphology and function. The organelles of human cells include: mitochondria, endoplasmic reti...
  • Parkinson's disease, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
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  • Parkinsons Disease Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
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  • Pathways in cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Pathways in cancer, organism-specific biosystem
    Pathways in cancer
  • Release of apoptotic factors from the mitochondria, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • Respiratory electron transport, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Respiratory electron transport, organism-specific biosystemMitochondria are often described as the "powerhouse" of a cell as it is here that energy is largely released from the oxidation of food. Reducing equivalents generated from beta-oxidation of fatty ac...
  • Respiratory electron transport, ATP synthesis by chemiosmotic coupling, and heat production by uncoupling proteins., organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Respiratory electron transport, ATP synthesis by chemiosmotic coupling, and heat production by uncoupling proteins., organism-specific biosystemOxidation of fatty acids and pyruvate in the mitochondrial matrix yield large amounts of NADH. The respiratory electron transport chain couples the re-oxidation of this NADH to NAD+ to the export of ...
  • Small cell lung cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Small cell lung cancer, organism-specific biosystemLung cancer is a leading cause of cancer death among men and women in industrialized countries. Small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) is a highly aggressive neoplasm, which accounts for approximately 25% ...
  • Small cell lung cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Small cell lung cancer, conserved biosystemLung cancer is a leading cause of cancer death among men and women in industrialized countries. Small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) is a highly aggressive neoplasm, which accounts for approximately 25% ...
  • Sulfur metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
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  • Sulfur metabolism, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
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  • The citric acid (TCA) cycle and respiratory electron transport, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    The citric acid (TCA) cycle and respiratory electron transport, organism-specific biosystemThe metabolism of pyruvate provides one source of acetyl-CoA which enters the citric acid (TCA, tricarboxylic acid) cycle to generate energy and the reducing equivalent NADH. These reducing equivalen...
  • Toxoplasmosis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Toxoplasmosis, organism-specific biosystemToxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that is prevalent worldwide. The tachyzoite form acquired by oral ingestion downmodulates proinflammatory signaling pathways via various mechan...
  • Toxoplasmosis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
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  • Transcriptional activation of mitochondrial biogenesis, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Transcriptional activation of mitochondrial biogenesis, organism-specific biosystemPhosphorylated PPARGC1A (PGC-1alpha) does not bind DNA directly but instead interacts with other transcription factors, notably NRF1 and NRF2 (via HCF1). NRF1 and NRF2 together with PPARGC1A activate...
  • Tuberculosis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Tuberculosis, organism-specific biosystemTuberculosis, or TB, is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. One third of the world's population is thought to be infected with TB. About 90% of those infected result in latent...
  • Tuberculosis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
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  • Viral myocarditis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
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  • mTOR signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    mTOR signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem
    mTOR signaling pathway
  • p53 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    p53 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemp53 activation is induced by a number of stress signals, including DNA damage, oxidative stress and activated oncogenes. The p53 protein is employed as a transcriptional activator of p53-regulated ge...
  • p53 signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
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  • p75(NTR)-mediated signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    p75(NTR)-mediated signaling, organism-specific biosystem
    p75(NTR)-mediated signaling
Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

Markers

Homology

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Process Evidence Code Pubs
activation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process by cytochrome c TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
apoptotic DNA fragmentation IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
apoptotic process TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
cellular metabolic process TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
cellular respiration TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
dephosphorylation TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
respiratory electron transport chain TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
small molecule metabolic process TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
cytosol IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
cytosol TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
mitochondrial inner membrane TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
mitochondrial intermembrane space TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
mitochondrion IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
nucleus IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 
protein phosphatase type 2A complex TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
respiratory chain IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
Preferred Names
cytochrome c
Names
cytochrome c

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

Genomic

  1. NG_023438.1 

    Range
    5001..11711
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_018947.5NP_061820.1  cytochrome c

    See proteins identical to NP_061820.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Source sequence(s)
    AC004129, AC007487, AI365318, BC024216, DB447825
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS5393.1
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    G4XXL9
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P99999
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    COG2010
    Location:2100
    CccA; Cytochrome c, mono- and diheme variants [Energy production and conversion]
    COG3474
    Location:1103
    COG3474; Cytochrome c2 [Energy production and conversion]

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 106

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000007.14 

    Range
    25118651..25125361
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

Alternate CHM1_1.1

Genomic

  1. NC_018918.2 

    Range
    25160181..25166894
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

Alternate HuRef

Genomic

  1. AC_000139.1 

    Range
    25044828..25051539
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)