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GALR2 galanin receptor 2 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 8811, updated on 26-May-2016
Official Symbol
GALR2provided by HGNC
Official Full Name
galanin receptor 2provided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:4133
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000182687 HPRD:04735; MIM:603691; Vega:OTTHUMG00000167479
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
GAL2-R; GALNR2; GALR-2
Summary
Galanin is an important neuromodulator present in the brain, gastrointestinal system, and hypothalamopituitary axis. It is a 30-amino acid non-C-terminally amidated peptide that potently stimulates growth hormone secretion, inhibits cardiac vagal slowing of heart rate, abolishes sinus arrhythmia, and inhibits postprandial gastrointestinal motility. The actions of galanin are mediated through interaction with specific membrane receptors that are members of the 7-transmembrane family of G protein-coupled receptors. GALR2 interacts with the N-terminal residues of the galanin peptide. The primary signaling mechanism for GALR2 is through the phospholipase C/protein kinase C pathway (via Gq), in contrast to GALR1, which communicates its intracellular signal by inhibition of adenylyl cyclase through Gi. However, it has been demonstrated that GALR2 couples efficiently to both the Gq and Gi proteins to simultaneously activate 2 independent signal transduction pathways. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Orthologs
Location:
17q25.3
Exon count:
4
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
107 current GRCh38.p2 (GCF_000001405.28) 17 NC_000017.11 (76072088..76077541)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 17 NC_000017.10 (74070892..74073573)

Chromosome 17 - NC_000017.11Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene TEN1-CDK3 readthrough (NMD candidate) Neighboring gene cyclin-dependent kinase 3 Neighboring gene envoplakin Neighboring gene signal recognition particle 68 Neighboring gene zinc activated ion channel Neighboring gene exocyst complex component 7 Neighboring gene microRNA 6868

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

  • Class A/1 (Rhodopsin-like receptors), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Class A/1 (Rhodopsin-like receptors), organism-specific biosystemRhodopsin-like receptors (class A/1) are the largest group of GPCRs and are the best studied group from a functional and structural point of view. They show great diversity at the sequence level and ...
  • G alpha (i) signalling events, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    G alpha (i) signalling events, organism-specific biosystemThe classical signalling mechanism for G alpha (i) is inhibition of the cAMP dependent pathway through inhibition of adenylate cyclase. Decreased production of cAMP from ATP results in decreased act...
  • GPCR downstream signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    GPCR downstream signaling, organism-specific biosystemG protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are classically defined as the receptor, G-protein and downstream effectors, the alpha subunit of the G-protein being the primary signaling molecule. However, it h...
  • GPCR ligand binding, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    GPCR ligand binding, organism-specific biosystemThere are more than 800 G-protein coupled receptor (GPCRs) in the human genome, making it the largest receptor superfamily. GPCRs are also the largest class of drug targets, involved in virtually all...
  • GPCRs, Class A Rhodopsin-like, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    GPCRs, Class A Rhodopsin-like, organism-specific biosystemThis pathway was created using the GPCRDB (Horn et al., 1998), http://www.cmbi.kun.nl/7tm/. The groupings are based on the GPCR phylogenetic tree available from the GPCRDB and the training sets used ...
  • Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, organism-specific biosystem
    Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction
  • Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, conserved biosystem
    Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction
  • Peptide GPCRs, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Peptide GPCRs, organism-specific biosystem
    Peptide GPCRs
  • Peptide ligand-binding receptors, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Peptide ligand-binding receptors, organism-specific biosystemThese receptors, a subset of the Class A/1 (Rhodopsin-like) family, all bind peptide ligands which include the chemokines, opioids and somatostatins.
  • Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystemSignal transduction is a process in which extracellular signals elicit changes in cell state and activity. Transmembrane receptors sense changes in the cellular environment by binding ligands, such a...
  • Signaling by GPCR, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by GPCR, organism-specific biosystemG protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs; 7TM receptors; seven transmembrane domain receptors; heptahelical receptors; G protein-linked receptors [GPLR]) are the largest family of transmembrane receptors i...
Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

Markers

Homology

Clone Names

  • MGC125983, MGC125984

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
galanin receptor activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
neuropeptide binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
peptide hormone binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
adenylate cyclase-activating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
adenylate cyclase-modulating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
cell surface receptor signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
digestion TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
feeding behavior TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
inositol phosphate metabolic process IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
learning or memory TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
multicellular organism development TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
muscle contraction TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of adenylate cyclase activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
neuron projection development IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
neuropeptide signaling pathway IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
phosphatidylinositol metabolic process IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
phospholipase C-activating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
 
positive regulation of cytosolic calcium ion concentration IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of large conductance calcium-activated potassium channel activity IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
synaptic transmission TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
cytosol IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
integral component of membrane TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
integral component of plasma membrane IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
 
plasma membrane TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_003857.3NP_003848.1  galanin receptor type 2

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_003848.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Source sequence(s)
    AC018665, BC069130, BU631750
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS11739.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    O43603
    Related
    ENSP00000329684, OTTHUMP00000236026, ENST00000329003, OTTHUMT00000394760
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    pfam00001
    Location:58292
    7tm_1; 7 transmembrane receptor (rhodopsin family)
    cl21561
    Location:36306
    7tm_4; Olfactory receptor

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 107 details...

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p2 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000017.11 Reference GRCh38.p2 Primary Assembly

    Range
    76072088..76077541
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. XM_011525427.1XP_011523729.1  

    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    pfam00001
    Location:25235
    7tm_1; 7 transmembrane receptor (rhodopsin family)

Alternate CHM1_1.1

Genomic

  1. NC_018928.2 Alternate CHM1_1.1

    Range
    74135807..74138547
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)