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TUBA4A tubulin, alpha 4a [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 7277, updated on 7-Dec-2014
Official Symbol
TUBA4Aprovided by HGNC
Official Full Name
tubulin, alpha 4aprovided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:12407
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000127824; HPRD:01851; MIM:191110; Vega:OTTHUMG00000133126
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
TUBA1; H2-ALPHA
Summary
Microtubules of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton perform essential and diverse functions and are composed of a heterodimer of alpha and beta tubulin. The genes encoding these microtubule constituents are part of the tubulin superfamily, which is composed of six distinct families. Genes from the alpha, beta and gamma tubulin families are found in all eukaryotes. The alpha and beta tubulins represent the major components of microtubules, while gamma tubulin plays a critical role in the nucleation of microtubule assembly. There are multiple alpha and beta tubulin genes and they are highly conserved among and between species. This gene encodes an alpha tubulin that is a highly conserved homolog of a rat testis-specific alpha tubulin. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2013]
See TUBA4A in Epigenomics, MapViewer
Location:
2q35
Exon count:
6
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
106 current GRCh38 (GCF_000001405.26) 2 NC_000002.12 (219249711..219254608, complement)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 2 NC_000002.11 (220114433..220119330, complement)

Chromosome 2 - NC_000002.12Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene autophagy related 9A Neighboring gene ankyrin repeat and zinc finger domain containing 1 Neighboring gene galactosidase, beta 1-like Neighboring gene serine/threonine kinase 16 Neighboring gene tubulin, alpha 4b (pseudogene) Neighboring gene DnaJ (Hsp40) homolog, subfamily B, member 2 Neighboring gene protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, N Neighboring gene microRNA 153-1

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

NHGRI GWAS Catalog

Description
Many sequence variants affecting diversity of adult human height.
NHGRI GWA Catalog

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 env Tandem affinity purification and mass spectrometry analysis identify tubulin alpha 4a protein (TUBA4A), HIV-1 Gag, Gag/Pol, gp120, and Nef incorporated into staufen1 RNP complexes isolated from HIV-1-expressing cells PubMed
env The mRNA expression levels for alpha-tubulin, TRADD, IFN-gamma R2, GAS1, MADD, NF-kappaB, I-kappa B, 14-3-3 protein, APaf1, PARP, IGF-1 receptor, RB1, Rb2/p130, ARC, and caspase 6 are upregulated in human neuronal cells after treatment with HIV-1 gp120 PubMed
env The binding of HIV-1 gp120 to CD4+-permissive cells increases the level of acetylated alpha-tubulin in a CD4-dependent manner; overexpression of Histone Deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) inhibits the acetylation of alpha-tubulin and prevents HIV-1-cell fusion PubMed
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp160, precursor env Treatment of cells with actin-depolymerizing agents or tubulin polymerization inhibitors largely reduces the percentage of cells with capped HIV-1 Gag and Env, indicating an intact actin and tubulin cytoskeleton is required for efficient assembly of HIV-1 PubMed
Envelope transmembrane glycoprotein gp41 env Expression of HIV-1 gp41 cytoplasmic domain reduces acetylated tubulin alpha and interferes with virus-cell fusion PubMed
Gag-Pol gag-pol Tandem affinity purification and mass spectrometry analysis identify tubulin alpha 4a protein (TUBA4A), HIV-1 Gag, Gag/Pol, gp120, and Nef incorporated into staufen1 RNP complexes isolated from HIV-1-expressing cells PubMed
Nef nef Tandem affinity purification and mass spectrometry analysis identify tubulin alpha 4a protein (TUBA4A), HIV-1 Gag, Gag/Pol, gp120, and Nef incorporated into staufen1 RNP complexes isolated from HIV-1-expressing cells PubMed
Pr55(Gag) gag Tandem affinity purification and mass spectrometry analysis identify tubulin alpha 4a protein (TUBA4A), HIV-1 Gag, Gag/Pol, gp120, and Nef incorporated into staufen1 RNP complexes isolated from HIV-1-expressing cells PubMed
gag Treatment of cells with actin-depolymerizing agents or tubulin polymerization inhibitors largely reduces the percentage of cells with capped HIV-1 Gag and Env, indicating an intact actin and tubulin cytoskeleton is required for efficient assembly of HIV-1 PubMed
Rev rev HIV-1 Rev interacting protein, tubulin alpha 4a (TUBA4A), is identified by the in-vitro binding experiments involving cytosolic or nuclear extracts from HeLa cells PubMed
rev Rev acts to depolymerize microtubules that are formed by tubulin, an effect that is observed during HIV-1 infection PubMed
Tat tat HIV-1 Tat K29A, K50R, and K51R lysine mutations downregulate the proportion of soluble tubulin in cells, while the majority of other lysine mutations upregulate the percentage of soluble tubulin compared with the wild-type PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat causes a dramatic decrease in alpha-tubulin staining, which indicates disruption of the cytoskeleton organization in human intestinal epithelial cells PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat (specifically, amino acids 38-72), enhances tubulin polymerization and triggers the mitochondrial pathway to induce T cell apoptosis as shown in vitro by the release of cytochrome c from isolated mitochondria PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat (amino acids 36-39) binds tubulin alpha/beta dimers and polymerized microtubules leading to the alteration of microtubule dynamics and activation of a mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway that is facilitated by the Bcl-2 relative Bim PubMed
integrase gag-pol Co-immunoprecipitation shows interaction of HIV-1 IN with alpha-tubulin PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

  • Cell Cycle, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Cell Cycle, organism-specific biosystem
    Cell Cycle
  • Cell Cycle, Mitotic, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Cell Cycle, Mitotic, organism-specific biosystemThe replication of the genome and the subsequent segregation of chromosomes into daughter cells are controlled by a series of events collectively known as the cell cycle. DNA replication is carried o...
  • Centrosome maturation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Centrosome maturation, organism-specific biosystemThe centrosome is the primary microtubule organizing center (MTOC) in vertebrate cells and plays an important role in orchestrating the formation of the mitotic spindle. Centrosome maturation is an ...
  • Chaperonin-mediated protein folding, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Chaperonin-mediated protein folding, organism-specific biosystemThe eukaryotic chaperonin TCP-1 ring complex (TRiC/ CCT) plays an essential role in the folding of a subset of proteins prominent among which are the actins and tubulins (reviewed in Altschuler and...
  • Cooperation of Prefoldin and TriC/CCT in actin and tubulin folding, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Cooperation of Prefoldin and TriC/CCT in actin and tubulin folding, organism-specific biosystemIn the case of actin and tubulin folding, and perhaps other substrates, the emerging polypeptide chain is transferred from the ribosome to TRiC via Prefoldin (Vainberg et al., 1998).
  • Formation of tubulin folding intermediates by CCT/TriC, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Formation of tubulin folding intermediates by CCT/TriC, organism-specific biosystemTriC/CCT forms a binary complex with unfolded alpha- or beta-tubulin (Frydman et al., 1992; Gao et al., 1993). The tubulin folding intermediates produced by TriC are unstable (Gao et al., 1993). Fiv...
  • G2/M Transition, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    G2/M Transition, organism-specific biosystemCyclin A can also form complexes with Cdc2 (Cdk1). Together with three B-type cyclins, Cdc2 (Cdk1) regulates the transition from G2 into mitosis. These complexes are activated by dephosphorylation of...
  • Gap junction, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Gap junction, organism-specific biosystemGap junctions contain intercellular channels that allow direct communication between the cytosolic compartments of adjacent cells. Each gap junction channel is formed by docking of two 'hemichannels'...
  • Gap junction, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Gap junction, conserved biosystemGap junctions contain intercellular channels that allow direct communication between the cytosolic compartments of adjacent cells. Each gap junction channel is formed by docking of two 'hemichannels'...
  • Hemostasis, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Hemostasis, organism-specific biosystemHemostasis is a physiological response that culminates in the arrest of bleeding from an injured vessel. Under normal conditions the vascular endothelium supports vasodilation, inhibits platelet adhe...
  • Loss of Nlp from mitotic centrosomes, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Loss of Nlp from mitotic centrosomes, organism-specific biosystemDuring interphase, Nlp interacts with gamma-tubulin ring complexes (gamma-TuRC), and is thought to contribute to the organization of interphase microtubules (Casenghi et al.,2003). Plk1 is activated...
  • Loss of proteins required for interphase microtubule organization from the centrosome, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Loss of proteins required for interphase microtubule organization from the centrosome, organism-specific biosystemIn addition to recruiting proteins and complexes necessary for increased microtubule nucleation, centrosomal maturation involves the loss of proteins involved in interphase microtubule organization ...
  • Metabolism of proteins, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Metabolism of proteins, organism-specific biosystemProtein metabolism comprises the pathways of translation, post-translational modification and protein folding.
  • Mitotic G2-G2/M phases, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Mitotic G2-G2/M phases, organism-specific biosystem
    Mitotic G2-G2/M phases
  • Parkin-Ubiquitin Proteasomal System pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Parkin-Ubiquitin Proteasomal System pathway, organism-specific biosystemThis pathway describes the Parkin-Ubiquitin proteasome degradation system.
  • Pathogenic Escherichia coli infection, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Pathogenic Escherichia coli infection, organism-specific biosystemEnteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) are closely related pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli. The hallmark of EPEC/EHEC infections [DS:H00278 H00277] is induction o...
  • Pathogenic Escherichia coli infection, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Pathogenic Escherichia coli infection, organism-specific biosystemSources: [http://www.genome.jp/kegg/pathway/hsa/hsa05130.html KEGG]
  • Pathogenic Escherichia coli infection, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Pathogenic Escherichia coli infection, conserved biosystemEnteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) are closely related pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli. The hallmark of EPEC/EHEC infections [DS:H00278 H00277] is induction o...
  • Phagosome, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Phagosome, organism-specific biosystemPhagocytosis is the process of taking in relatively large particles by a cell, and is a central mechanism in the tissue remodeling, inflammation, and defense against infectious agents. A phagosome is...
  • Phagosome, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Phagosome, conserved biosystemPhagocytosis is the process of taking in relatively large particles by a cell, and is a central mechanism in the tissue remodeling, inflammation, and defense against infectious agents. A phagosome is...
  • Platelet activation, signaling and aggregation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Platelet activation, signaling and aggregation, organism-specific biosystemPlatelet activation begins with the initial binding of adhesive ligands and of the excitatory platelet agonists (released or generated at the sites of vascular trauma) to cognate receptors on the pla...
  • Platelet degranulation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Platelet degranulation, organism-specific biosystemPlatelets function as exocytotic cells, secreting a plethora of effector molecules at sites of vascular injury. Platelets contain a number of distinguishable storage granules including alpha granules...
  • Post-chaperonin tubulin folding pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Post-chaperonin tubulin folding pathway, organism-specific biosystemAlpha and beta tubulin folding intermediates are formed through ATP-dependent interaction with TriC/CCT. In order to form a functional heterodimer, these folding intermediates undergo a series of i...
  • Prefoldin mediated transfer of substrate to CCT/TriC, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Prefoldin mediated transfer of substrate to CCT/TriC, organism-specific biosystemUnfolded actins and tubulins bound to prefoldin are transferred to CCT via a docking mechanism (McCormack and Willison, 2001).
  • Protein folding, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Protein folding, organism-specific biosystemDue to the crowded envirnoment within the cell, many proteins must interact with molecular chaperones to attain their native conformation (reviewed in Young et al., 2004). Chaperones recognize and...
  • Recruitment of mitotic centrosome proteins and complexes, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Recruitment of mitotic centrosome proteins and complexes, organism-specific biosystemThe mitotic spindle becomes established once centrosomes have migrated to opposite poles and the nuclear envelope has broken down. During this stage, interphase centrosomes mature into mitotic centro...
  • Regulation of PLK1 Activity at G2/M Transition, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Regulation of PLK1 Activity at G2/M Transition, organism-specific biosystemThe kinase activity of PLK1 is required for cell cycle progression as PLK1 phosphorylates and regulates a number of cellular proteins during mitosis. Centrosomic AURKA (Aurora A kinase), catalyticall...
  • Response to elevated platelet cytosolic Ca2+, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Response to elevated platelet cytosolic Ca2+, organism-specific biosystemActivation of phospholipase C enzymes results in the generation of second messengers of the phosphatidylinositol pathway. The events resulting from this pathway are a rise in intracellular calcium an...
Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

Markers

Homology

Clone Names

  • FLJ30169

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
GTP binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
GTPase activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
structural constituent of cytoskeleton IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
'de novo' posttranslational protein folding TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
G2/M transition of mitotic cell cycle TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
GTP catabolic process IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
blood coagulation TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
cellular protein metabolic process TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
microtubule-based process IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
mitotic cell cycle TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
platelet activation TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
platelet degranulation TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
protein folding TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
protein polymerization IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
cytosol TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
extracellular region TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
extracellular vesicular exosome IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
microtubule IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
Preferred Names
tubulin alpha-4A chain
Names
tubulin alpha-4A chain
tubulin H2-alpha
tubulin alpha-1 chain
tubulin, alpha 1 (testis specific)

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

Genomic

  1. NG_029913.1 

    Range
    4309..9206
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_001278552.1NP_001265481.1  tubulin alpha-4A chain isoform 2

    See proteins identical to NP_001265481.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (2) contains an alternate 5' exon, which results in translation initiation at a downstream start codon, compared to variant 1. The resulting isoform (2) has a shorter N-terminus, compared to isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AK054731, AK299958
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS63131.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P68366
    Related
    ENSP00000375938, OTTHUMP00000165869, ENST00000392088, OTTHUMT00000259055
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    cd02186
    Location:1420
    alpha_tubulin; The tubulin superfamily includes five distinct families, the alpha-, beta-, gamma-, delta-, and epsilon-tubulins and a sixth family (zeta-tubulin) which is present only in kinetoplastid protozoa. The alpha- and beta-tubulins are the major components of ...
    PTZ00335
    Location:1433
    PTZ00335; tubulin alpha chain; Provisional
  2. NM_006000.2NP_005991.1  tubulin alpha-4A chain isoform 1

    See proteins identical to NP_005991.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1) encodes the longer isoform (1).
    Source sequence(s)
    AK054731, BP346611
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS2438.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P68366
    Related
    ENSP00000248437, OTTHUMP00000164167, ENST00000248437, OTTHUMT00000256816
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    cd02186
    Location:2435
    alpha_tubulin; The tubulin superfamily includes five distinct families, the alpha-, beta-, gamma-, delta-, and epsilon-tubulins and a sixth family (zeta-tubulin) which is present only in kinetoplastid protozoa. The alpha- and beta-tubulins are the major components of ...
    PTZ00335
    Location:1448
    PTZ00335; tubulin alpha chain; Provisional

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 106

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000002.12 

    Range
    219249711..219254608
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. XM_005246832.1XP_005246889.1  

    See proteins identical to XP_005246889.1

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P68366
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    cd02186
    Location:1420
    alpha_tubulin; The tubulin superfamily includes five distinct families, the alpha-, beta-, gamma-, delta-, and epsilon-tubulins and a sixth family (zeta-tubulin) which is present only in kinetoplastid protozoa. The alpha- and beta-tubulins are the major components of ...
    PTZ00335
    Location:1433
    PTZ00335; tubulin alpha chain; Provisional

Alternate CHM1_1.1

Genomic

  1. NC_018913.2 

    Range
    220120276..220125176
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

Alternate HuRef

Genomic

  1. AC_000134.1 

    Range
    211967348..211972245
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)