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CALM2 calmodulin 2 (phosphorylase kinase, delta) [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 805, updated on 15-Jul-2015
Official Symbol
CALM2provided by HGNC
Official Full Name
calmodulin 2 (phosphorylase kinase, delta)provided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:1445
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000143933; HPRD:00242; MIM:114182; Vega:OTTHUMG00000128850
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
caM; PHKD; CAMII; LQT15; PHKD2
Summary
This gene is a member of the calmodulin gene family. There are three distinct calmodulin genes dispersed throughout the genome that encode the identical protein, but differ at the nucleotide level. Calmodulin is a calcium binding protein that plays a role in signaling pathways, cell cycle progression and proliferation. Several infants with severe forms of long-QT syndrome (LQTS) who displayed life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias together with delayed neurodevelopment and epilepsy were found to have mutations in either this gene or another member of the calmodulin gene family (PMID:23388215). Mutations in this gene have also been identified in patients with less severe forms of LQTS (PMID:24917665), while mutations in another calmodulin gene family member have been associated with catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT)(PMID:23040497), a rare disorder thought to be the cause of a significant fraction of sudden cardiac deaths in young individuals. Pseudogenes of this gene are found on chromosomes 10, 13, and 17. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2015]
Orthologs
See CALM2 in Epigenomics, MapViewer
Location:
2p21
Exon count:
6
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
107 current GRCh38.p2 (GCF_000001405.28) 2 NC_000002.12 (47160082..47176601, complement)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 2 NC_000002.11 (47387221..47404229, complement)

Chromosome 2 - NC_000002.12Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene multiple coagulation factor deficiency 2 Neighboring gene tetratricopeptide repeat domain 7A Neighboring gene chromosome 2 open reading frame 61 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC101927043 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105374588 Neighboring gene brain cytoplasmic RNA 1

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

Associated conditions

Description Tests
Long QT syndrome 15
MedGen: CN228134 OMIM: 616249 GeneReviews: Not available
not available

NHGRI GWAS Catalog

Description
Genome-wide association scan for survival on dialysis in African-Americans with type 2 diabetes.
NHGRI GWA Catalog

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp160, precursor env The calmodulin-binding domains in HIV-1 gp160 are involved in Fas-mediated apoptosis PubMed
env The carboxyl-terminal domains (residues 768-788 and 826-854) of HIV-1 gp160 bind to calmodulin (CaM) PubMed
Envelope transmembrane glycoprotein gp41 env The carboxyl terminus (amino acid residues 768-788 and 828-855) of HIV-1 gp41 binds efficiently to purified calmodulin (CaM) and inhibits in vitro CaM-mediated stimulation of phosphodiesterase activity PubMed
env The fusion between CD4+ human cells and cells stably expressing HIV-1 gp41 and gp120 is inhibited by calmodulin PubMed
Nef nef HIV-1 Nef induces interleukin 10 expression through an interaction with the calcium/calmodulin-dependent phosphodiesterase signal transduction pathway PubMed
nef HIV-1 Nef-induced CCL-2/MCP-1 upregulation in astrocytes depends on the myristoylation moiety (residues 2-3) of Nef and requires functional calmodulin PubMed
nef Fluorescence spectroscopy analyses indicate the myristoylated N-terminal eight amino acids of HIV-1 Nef directly interact with calcium bound calmodulin PubMed
Tat tat Calmodulin and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase-II (CaMK-II)-activated p38 MAPK play a role in extracellular Tat-induced IL-10 expression in primary human monocytes PubMed
matrix gag An HIV-1 MA peptide (residues 8-43) binds to CaM with a very high affinity with dissociation constant 25 nm PubMed
gag Calmodulin (CaM) binding to HIV-1 MA induces the extrusion of the myristate group, suggesting that hydrophobic contacts between CaM and MA are critical for binding PubMed
gag Calmodulin binds to both HIV-1 Gag and Matrix proteins through an extended calmodulin-binding domain in Matrix (amino acids 11-46) PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

  • ARMS-mediated activation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    ARMS-mediated activation, organism-specific biosystemARMS (Ankyrin-Rich Membrane Spanning/Kidins 220) is a 220kD tetraspanning adaptor protein which becomes rapidly tyrosine phosphorylated by active Trk receptors. ARMS is another adaptor protein which ...
  • Activation of Ca-permeable Kainate Receptor, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Activation of Ca-permeable Kainate Receptor, organism-specific biosystemKainate receptors that are assembled with subunits GRIK1-5, are Ca2+ permeable if GRIK1 and GRIK2 are not edited at the Q/R or other sites.These channels permit Ca2+ upon activation by glutamate or o...
  • Activation of CaMK IV, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Activation of CaMK IV, organism-specific biosystemCaMKIV is activated in a multi-step mechanism in an Ca2+/Calmodulin dependent manner.
  • Activation of Kainate Receptors upon glutamate binding, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Activation of Kainate Receptors upon glutamate binding, organism-specific biosystemKainate receptors are found both in the presynaptc terminals and the postsynaptic neurons. Kainate receptor activation could lead to either ionotropic activity (influx of Ca2+ or Na+ and K+) in the ...
  • Activation of NMDA receptor upon glutamate binding and postsynaptic events, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Activation of NMDA receptor upon glutamate binding and postsynaptic events, organism-specific biosystemNMDA receptors are a subtype of ionotropic glutamate receptors that are specifically activated by a glutamate agonist N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA). Activation of NMDA receptor involves opening of the ...
  • Adaptive Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Adaptive Immune System, organism-specific biosystemAdaptive immunity refers to antigen-specific immune response efficiently involved in clearing the pathogens. The adaptive immune system is comprised of B and T lymphocytes that express receptors with...
  • Adrenergic signaling in cardiomyocytes, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Adrenergic signaling in cardiomyocytes, organism-specific biosystemCardiac myocytes express at least six subtypes of adrenergic receptor (AR) which include three subtypes of beta-AR (beta-1, beta-2, beta-3) and three subtypes of the alpha-1-AR (alpha-1A, alpha-1B, a...
  • Adrenergic signaling in cardiomyocytes, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Adrenergic signaling in cardiomyocytes, conserved biosystemCardiac myocytes express at least six subtypes of adrenergic receptor (AR) which include three subtypes of beta-AR (beta-1, beta-2, beta-3) and three subtypes of the alpha-1-AR (alpha-1A, alpha-1B, a...
  • Alcoholism, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Alcoholism, organism-specific biosystemAlcoholism, also called dependence on alcohol (ethanol), is a chronic relapsing disorder that is progressive and has serious detrimental health outcomes. As one of the primary mediators of the reward...
  • Alcoholism, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Alcoholism, conserved biosystemAlcoholism, also called dependence on alcohol (ethanol), is a chronic relapsing disorder that is progressive and has serious detrimental health outcomes. As one of the primary mediators of the reward...
  • Alzheimer's disease, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Alzheimer's disease, organism-specific biosystemAlzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic disorder that slowly destroys neurons and causes serious cognitive disability. AD is associated with senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). Amyloid-b...
  • Alzheimer's disease, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Alzheimer's disease, conserved biosystemAlzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic disorder that slowly destroys neurons and causes serious cognitive disability. AD is associated with senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). Amyloid-b...
  • Alzheimers Disease, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Alzheimers Disease, organism-specific biosystemThis pathway displays current genes, proteolytic events and other processes associated with the progression of Alzheimer's disease. This pathway was adapted from KEGG on 10/7/2011. Note: mitochondria...
  • Amphetamine addiction, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Amphetamine addiction, organism-specific biosystemAmphetamine is a psychostimulant drug that exerts persistent addictive effects. Most addictive drugs increase extracellular concentrations of dopamine (DA) in nucleus accumbens (NAc) and medial prefr...
  • Amphetamine addiction, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Amphetamine addiction, conserved biosystemAmphetamine is a psychostimulant drug that exerts persistent addictive effects. Most addictive drugs increase extracellular concentrations of dopamine (DA) in nucleus accumbens (NAc) and medial prefr...
  • Antigen activates B Cell Receptor (BCR) leading to generation of second messengers, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Antigen activates B Cell Receptor (BCR) leading to generation of second messengers, organism-specific biosystemMature B cells express IgM and IgD immunoglobulins which are complexed with Ig-alpha (CD79A, MB-1) and Ig-beta (CD79B, B29) to form the B cell receptor (BCR) (Fu et al. 1974, Fu et al. 1975, Kunkel e...
  • Axon guidance, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Axon guidance, organism-specific biosystemAxon guidance / axon pathfinding is the process by which neurons send out axons to reach the correct targets. Growing axons have a highly motile structure at the growing tip called the growth cone, w...
  • BCR signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    BCR signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem
    BCR signaling pathway
  • C-type lectin receptors (CLRs), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    C-type lectin receptors (CLRs), organism-specific biosystemPathogen recognition is central to the induction of T cell differentiation. Groups of pathogens share similar structures known as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), which are recognised ...
  • CLEC7A (Dectin-1) induces NFAT activation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    CLEC7A (Dectin-1) induces NFAT activation, organism-specific biosystemCLEC7A (Dectin-1) signals through the classic calcineurin/NFAT pathway through Syk activation phospholipase C-gamma 2 (PLCG2) leading to increased soluble IP3 (inositol trisphosphate). IP3 is able to...
  • CLEC7A (Dectin-1) signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    CLEC7A (Dectin-1) signaling, organism-specific biosystemCLEC7A (also known as Dectin-1) is a pattern-recognition receptor (PRR) expressed by myeloid cells (macrophages, dendritic cells and neutrophils) that detects pathogens by binding to beta-1,3-glucans...
  • CREB phosphorylation through the activation of CaMKII, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    CREB phosphorylation through the activation of CaMKII, organism-specific biosystemCa2+ signal generated through NMDA receptor in the post-synaptic neuron activates adenylate cyclase signal transduction, leading to the activation of PKA and phosphorylation and activation of CREB-in...
  • CREB phosphorylation through the activation of CaMKK, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    CREB phosphorylation through the activation of CaMKK, organism-specific biosystemTransient increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration after NMDA receptor activation leads to the activation of the CaMKIV via the activation of CaM-kinase kinase. CaM-kinase kinase and CaMKIV are b...
  • CREB phosphorylation through the activation of Ras, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    CREB phosphorylation through the activation of Ras, organism-specific biosystemCa2+ influx through the NMDA receptor initiates subsequent molecular pathways that have a defined role in establishing long-lasting synaptic changes. The molecular signaling initiated by a rise in Ca...
  • Ca-dependent events, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Ca-dependent events, organism-specific biosystemCalcium, as the ion Ca2+, is essential in many biological processes. The majority of Ca2+ in many organisms is bound to phosphates which form skeletal structures and also buffer Ca2+ levels in extrac...
  • Ca2+ pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Ca2+ pathway, organism-specific biosystemA number of so called non-canonical WNT ligands have been shown to promote intracellular calcium release upon FZD binding. This beta-catenin-independent WNT pathway acts through heterotrimeric G pro...
  • CaM pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    CaM pathway, organism-specific biosystemCalmodulin (CaM) is a small acidic protein that contains four EF-hand motifs, each of which can bind a calcium ion, therefore it can bind up to four calcium ions. The protein has two approximately sy...
  • CaMK IV-mediated phosphorylation of CREB, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    CaMK IV-mediated phosphorylation of CREB, organism-specific biosystemThe Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM kinase) cascade includes three kinases: CaM-kinase kinase (CaMKK); and the CaM kinases CaMKI and CaMKIV, which are phosphorylated and activated by Ca...
  • Calcineurin-regulated NFAT-dependent transcription in lymphocytes, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Calcineurin-regulated NFAT-dependent transcription in lymphocytes, organism-specific biosystem
    Calcineurin-regulated NFAT-dependent transcription in lymphocytes
  • Calcium Regulation in the Cardiac Cell, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Calcium Regulation in the Cardiac Cell, organism-specific biosystemCalcium is a common signaling mechanism, as once it enters the cytoplasm it exerts allosteric regulatory affects on many enzymes and proteins. Calcium can act in signal transduction after influx resu...
  • Calcium signaling in the CD4+ TCR pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Calcium signaling in the CD4+ TCR pathway, organism-specific biosystem
    Calcium signaling in the CD4+ TCR pathway
  • Calcium signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Calcium signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemCa2+ that enters the cell from the outside is a principal source of signal Ca2+. Entry of Ca2+ is driven by the presence of a large electrochemical gradient across the plasma membrane. Cells use this...
  • Calcium signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Calcium signaling pathway, conserved biosystemCa2+ that enters the cell from the outside is a principal source of signal Ca2+. Entry of Ca2+ is driven by the presence of a large electrochemical gradient across the plasma membrane. Cells use this...
  • Calmodulin induced events, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Calmodulin induced events, organism-specific biosystemOne important physiological role for Calmodulin is the regulation of adenylylcyclases. Four of the nine known adenylylcyclases are calcium sensitive, in particular type 8 (AC8).
  • Cam-PDE 1 activation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Cam-PDE 1 activation, organism-specific biosystemHuman Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent phosphodiesterase PDE1 is activated by the binding of calmodulin in the presence of Ca(2+). PDE1 has three subtypes PDE1A, PDE1B and PDE1C and their role is to hydro...
  • Cellular roles of Anthrax toxin, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Cellular roles of Anthrax toxin, organism-specific biosystem
    Cellular roles of Anthrax toxin
  • Circadian entrainment, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Circadian entrainment, organism-specific biosystemCircadian entrainment is a fundamental property by which the period of the internal biological clock is entrained by recurring exogenous signals, such that the organism's endocrine and behavioral rhy...
  • Circadian entrainment, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Circadian entrainment, conserved biosystemCircadian entrainment is a fundamental property by which the period of the internal biological clock is entrained by recurring exogenous signals, such that the organism's endocrine and behavioral rhy...
  • Cytokine Signaling in Immune system, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Cytokine Signaling in Immune system, organism-specific biosystemCytokines are small proteins that regulate and mediate immunity, inflammation, and hematopoiesis. They are secreted in response to immune stimuli, and usually act briefly, locally, at very low concen...
  • DAG and IP3 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    DAG and IP3 signaling, organism-specific biosystemThis pathway describes the generation of DAG and IP3 by the PLCgamma-mediated hydrolysis of PIP2 and the subsequent downstream signaling events.
  • DAP12 interactions, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    DAP12 interactions, organism-specific biosystemDNAX activation protein of 12kDa (DAP12) is an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-bearing adapter molecule that transduces activating signals in natural killer (NK) and myeloid cel...
  • DAP12 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    DAP12 signaling, organism-specific biosystemIn response to receptor ligation, the tyrosine residues in DAP12's immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) are phosphorylated by Src family kinases. These phosphotyrosines form the dock...
  • DARPP-32 events, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    DARPP-32 events, organism-specific biosystemDopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein, Mr 32 kDa (DARPP-32), was identified as a major target for dopamine and protein kinase A (PKA) in striatum. Recent advances now indicate that regulation D...
  • Developmental Biology, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Developmental Biology, organism-specific biosystemAs a first step towards capturing the array of processes by which a fertilized egg gives rise to the diverse tissues of the body, examples of three kinds of processes have been annotated. These are a...
  • Disease, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Disease, organism-specific biosystemBiological processes are captured in Reactome by identifying the molecules (DNA, RNA, protein, small molecules) involved in them and describing the details of their interactions. From this molecular ...
  • Dopaminergic synapse, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Dopaminergic synapse, organism-specific biosystemDopamine (DA) is an important and prototypical slow neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain, where it controls a variety of functions including locomotor activity, motivation and reward, learning an...
  • Dopaminergic synapse, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Dopaminergic synapse, conserved biosystemDopamine (DA) is an important and prototypical slow neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain, where it controls a variety of functions including locomotor activity, motivation and reward, learning an...
  • Downstream signal transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Downstream signal transduction, organism-specific biosystemThe role of autophosphorylation sites on PDGF receptors are to provide docking sites for downstream signal transduction molecules which contain SH2 domains. The SH2 domain is a conserved motif of aro...
  • Downstream signaling in naive CD8+ T cells, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Downstream signaling in naive CD8+ T cells, organism-specific biosystem
    Downstream signaling in naive CD8+ T cells
  • Downstream signaling of activated FGFR1, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Downstream signaling of activated FGFR1, organism-specific biosystemSignaling via FGFRs is mediated via direct recruitment of signaling proteins that bind to tyrosine auto-phosphorylation sites on the activated receptor and via closely linked docking proteins that be...
  • Downstream signaling of activated FGFR2, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Downstream signaling of activated FGFR2, organism-specific biosystemSignaling via FGFRs is mediated via direct recruitment of signaling proteins that bind to tyrosine auto-phosphorylation sites on the activated receptor and via closely linked docking proteins that be...
  • Downstream signaling of activated FGFR3, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Downstream signaling of activated FGFR3, organism-specific biosystemSignaling via FGFRs is mediated via direct recruitment of signaling proteins that bind to tyrosine auto-phosphorylation sites on the activated receptor and via closely linked docking proteins that be...
  • Downstream signaling of activated FGFR4, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Downstream signaling of activated FGFR4, organism-specific biosystemSignaling via FGFRs is mediated via direct recruitment of signaling proteins that bind to tyrosine auto-phosphorylation sites on the activated receptor and via closely linked docking proteins that be...
  • EGFR interacts with phospholipase C-gamma, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    EGFR interacts with phospholipase C-gamma, organism-specific biosystemActivated epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) can stimulate phosphatidylinositol (PI) turnover. Activated EGFR can activate phospholipase C-gamma1 (PLC-gamma1, i.e. PLCG1) which hydrolyses phosp...
  • Endochondral Ossification, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Endochondral Ossification, organism-specific biosystem
    Endochondral Ossification
  • Endothelin, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Endothelin, organism-specific biosystemEndothelin-1 is a bicyclic 21 amino acid peptide, produced primarily in the endothelium. It is a potent stimulus of long-lasting and persistent vasoconstriction. It also has a role as a stimulus of i...
  • ErbB1 downstream signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    ErbB1 downstream signaling, organism-specific biosystem
    ErbB1 downstream signaling
  • Estrogen signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Estrogen signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemEstrogens are steroid hormones that regulate a plethora of physiological processes in mammals, including reproduction, cardiovascular protection, bone integrity, cellular homeostasis, and behavior. E...
  • Estrogen signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Estrogen signaling pathway, conserved biosystemEstrogens are steroid hormones that regulate a plethora of physiological processes in mammals, including reproduction, cardiovascular protection, bone integrity, cellular homeostasis, and behavior. E...
  • FCERI mediated Ca+2 mobilization, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    FCERI mediated Ca+2 mobilization, organism-specific biosystemIncrease of intracellular calcium in mast cells is most crucial for mast cell degranulation. Elevation of intracellular calcium is achieved by activation of PLC-gamma. Mast cells express both PLC-gam...
  • FCERI mediated MAPK activation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    FCERI mediated MAPK activation, organism-specific biosystemFormation of the LAT signaling complex leads to activation of MAPK and production of cytokines. The sequence of events that leads from LAT to cytokine production has not been as clearly defined as th...
  • FRS-mediated FGFR1 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    FRS-mediated FGFR1 signaling, organism-specific biosystemThe FRS family of scaffolding adaptor proteins has two members, FRS2 (also known as FRS2 alpha) and FRS3 (also known as FRS2beta or SNT-2). Activation of FGFR tyrosine kinase allows FRS proteins to ...
  • FRS-mediated FGFR2 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    FRS-mediated FGFR2 signaling, organism-specific biosystemThe FRS family of scaffolding adaptor proteins has two members, FRS2 (also known as FRS2 alpha) and FRS3 (also known as FRS2beta or SNT-2). Activation of FGFR tyrosine kinase allows FRS proteins to ...
  • FRS-mediated FGFR3 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    FRS-mediated FGFR3 signaling, organism-specific biosystemThe FRS family of scaffolding adaptor proteins has two members, FRS2 (also known as FRS2 alpha) and FRS3 (also known as FRS2beta or SNT-2). Activation of FGFR tyrosine kinase allows FRS proteins to ...
  • FRS-mediated FGFR4 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    FRS-mediated FGFR4 signaling, organism-specific biosystemThe FRS family of scaffolding adaptor proteins has two members, FRS2 (also known as FRS2 alpha) and FRS3 (also known as FRS2beta or SNT-2). Activation of FGFR tyrosine kinase allows FRS proteins to ...
  • Fc epsilon receptor (FCERI) signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Fc epsilon receptor (FCERI) signaling, organism-specific biosystemMast cells (MC) are distributed in tissues throughout the human body and have long been recognized as key cells of type I hypersensitivity reactions. They also play important roles in inflammatory an...
  • Frs2-mediated activation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Frs2-mediated activation, organism-specific biosystemThe adaptor protein Frs2 (Fibroblast growth factor receptor substrate 2) can mediate the prolonged activation of the MAPK (ERK) cascade.
  • G Protein Signaling Pathways, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    G Protein Signaling Pathways, organism-specific biosystemG proteins, short for guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, are a family of proteins involved in second messenger cascades. G proteins are so called because they function as "molecular switches". They...
  • G-protein mediated events, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    G-protein mediated events, organism-specific biosystemWhen dissociated Galpha-GTP and Gbeta-gamma can activate or inhibit different signalling cascades and effector proteins. The precise pathways depends on the identity of the alpha and beta/gamma subty...
  • G13 Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    G13 Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe G13 subunit is an alpha unit of heterotrimeric G proteins that regulates cell processes through the use of guanine nucleotide exchange factors. G13 regulates actin cytoskeletal remodeling in cell...
  • GRB2 events in EGFR signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    GRB2 events in EGFR signaling, organism-specific biosystemAutophosphorylated EGFR tyrosine residues are docking sites for many downstream effectors in EGFR signaling. The adaptor protein GRB2 binds to phosphotyrosine residues in the C-tail of EGFR through i...
  • GRB2 events in ERBB2 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    GRB2 events in ERBB2 signaling, organism-specific biosystemERBB2:EGFR and ERBB2:ERBB4 can directly recruit GRB2:SOS1 complex through phosphorylated C-tail tyrosines of EGFR (Y1068 and Y1086) and ERBB2 (Y1139) that serve as docking sites for GRB2 (Xie et al. ...
  • Gastric acid secretion, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Gastric acid secretion, organism-specific biosystemGastric acid is a key factor in normal upper gastrointestinal functions, including protein digestion and calcium and iron absorption, as well as providing some protection against bacterial infections...
  • Gastric acid secretion, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Gastric acid secretion, conserved biosystemGastric acid is a key factor in normal upper gastrointestinal functions, including protein digestion and calcium and iron absorption, as well as providing some protection against bacterial infections...
  • Gastrin-CREB signalling pathway via PKC and MAPK, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Gastrin-CREB signalling pathway via PKC and MAPK, organism-specific biosystemGastrin is a hormone whose main function is to stimulate secretion of hydrochloric acid by the gastric mucosa, which results in gastrin formation inhibition. This hormone also acts as a mitogenic fac...
  • Glioma, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Glioma, organism-specific biosystemGliomas are the most common of the primary brain tumors and account for more than 40% of all central nervous system neoplasms. Gliomas include tumours that are composed predominantly of astrocytes (a...
  • Glioma, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Glioma, conserved biosystemGliomas are the most common of the primary brain tumors and account for more than 40% of all central nervous system neoplasms. Gliomas include tumours that are composed predominantly of astrocytes (a...
  • Glucagon signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Glucagon signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemGlucagon is conventionally regarded as a counterregulatory hormone for insulin and plays a critical anti-hypoglycemic role by maintaining glucose homeostasis in both animals and humans. To increase ...
  • Glucagon signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Glucagon signaling pathway, conserved biosystemGlucagon is conventionally regarded as a counterregulatory hormone for insulin and plays a critical anti-hypoglycemic role by maintaining glucose homeostasis in both animals and humans. To increase ...
  • Glucose metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Glucose metabolism, organism-specific biosystemGlucose is the major form in which dietary sugars are made available to cells of the human body. Its breakdown is a major source of energy for all cells, and is essential for the brain and red blood ...
  • Glycogen Metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Glycogen Metabolism, organism-specific biosystemGlycogen is a very large, branched polymer of glucose residues. Within skeletal musle and liver glucose is stored as glycogen. In the liver, glycogen synthesis and degradation are regulated to mainta...
  • Glycogen breakdown (glycogenolysis), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Glycogen breakdown (glycogenolysis), organism-specific biosystemCytosolic glycogen breakdown occurs via the same chemical steps in all tissues but is separately regulated via tissue specific isozymes and signaling pathways that enable distinct physiological fates...
  • GnRH signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    GnRH signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemGonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion from the hypothalamus acts upon its receptor in the anterior pituitary to regulate the production and release of the gonadotropins, LH and FSH. The GnR...
  • GnRH signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    GnRH signaling pathway, conserved biosystemGonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion from the hypothalamus acts upon its receptor in the anterior pituitary to regulate the production and release of the gonadotropins, LH and FSH. The GnR...
  • Hemostasis, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Hemostasis, organism-specific biosystemHemostasis is a physiological response that culminates in the arrest of bleeding from an injured vessel. Under normal conditions the vascular endothelium supports vasodilation, inhibits platelet adhe...
  • IFN-gamma pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    IFN-gamma pathway, organism-specific biosystem
    IFN-gamma pathway
  • IGF1R signaling cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    IGF1R signaling cascade, organism-specific biosystemAfter autophosphorylation the type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF1R) binds and phosphorylates scaffold proteins, IRS1/2/4 and SHC1, which in turn bind effectors possessing enzymatic activ...
  • IL2 signaling events mediated by PI3K, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    IL2 signaling events mediated by PI3K, organism-specific biosystem
    IL2 signaling events mediated by PI3K
  • IRS-mediated signalling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    IRS-mediated signalling, organism-specific biosystemRelease of phospho-IRS from the insulin receptor triggers a cascade of signalling events via PI3K, SOS, RAF and the MAP kinases.
  • IRS-related events triggered by IGF1R, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    IRS-related events triggered by IGF1R, organism-specific biosystemThe phosphorylated type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor phosphorylates IR1, IRS2, IRS4 and possibly other IRS/DOK family members (reviewed in Pavelic et al. 2007, Chitnis et al. 2008, Maki et a...
  • Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Immune System, organism-specific biosystemHumans are exposed to millions of potential pathogens daily, through contact, ingestion, and inhalation. Our ability to avoid infection depends on the adaptive immune system and during the first crit...
  • Inactivation, recovery and regulation of the phototransduction cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Inactivation, recovery and regulation of the phototransduction cascade, organism-specific biosystemTo terminate the single photon response and restore the system to its basal state, the three activated intermediates in phototransduction, rhodopsin (MII), transducin alpha subunit with GTP bound (GN...
  • Infectious disease, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Infectious disease, organism-specific biosystem
    Infectious disease
  • Inflammatory mediator regulation of TRP channels, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Inflammatory mediator regulation of TRP channels, organism-specific biosystemThe TRP channels that exhibit a unique response to temperature have been given the name thermo-TRPs. Among all thermo- TRP channels, TRPV1-4, TRPM8, and TRPA1 are expressed in subsets of nociceptive...
  • Inflammatory mediator regulation of TRP channels, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Inflammatory mediator regulation of TRP channels, conserved biosystemThe TRP channels that exhibit a unique response to temperature have been given the name thermo-TRPs. Among all thermo- TRP channels, TRPV1-4, TRPM8, and TRPA1 are expressed in subsets of nociceptive...
  • Innate Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Innate Immune System, organism-specific biosystemInnate immunity encompases the nonspecific part of immunity tha are part of an individual's natural biologic makeup
  • Inositol phosphate metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Inositol phosphate metabolism, organism-specific biosystemInositol phosphates (IPs) are molecules involves in signalling processes in eukaryotes. myo-Inositol consists of a six-carbon cyclic alcohol with an axial 2-hydroxy and five equatorial hydroxyls. M...
  • Insulin receptor signalling cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Insulin receptor signalling cascade, organism-specific biosystemAutophosphorylation of the insulin receptor triggers a series of signalling events, mediated by SHC or IRS, and resulting in activation of the Ras/RAF and MAP kinase cascades. A second effect of the ...
  • Insulin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Insulin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemInsulin binding to its receptor results in the tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrates (IRS) by the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase (INSR). This allows association of IRSs with the r...
  • Insulin signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Insulin signaling pathway, conserved biosystemInsulin binding to its receptor results in the tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrates (IRS) by the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase (INSR). This allows association of IRSs with the r...
  • Insulin-mediated glucose transport, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Insulin-mediated glucose transport, organism-specific biosystem
    Insulin-mediated glucose transport
  • Interleukin receptor SHC signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Interleukin receptor SHC signaling, organism-specific biosystemPhosphorylation of Shc at three tyrosine residues, 239, 240 (Gotoh et al. 1996) and 317 (Salcini et al. 1994) involves unidentified tyrosine kinases presumed to be part of the activated receptor comp...
  • Interleukin-2 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Interleukin-2 signaling, organism-specific biosystemInterleukin-2 (IL-2) is a cytokine that is produced by T cells in response to antigen stimulation. Originally, IL-2 was discovered because of its potent growth factor activity on activated T cells in...
  • Interleukin-3, 5 and GM-CSF signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Interleukin-3, 5 and GM-CSF signaling, organism-specific biosystemThe Interleukin-3 (IL-3), IL-5 and Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) receptors form a family of heterodimeric receptors that have specific alpha chains but share a common beta...
  • Ionotropic activity of Kainate Receptors, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Ionotropic activity of Kainate Receptors, organism-specific biosystemKainate receptors are either Ca2+ permeable or impermeable depending on the composition of the receptor and the editing status of subunits GluR5 and GluR6 (GRIK1 and 2).
  • Lissencephaly gene (LIS1) in neuronal migration and development, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Lissencephaly gene (LIS1) in neuronal migration and development, organism-specific biosystem
    Lissencephaly gene (LIS1) in neuronal migration and development
  • Long-term potentiation, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Long-term potentiation, organism-specific biosystemHippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), a long-lasting increase in synaptic efficacy, is the molecular basis for learning and memory. Tetanic stimulation of afferents in the CA1 region of the hippo...
  • Long-term potentiation, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Long-term potentiation, conserved biosystemHippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), a long-lasting increase in synaptic efficacy, is the molecular basis for learning and memory. Tetanic stimulation of afferents in the CA1 region of the hippo...
  • MAPK family signaling cascades, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    MAPK family signaling cascades, organism-specific biosystemThe mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are a family of conserved protein serine threonine kinases that respond to varied extracellular stimuli to activate intracellular processes including gen...
  • MAPK1/MAPK3 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    MAPK1/MAPK3 signaling, organism-specific biosystemThe extracellular signal regulated kinases (ERKs) 1 and 2, also known as MAPK3 and MAPK1, are phosphorylated by the MAP2Ks 1 and 2 in response to a wide range of extracellular stimuli to promote diff...
  • Melanogenesis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Melanogenesis, organism-specific biosystemCutaneous melanin pigment plays a critical role in camouflage, mimicry, social communication, and protection against harmful effects of solar radiation. Melanogenesis is under complex regulatory cont...
  • Melanogenesis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Melanogenesis, conserved biosystemCutaneous melanin pigment plays a critical role in camouflage, mimicry, social communication, and protection against harmful effects of solar radiation. Melanogenesis is under complex regulatory cont...
  • Membrane Trafficking, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Membrane Trafficking, organism-specific biosystemThe secretory membrane system allows a cell to regulate delivery of newly synthesized proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids to the cell surface, a necessity for growth and homeostasis. The system is ma...
  • Metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Metabolism, organism-specific biosystemMetabolic processes in human cells generate energy through the oxidation of molecules consumed in the diet and mediate the synthesis of diverse essential molecules not taken in the diet as well as th...
  • Metabolism of carbohydrates, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Metabolism of carbohydrates, organism-specific biosystemThese pathways together are responsible for: 1) the extraction of energy and carbon skeletons for biosyntheses from dietary sugars and related molecules; 2) the short-term storage of glucose in the b...
  • Metabolism of nitric oxide, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Metabolism of nitric oxide, organism-specific biosystemNitric oxide (NO), a multifunctional second messenger, is implicated in physiological functions in mammals that range from immune response and potentiation of synaptic transmission to dilation of blo...
  • MicroRNAs in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    MicroRNAs in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, organism-specific biosystemThis pathway shows the role of microRNAs in the process of cardiac hypertrophy. MicroRNA targets were predicted by the TargetScan algorithm, and the predicted interactions are shown in red dashed lin...
  • Muscle contraction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Muscle contraction, organism-specific biosystemIn this module, the processes by which calcium binding triggers actin - myosin interactions and force generation in smooth and striated muscle tissues are annotated.
  • Myometrial Relaxation and Contraction Pathways, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Myometrial Relaxation and Contraction Pathways, organism-specific biosystemThis pathway illustrates signaling networks implicated in uterine muscle contraction at labor and quiescence throughout gestation (pregnancy). The muscle of the uterus, responsible for contractile ac...
  • N-cadherin signaling events, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    N-cadherin signaling events, organism-specific biosystem
    N-cadherin signaling events
  • NCAM signaling for neurite out-growth, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    NCAM signaling for neurite out-growth, organism-specific biosystemThe neural cell adhesion molecule, NCAM, is a member of the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily and is involved in a variety of cellular processes of importance for the formation and maintenance of the n...
  • NGF signalling via TRKA from the plasma membrane, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    NGF signalling via TRKA from the plasma membrane, organism-specific biosystemTrk receptors signal from the plasma membrane and from intracellular membranes, particularly from early endosomes. Signalling from the plasma membrane is fast but transient; signalling from endosomes...
  • Neuronal System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Neuronal System, organism-specific biosystemThe human brain contains at least 100 billion neurons, each with the ability to influence many other cells. Clearly, highly sophisticated and efficient mechanisms are needed to enable communication a...
  • Neurotransmitter Receptor Binding And Downstream Transmission In The Postsynaptic Cell, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Neurotransmitter Receptor Binding And Downstream Transmission In The Postsynaptic Cell, organism-specific biosystemThe neurotransmitter in the synaptic cleft released by the pre-synaptic neuron binds specific receptors located on the post-synaptic terminal. These receptors are either ion channels or G protein cou...
  • Neurotrophin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Neurotrophin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemNeurotrophins are a family of trophic factors involved in differentiation and survival of neural cells. The neurotrophin family consists of nerve growth factor (NGF), brain derived neurotrophic facto...
  • Neurotrophin signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Neurotrophin signaling pathway, conserved biosystemNeurotrophins are a family of trophic factors involved in differentiation and survival of neural cells. The neurotrophin family consists of nerve growth factor (NGF), brain derived neurotrophic facto...
  • Olfactory transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Olfactory transduction, organism-specific biosystemWithin the compact cilia of the olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) a cascade of enzymatic activity transduces the binding of an odorant molecule to a receptor into an electrical signal that can be tra...
  • Olfactory transduction, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Olfactory transduction, conserved biosystemWithin the compact cilia of the olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) a cascade of enzymatic activity transduces the binding of an odorant molecule to a receptor into an electrical signal that can be tra...
  • Oocyte meiosis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Oocyte meiosis, organism-specific biosystemDuring meiosis, a single round of DNA replication is followed by two rounds of chromosome segregation, called meiosis I and meiosis II. At meiosis I, homologous chromosomes recombine and then segrega...
  • Oocyte meiosis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Oocyte meiosis, conserved biosystemDuring meiosis, a single round of DNA replication is followed by two rounds of chromosome segregation, called meiosis I and meiosis II. At meiosis I, homologous chromosomes recombine and then segrega...
  • Opioid Signalling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Opioid Signalling, organism-specific biosystemOpioids are chemical substances similar to opiates, the active substances found in opium (morphine, codeine etc.). Opioid action is mediated by the receptors for endogenous opioids; peptides such as...
  • Oxytocin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Oxytocin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemOxytocin (OT) is a nonapeptide synthesized by the magno-cellular neurons located in the supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular (PVN) nuclei of the hypothalamus. It exerts a wide variety of central and ...
  • Oxytocin signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Oxytocin signaling pathway, conserved biosystemOxytocin (OT) is a nonapeptide synthesized by the magno-cellular neurons located in the supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular (PVN) nuclei of the hypothalamus. It exerts a wide variety of central and ...
  • PLC beta mediated events, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    PLC beta mediated events, organism-specific biosystemThe phospholipase C (PLC) family of enzymes is both diverse and complex. The isoforms beta, gamma and delta (each have subtypes) make up the members of this family. PLC hydrolyzes phosphatidylinosito...
  • PLC-gamma1 signalling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    PLC-gamma1 signalling, organism-specific biosystemThe activation of phosphlipase C-gamma (PLC-gamma) and subsequent mobilization of calcium from intracellular stores are essential for neurotrophin secretion. PLC-gamma is activated through the phosph...
  • PLCG1 events in ERBB2 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    PLCG1 events in ERBB2 signaling, organism-specific biosystemActivation of PLCG1 signaling is observed only in the presence of ERBB2:EGFR heterodimers, with PLCG1 binding to phosphorylated tyrosine Y992 and Y1173 in the C-tail of EGFR (Chattopadhyay et al. 199...
  • Pertussis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Pertussis, organism-specific biosystemPertussis, also known as whooping cough, is an acute respiratory infectious disease caused by a bacteria called Bordetella Pertussis. The characteristic symptoms are paroxysmal cough, inspiratory whe...
  • Pertussis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Pertussis, conserved biosystemPertussis, also known as whooping cough, is an acute respiratory infectious disease caused by a bacteria called Bordetella Pertussis. The characteristic symptoms are paroxysmal cough, inspiratory whe...
  • Phosphatidylinositol signaling system, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Phosphatidylinositol signaling system, organism-specific biosystem
    Phosphatidylinositol signaling system
  • Phosphatidylinositol signaling system, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Phosphatidylinositol signaling system, conserved biosystem
    Phosphatidylinositol signaling system
  • Phospholipase C-mediated cascade: FGFR1, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Phospholipase C-mediated cascade: FGFR1, organism-specific biosystemPhospholipase C-gamma (PLC-gamma) is a substrate of the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) and other receptors with tyrosine kinase activity. It is known that the src homology region 2 (SH2 dom...
  • Phospholipase C-mediated cascade; FGFR2, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Phospholipase C-mediated cascade; FGFR2, organism-specific biosystemPhospholipase C-gamma (PLC-gamma) is a substrate of the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) and other receptors with tyrosine kinase activity. It is known that the src homology region 2 (SH2 dom...
  • Phospholipase C-mediated cascade; FGFR3, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Phospholipase C-mediated cascade; FGFR3, organism-specific biosystemPhospholipase C-gamma (PLC-gamma) is a substrate of the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) and other receptors with tyrosine kinase activity. It is known that the src homology region 2 (SH2 dom...
  • Phospholipase C-mediated cascade; FGFR4, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Phospholipase C-mediated cascade; FGFR4, organism-specific biosystemPhospholipase C-gamma (PLC-gamma) is a substrate of the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) and other receptors with tyrosine kinase activity. It is known that the src homology region 2 (SH2 dom...
  • Phototransduction, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Phototransduction, organism-specific biosystemPhototransduction is a biochemical process by which the photoreceptor cells generate electrical signals in response to captured photons. The vertebrate cascade starts with the absorption of photons b...
  • Phototransduction, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Phototransduction, conserved biosystemPhototransduction is a biochemical process by which the photoreceptor cells generate electrical signals in response to captured photons. The vertebrate cascade starts with the absorption of photons b...
  • Platelet activation, signaling and aggregation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Platelet activation, signaling and aggregation, organism-specific biosystemPlatelet activation begins with the initial binding of adhesive ligands and of the excitatory platelet agonists (released or generated at the sites of vascular trauma) to cognate receptors on the pla...
  • Platelet degranulation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Platelet degranulation, organism-specific biosystemPlatelets function as exocytotic cells, secreting a plethora of effector molecules at sites of vascular injury. Platelets contain a number of distinguishable storage granules including alpha granules...
  • Post NMDA receptor activation events, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Post NMDA receptor activation events, organism-specific biosystemCa2+ influx through the NMDA receptor initiates subsequent molecular pathways that have a defined role in establishing long-lasting synaptic changes. The molecular signaling initiated by a rise in Ca...
  • Prolonged ERK activation events, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Prolonged ERK activation events, organism-specific biosystemAfter NGF binding, activated Trk receptors provide multiple docking sites for adaptor proteins and enzymes. Two docking proteins, the Ankyrin-Rich Membrane Spanning protein (ARMS/Kidins220) and Fibro...
  • RAF/MAP kinase cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    RAF/MAP kinase cascade, organism-specific biosystemThe RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK pathway regulates processes such as proliferation, differentiation, survival, senescence and cell motility in response to growth factors, hormones and cytokines, among others. Bin...
  • RHO GTPase Effectors, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    RHO GTPase Effectors, organism-specific biosystemRHO GTPases regulate cell behaviour by activating a number of downstream effectors that regulate cytoskeletal organization, intracellular trafficking and transcription (reviewed by Sahai and Marshall...
  • RHO GTPases activate IQGAPs, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    RHO GTPases activate IQGAPs, organism-specific biosystemIQGAPs constitute a family of scaffolding proteins characterized by a calponin homology (CH) domain, a polyproline binding region (WW domain), a tandem of four IQ (isoleucine and glutamine-rich) repe...
  • RHO GTPases activate PAKs, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    RHO GTPases activate PAKs, organism-specific biosystemThe PAKs (p21-activated kinases) are a family of serine/threonine kinases mainly implicated in cytoskeletal rearrangements. All PAKs share a conserved catalytic domain located at the carboxyl terminu...
  • Rap1 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Rap1 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemRap1 is a small GTPase that controls diverse processes, such as cell adhesion, cell-cell junction formation and cell polarity. Like all G proteins, Rap1 cycles between an inactive GDP-bound and an ac...
  • Rap1 signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Rap1 signaling pathway, conserved biosystemRap1 is a small GTPase that controls diverse processes, such as cell adhesion, cell-cell junction formation and cell polarity. Like all G proteins, Rap1 cycles between an inactive GDP-bound and an ac...
  • Ras activation uopn Ca2+ infux through NMDA receptor, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Ras activation uopn Ca2+ infux through NMDA receptor, organism-specific biosystemCa2+ influx through the NMDA receptor leads to the activation of Ras kinase via the activation of RasGRF.
  • Ras signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Ras signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe Ras proteins are GTPases that function as molecular switches for signaling pathways regulating cell proliferation, survival, growth, migration, differentiation or cytoskeletal dynamism. Ras prote...
  • Regulation of cytoplasmic and nuclear SMAD2/3 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Regulation of cytoplasmic and nuclear SMAD2/3 signaling, organism-specific biosystem
    Regulation of cytoplasmic and nuclear SMAD2/3 signaling
  • Renin secretion, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Renin secretion, organism-specific biosystemThe aspartyl-protease renin is the key regulator of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, which is critically involved in extracellular fluid volume and blood pressure homeostasis of the body. R...
  • Renin secretion, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Renin secretion, conserved biosystemThe aspartyl-protease renin is the key regulator of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, which is critically involved in extracellular fluid volume and blood pressure homeostasis of the body. R...
  • Response to elevated platelet cytosolic Ca2+, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Response to elevated platelet cytosolic Ca2+, organism-specific biosystemActivation of phospholipase C enzymes results in the generation of second messengers of the phosphatidylinositol pathway. The events resulting from this pathway are a rise in intracellular calcium an...
  • Role of Calcineurin-dependent NFAT signaling in lymphocytes, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Role of Calcineurin-dependent NFAT signaling in lymphocytes, organism-specific biosystem
    Role of Calcineurin-dependent NFAT signaling in lymphocytes
  • SHC1 events in EGFR signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    SHC1 events in EGFR signaling, organism-specific biosystemGRB2 can bind EGFR directly or through another SH2-containing protein, SHC1. This association leads to RAS activation.
  • SHC1 events in ERBB2 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    SHC1 events in ERBB2 signaling, organism-specific biosystemAll ERBB2 heterodimers, ERBB2:EGFR, ERBB2:ERBB3 and ERBB2:ERBB4, are able to activate RAF/MAP kinase cascade by recruiting SHC1 (Pinkas-Kramarski et al. 1996, Sepp-Lorenzino et al. 1996) to phosphory...
  • SHC1 events in ERBB4 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    SHC1 events in ERBB4 signaling, organism-specific biosystemAll splicing isoforms of ERBB4 possess two tyrosine residues in the C-tail that serve as docking sites for SHC1 (Kaushansky et al. 2008, Pinkas-Kramarski et al. 1996, Cohen et al. 1996). Once bound t...
  • SOS-mediated signalling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    SOS-mediated signalling, organism-specific biosystemSOS is recruited to the plasma membrane and mediates activation of Ras.
  • Salivary secretion, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Salivary secretion, organism-specific biosystemSaliva has manifold functions in maintaining the integrity of the oral tissues, in protecting teeth from caries, in the tasting and ingestion of food, in speech and in the tolerance of tenures, for e...
  • Salivary secretion, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Salivary secretion, conserved biosystemSaliva has manifold functions in maintaining the integrity of the oral tissues, in protecting teeth from caries, in the tasting and ingestion of food, in speech and in the tolerance of tenures, for e...
  • Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystemSignal transduction is a process in which extracellular signals elicit changes in cell state and activity. Transmembrane receptors sense changes in the cellular environment by binding ligands, such a...
  • Signaling by EGFR, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by EGFR, organism-specific biosystemThe epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is one member of the ERBB family of transmembrane glycoprotein tyrosine receptor kinases (RTK). Binding of EGFR to its ligands induces conformational chang...
  • Signaling by ERBB2, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by ERBB2, organism-specific biosystemERBB2, also known as HER2 or NEU, is a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) belonging to the EGFR family. ERBB2 possesses an extracellular domain that does not bind any known ligand, contrary to other EGFR...
  • Signaling by ERBB4, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by ERBB4, organism-specific biosystemERBB4, also known as HER4, belongs to the ERBB family of receptors, which also includes ERBB1 (EGFR i.e. HER1), ERBB2 (HER2 i.e. NEU) and ERBB3 (HER3). Similar to EGFR, ERBB4 has an extracellular lig...
  • Signaling by FGFR, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by FGFR, organism-specific biosystemThe 22 members of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family of growth factors mediate their cellular responses by binding to and activating the different isoforms encoded by the four receptor tyrosin...
  • Signaling by FGFR1, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by FGFR1, organism-specific biosystemThe 22 members of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family of growth factors mediate their cellular responses by binding to and activating the different isoforms encoded by the four receptor tyrosin...
  • Signaling by FGFR2, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by FGFR2, organism-specific biosystemThe 22 members of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family of growth factors mediate their cellular responses by binding to and activating the different isoforms encoded by the four receptor tyrosin...
  • Signaling by FGFR3, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by FGFR3, organism-specific biosystemThe 22 members of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family of growth factors mediate their cellular responses by binding to and activating the different isoforms encoded by the four receptor tyrosin...
  • Signaling by FGFR4, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by FGFR4, organism-specific biosystemThe 22 members of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family of growth factors mediate their cellular responses by binding to and activating the different isoforms encoded by the four receptor tyrosin...
  • Signaling by GPCR, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by GPCR, organism-specific biosystemG protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs; 7TM receptors; seven transmembrane domain receptors; heptahelical receptors; G protein-linked receptors [GPLR]) are the largest family of transmembrane receptors i...
  • Signaling by Insulin receptor, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by Insulin receptor, organism-specific biosystemInsulin binding to its receptor results in receptor autophosphorylation on tyrosine residues and the tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrates (e.g. IRS and Shc) by the insulin receptor...
  • Signaling by Interleukins, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by Interleukins, organism-specific biosystemInterleukins are low molecular weight proteins that bind to cell surface receptors and act in an autocrine and/or paracrine fashion. They were first identified as factors produced by leukocytes but a...
  • Signaling by Leptin, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by Leptin, organism-specific biosystemLeptin (LEP, OB, OBS), a circulating adipokine, and its receptor LEPR (DB, OBR) control food intake and energy balance and are implicated in obesity-related diseases (recently reviewed in Amitani et ...
  • Signaling by PDGF, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by PDGF, organism-specific biosystemPlatelet-derived Growth Factor (PDGF) is a potent stimulator of growth and motility of connective tissue cells such as fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells as well as other cells such as capillary end...
  • Signaling by Rho GTPases, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by Rho GTPases, organism-specific biosystemThe Rho family of small guanine nucleotide binding proteins is one of five generally recognized branches of the Ras superfamily. Like most Ras superfamily members, typical Rho proteins function as bi...
  • Signaling by SCF-KIT, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by SCF-KIT, organism-specific biosystemStem cell factor (SCF) is a growth factor with membrane bound and soluble forms. It is expressed by fibroblasts and endothelial cells throughout the body, promoting proliferation, migration, survival...
  • Signaling by Type 1 Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 Receptor (IGF1R), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by Type 1 Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 Receptor (IGF1R), organism-specific biosystemBinding of IGF1 (IGF-I) or IGF2 (IGF-II) to the extracellular alpha peptides of the type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF1R) triggers the activation of two major signaling pathways: the SOS...
  • Signaling by VEGF, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by VEGF, organism-specific biosystemIn normal development vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) are crucial regulators of vascular development during embryogenesis (vasculogenesis) and blood-vessel formation in the adult (angioge...
  • Signaling by Wnt, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by Wnt, organism-specific biosystemWNT signaling pathways control a wide range of developmental and adult process in metozoans including cell proliferation, cell fate decisions, cell polarity and stem cell maintenance (reviewed in Sai...
  • Signaling by the B Cell Receptor (BCR), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by the B Cell Receptor (BCR), organism-specific biosystemMature B cells express IgM and IgD immunoglobulins which are complexed at the plasma membrane with Ig-alpha (CD79A, MB-1) and Ig-beta (CD79B, B29) to form the B cell receptor (BCR) (Fu et al. 1974, F...
  • Signaling events mediated by VEGFR1 and VEGFR2, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Signaling events mediated by VEGFR1 and VEGFR2, organism-specific biosystem
    Signaling events mediated by VEGFR1 and VEGFR2
  • Signalling by NGF, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signalling by NGF, organism-specific biosystemNeurotrophins (NGF, BDNF, NT-3, NT-4/5) play pivotal roles in survival, differentiation, and plasticity of neurons in the peripheral and central nervous system. They are produced, and secreted in mi...
  • Signalling to ERKs, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signalling to ERKs, organism-specific biosystemNeurotrophins utilize multiple pathways to activate ERKs (ERK1 and ERK2), a subgroup of the large MAP kinase (MAPK) family, from the plasma membrane. The major signalling pathways to ERKs are via RAS...
  • Signalling to RAS, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signalling to RAS, organism-specific biosystemSignalling through Shc adaptor proteins appears to be identical for both NGF and EGF. It leads to a fast, but transient, MAPK/ERK activation, which is insufficient to explain the prolonged activation...
  • Signalling to p38 via RIT and RIN, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signalling to p38 via RIT and RIN, organism-specific biosystemRIT and RIN are two small guanine nucleotide binding proteins that share more than 50% sequence identity with RAS, including highly conserved core effector domains. Unlike RAS, the C termini of RIT a...
  • Smooth Muscle Contraction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Smooth Muscle Contraction, organism-specific biosystemLayers of smooth muscle cells can be found in the walls of numerous organs and tissues within the body. Smooth muscle tissue lacks the striated banding pattern characteristic of skeletal and cardiac ...
  • Synthesis of IP3 and IP4 in the cytosol, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Synthesis of IP3 and IP4 in the cytosol, organism-specific biosystemAn array of inositol trisphosphate (IP3) and tetrakisphosphate (IP4) molecules are synthesised by the action of various kinases and phosphatases in the cytosol (Irvine & Schell 2001, Bunney & Katan 2...
  • Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) synthesis, recycling, salvage and regulation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) synthesis, recycling, salvage and regulation, organism-specific biosystemTetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential co-factor for the aromatic amino acid hydroxylases and glycerol ether monooxygenase and it regulates nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity. Inherited BH4 defi...
  • The phototransduction cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    The phototransduction cascade, organism-specific biosystemThe visual pigment (rhodopsin in rods) consists of an 11-cis-retinal (11cRAL) chromophore covalently attached to a GPCR opsin family member via a Schiff base linkage. Upon photon absorption, 11cRAL i...
  • Translocation of GLUT4 to the plasma membrane, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Translocation of GLUT4 to the plasma membrane, organism-specific biosystemIn adipocytes and myocytes insulin signaling causes intracellular vesicles carrying the GLUT4 (SLC2A4) glucose transporter to translocate to the plasma membrane, allowing the cells to take up glucose...
  • Transmission across Chemical Synapses, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Transmission across Chemical Synapses, organism-specific biosystemChemical synapses are specialized junctions that are used for communication between neurons, neurons and muscle or gland cells. The synapse involves a pre-synaptic neuron and a post-synaptic neuron,...
  • Tuberculosis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Tuberculosis, organism-specific biosystemTuberculosis, or TB, is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. One third of the world's population is thought to be infected with TB. About 90% of those infected result in latent...
  • Tuberculosis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Tuberculosis, conserved biosystemTuberculosis, or TB, is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. One third of the world's population is thought to be infected with TB. About 90% of those infected result in latent...
  • Uptake and actions of bacterial toxins, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Uptake and actions of bacterial toxins, organism-specific biosystemThe toxic effects of many bacteria on their human hosts are mediated by proteins released from the bacteria that enter human cells and disrupt critical cellular functions (Henkel et al. 2010). All of...
  • Uptake and function of anthrax toxins, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Uptake and function of anthrax toxins, organism-specific biosystemBacillus anthracis bacteria target cells in an infected human through the action of three secreted bacterial proteins, LF, EF, and PA (reviews: Turk 2007; Young and Collier 2007). LF (lethal factor) ...
  • VEGFA-VEGFR2 Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    VEGFA-VEGFR2 Pathway, organism-specific biosystemAngiogenesis is the formation of new blood vessels from preexisting vasculature. One of the most important proangiogenic factors is vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). VEGF exerts its biologic...
  • VEGFR1 specific signals, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    VEGFR1 specific signals, organism-specific biosystem
    VEGFR1 specific signals
  • VEGFR2 mediated cell proliferation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    VEGFR2 mediated cell proliferation, organism-specific biosystemVEGFR2 stimulates ERK not via GRB2-SOS-RAS, but via pY1175-dependent phosphorylation of PLC gamma and subsequent activation of PKCs. PKC plays an important mediatory role in the proliferative Ras/Raf...
  • VEGFR2 mediated vascular permeability, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    VEGFR2 mediated vascular permeability, organism-specific biosystemThe free radical nitric oxide (NO), produced by endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), is an important vasoactive substance in normal vascular biology and pathophysiology. It plays an important role in vasc...
  • Vascular smooth muscle contraction, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Vascular smooth muscle contraction, organism-specific biosystemThe vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) is a highly specialized cell whose principal function is contraction. On contraction, VSMCs shorten, thereby decreasing the diameter of a blood vessel to regula...
  • Vascular smooth muscle contraction, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Vascular smooth muscle contraction, conserved biosystemThe vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) is a highly specialized cell whose principal function is contraction. On contraction, VSMCs shorten, thereby decreasing the diameter of a blood vessel to regula...
  • Vesicle-mediated transport, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Vesicle-mediated transport, organism-specific biosystemThe transit of proteins and other cargo through the cell requires a cellular transport process in which transported substances are moved in membrane-bounded vesicles. Transported substances are enclo...
  • Visual phototransduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Visual phototransduction, organism-specific biosystemVisual phototransduction is the process by which photon absorption by visual pigment molecules in photoreceptor cells is converted to an electrical cellular response. The events in this process are p...
  • beta-catenin independent WNT signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    beta-catenin independent WNT signaling, organism-specific biosystemHumans and mice have 19 identified WNT proteins that were originally classified as either 'canonical' or 'non-canonical' depending upon whether they were able to transform the mouse mammary epithelia...
  • cAMP signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    cAMP signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemcAMP is one of the most common and universal second messengers, and its formation is promoted by adenylyl cyclase (AC) activation after ligation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) by ligands incl...
  • cAMP signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    cAMP signaling pathway, conserved biosystemcAMP is one of the most common and universal second messengers, and its formation is promoted by adenylyl cyclase (AC) activation after ligation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) by ligands incl...
  • cGMP-PKG signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    cGMP-PKG signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemCyclic GMP (cGMP) is the intracellular second messenger that mediates the action of nitric oxide (NO) and natriuretic peptides (NPs), regulating a broad array of physiologic processes. The elevated i...
  • cGMP-PKG signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    cGMP-PKG signaling pathway, conserved biosystemCyclic GMP (cGMP) is the intracellular second messenger that mediates the action of nitric oxide (NO) and natriuretic peptides (NPs), regulating a broad array of physiologic processes. The elevated i...
  • eNOS activation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    eNOS activation, organism-specific biosystemeNOS activity is regulated by numerous post-translational modifications including phosphorylation and acylation, which also modulate its interactions with other proteins and its subcellular localizat...
  • eNOS activation and regulation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    eNOS activation and regulation, organism-specific biosystemOriginally identified as endothelium-derived relaxing factor, eNOS derived NO is a critical signaling molecule in vascular homeostasis. It regulates blood pressure and vascular tone, and is involved...
  • p38 MAPK signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    p38 MAPK signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem
    p38 MAPK signaling pathway
Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

Markers

Homology

Clone Names

  • FLJ99410

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
N-terminal myristoylation domain binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
calcium ion binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
calcium ion binding ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
ion channel binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
phospholipase binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
protein domain specific binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
protein kinase binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
protein phosphatase activator activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
protein serine/threonine kinase activator activity TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
thioesterase binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
titin binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
Fc-epsilon receptor signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
activation of phospholipase C activity TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
blood coagulation TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
carbohydrate metabolic process TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
detection of calcium ion IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
glucose metabolic process TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
glycogen catabolic process TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
innate immune response TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
inositol phosphate metabolic process TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
membrane organization TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
muscle contraction TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
negative regulation of peptidyl-threonine phosphorylation TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of ryanodine-sensitive calcium-release channel activity ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
neurotrophin TRK receptor signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
nitric oxide metabolic process TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
phototransduction, visible light TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
platelet activation TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
platelet degranulation TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
positive regulation of cyclic nucleotide metabolic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of peptidyl-threonine phosphorylation TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of phosphoprotein phosphatase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of protein autophosphorylation TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of protein dephosphorylation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of protein serine/threonine kinase activity TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of ryanodine-sensitive calcium-release channel activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
regulation of cardiac muscle contraction IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
regulation of cardiac muscle contraction by regulation of the release of sequestered calcium ion IC
Inferred by Curator
more info
 
regulation of cell communication by electrical coupling involved in cardiac conduction IC
Inferred by Curator
more info
 
regulation of cytokinesis IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
regulation of heart rate IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
regulation of nitric-oxide synthase activity TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
regulation of release of sequestered calcium ion into cytosol by sarcoplasmic reticulum IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
regulation of rhodopsin mediated signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
response to calcium ion IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
rhodopsin mediated signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
signal transduction TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
small GTPase mediated signal transduction TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
small molecule metabolic process TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
stimulatory C-type lectin receptor signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
substantia nigra development IEP
Inferred from Expression Pattern
more info
PubMed 
synaptic transmission TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
vascular endothelial growth factor receptor signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
colocalizes_with calcium channel complex IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
centrosome IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cytoplasm TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
cytosol TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
extracellular exosome IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
extracellular region TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
nucleoplasm TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
nucleus IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
plasma membrane TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
sarcomere IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
spindle microtubule IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
spindle pole IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
vesicle IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
Preferred Names
calmodulin
Names
LP7057 protein
phosphorylase kinase delta
prepro-calmodulin 2
NP_001292554.1
NP_001734.1

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

Genomic

  1. NG_042065.1 RefSeqGene

    Range
    5001..21855
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_001305624.1NP_001292553.1  calmodulin isoform 1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1) encodes the longest isoform (1).
    Source sequence(s)
    AI873701, BC017385, BG563041, HY022313
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P62158
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    PTZ00184
    Location:50197
    PTZ00184; calmodulin; Provisional
    cd00051
    Location:133195
    EFh; EF-hand, calcium binding motif; A diverse superfamily of calcium sensors and calcium signal modulators; most examples in this alignment model have 2 active canonical EF hands. Ca2+ binding induces a conformational change in the EF-hand motif, leading to ...
  2. NM_001305625.1NP_001292554.1  calmodulin isoform 3

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001292554.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (3) contains an alternate exon in the 5' UTR, lacks a portion of the 5' coding region, and initiates translation at a downstream start codon, compared to variant 1. The encoded isoform (3) has a shorter N-terminus than isoform 1. Both variants 3 and 4 encode the same protein.
    Source sequence(s)
    AI873701, BC017385, HY108355
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P62158
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    Q96HY3
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    cd00051
    Location:49111
    EFh; EF-hand, calcium binding motif; A diverse superfamily of calcium sensors and calcium signal modulators; most examples in this alignment model have 2 active canonical EF hands. Ca2+ binding induces a conformational change in the EF-hand motif, leading to ...
    pfam13499
    Location:55110
    EF-hand_7; EF-hand domain pair
  3. NM_001305626.1NP_001292555.1  calmodulin isoform 3

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001292555.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (4) differs in its 5' UTR, lacks a portion of the 5' coding region, and initiates translation at a downstream start codon, compared to variant 1. The encoded isoform (3) has a shorter N-terminus than isoform 1. Both variants 3 and 4 encode the same protein.
    Source sequence(s)
    AC073283, AI873701, BC017385, BC047553
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P62158
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    Q96HY3
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    cd00051
    Location:49111
    EFh; EF-hand, calcium binding motif; A diverse superfamily of calcium sensors and calcium signal modulators; most examples in this alignment model have 2 active canonical EF hands. Ca2+ binding induces a conformational change in the EF-hand motif, leading to ...
    pfam13499
    Location:55110
    EF-hand_7; EF-hand domain pair
  4. NM_001743.5NP_001734.1  calmodulin isoform 2

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001734.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (2) lacks an exon in the 5' coding region, and uses an alternate start codon compared to variant 1. The encoded isoform (2) has a shorter N-terminus compared to isoform 1, and is the same protein encoded by other calmodulin gene family members.
    Source sequence(s)
    AI873701, BC017385, HY022313
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS1832.1
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    B4DJ51
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P62158
    Related
    ENSP00000272298, OTTHUMP00000159070, ENST00000272298, OTTHUMT00000250789
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    PTZ00184
    Location:1149
    PTZ00184; calmodulin; Provisional
    cd00051
    Location:85147
    EFh; EF-hand, calcium binding motif; A diverse superfamily of calcium sensors and calcium signal modulators; most examples in this alignment model have 2 active canonical EF hands. Ca2+ binding induces a conformational change in the EF-hand motif, leading to ...

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 107

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p2 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000002.12 Reference GRCh38.p2 Primary Assembly

    Range
    47160082..47176601
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

Alternate CHM1_1.1

Genomic

  1. NC_018913.2 Alternate CHM1_1.1

    Range
    47317465..47333922
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)