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PSME2 proteasome activator subunit 2 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 5721, updated on 24-Aug-2015
Official Symbol
PSME2provided by HGNC
Official Full Name
proteasome activator subunit 2provided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:9569
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000100911; HPRD:03697; MIM:602161; Vega:OTTHUMG00000028797
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
PA28B; REGbeta; PA28beta
Summary
The 26S proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered structure composed of 2 complexes, a 20S core and a 19S regulator. The 20S core is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. The 19S regulator is composed of a base, which contains 6 ATPase subunits and 2 non-ATPase subunits, and a lid, which contains up to 10 non-ATPase subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. The immunoproteasome contains an alternate regulator, referred to as the 11S regulator or PA28, that replaces the 19S regulator. Three subunits (alpha, beta and gamma) of the 11S regulator have been identified. This gene encodes the beta subunit of the 11S regulator, one of the two 11S subunits that is induced by gamma-interferon. Three beta and three alpha subunits combine to form a heterohexameric ring. Six pseudogenes have been identified on chromosomes 4, 5, 8, 10 and 13. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Orthologs
See PSME2 in Epigenomics, MapViewer
Location:
14q11.2
Exon count:
11
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
107 current GRCh38.p2 (GCF_000001405.28) 14 NC_000014.9 (24143365..24147316, complement)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 14 NC_000014.8 (24612574..24615855, complement)

Chromosome 14 - NC_000014.9Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene fat storage-inducing transmembrane protein 1 Neighboring gene proteasome activator subunit 1 Neighboring gene ER membrane protein complex subunit 9 Neighboring gene microRNA 7703 Neighboring gene ring finger protein 31 Neighboring gene RNA, 5S ribosomal pseudogene 383 Neighboring gene interferon regulatory factor 9

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

Replication interactions

Interaction Pubs
Knockdown of proteasome activator subunit 2 (PSME2) by siRNA inhibits HIV-1 replication in HeLa-derived TZM-bl cells PubMed

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Tat tat HIV-1 Tat upregulates the expression of proteasome activator subunit 2 (PSME2) in human primary T cells PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat slightly enhances the activity of the purified 26 S proteasome PubMed
tat Amino acids Lys51, Arg52, and Asp67 of HIV-1 Tat represent the proteasome binding site of Tat, and Tat amino acids 37-72 are necessary for proteasomal interaction and suppression of 11 S regulator-mediated antigen presentation PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat inhibits the peptidase activity of the 20 S proteasome and interferes with the formation of the 20 S proteasome-11 S regulator complex PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat binds to the alpha2, alpha4, alpha6, alpha7, beta1, beta2, beta3, beta5, beta6, beta7, LMP7/beta5i, and MECL1/beta2i subunits of the proteasome 20 S core structure and can inhibit cellular proteasome function PubMed
Vif vif HIV-1 Vif binds to the cellular cytidine deaminase APOBEC3G and targets it for degradation through an interaction with the proteasome, thereby inhibiting APOBEC3G mediated restriction of HIV-1 replication PubMed
capsid gag HIV-1 CA downregulates PA28beta and the beta2i subunit of the immunoproteasome complex in a dendritic cell line (JAWS II), whereas in primary dendritic cells, PA28alpha, beta2i, and beta5i are downregulated by CA PubMed
integrase gag-pol Proteasomal degradation of HIV-1 integrase in mammalian cells occurs by the N-end rule pathway PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

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  • Antigen processing and presentation, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Antigen processing and presentation, organism-specific biosystem
    Antigen processing and presentation
  • Antigen processing and presentation, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Antigen processing and presentation, conserved biosystem
    Antigen processing and presentation
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  • Antigen processing: Ubiquitination & Proteasome degradation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • Apoptosis, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • Assembly of the pre-replicative complex, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • Asymmetric localization of PCP proteins, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • Autodegradation of Cdh1 by Cdh1:APC/C, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Autodegradation of Cdh1 by Cdh1:APC/C, organism-specific biosystemCdh1 is degraded by the APC/C during in G1 and G0. This auto-regulation may contribute to reducing the levels of Cdh1 levels during G1 and G0 (Listovsky et al., 2004).
  • Autodegradation of the E3 ubiquitin ligase COP1, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • Axon guidance, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • C-type lectin receptors (CLRs), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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    CDK-mediated phosphorylation and removal of Cdc6, organism-specific biosystemAs cells enter S phase, HsCdc6p is phosphorylated by CDK promoting its export from the nucleus (see Bell and Dutta 2002).
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    CDT1 association with the CDC6:ORC:origin complex, organism-specific biosystemInitiation protein Cdt1 was first identified in X. laevis, where it has been shown to be the second component of licensing factor (RLF-B) and in S. pombe. Cdt1 homologs have been identified in D. mel...
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  • Cdc20:Phospho-APC/C mediated degradation of Cyclin A, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • Cell Cycle, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Cell Cycle, organism-specific biosystem
    Cell Cycle
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  • Cell Cycle, Mitotic, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • Class I MHC mediated antigen processing & presentation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • Cross-presentation of soluble exogenous antigens (endosomes), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • Cyclin A:Cdk2-associated events at S phase entry, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Cyclin A:Cdk2-associated events at S phase entry, organism-specific biosystemCyclin A:Cdk2 plays a key role in S phase entry by phosphorylation of proteins including Cdh1, Rb, p21 and p27. During G1 phase of the cell cycle, cyclin A is synthesized and associates with Cdk2. Af...
  • Cyclin E associated events during G1/S transition, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • Cytokine Signaling in Immune system, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • DAP12 interactions, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • DAP12 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • DNA Replication, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    DNA Replication, organism-specific biosystemStudies in the past decade have suggested that the basic mechanism of DNA replication initiation is conserved in all kingdoms of life. Initiation in unicellular eukaryotes, in particular Saccharomyce...
  • DNA Replication Pre-Initiation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • Dectin-1 mediated noncanonical NF-kB signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • Degradation of GLI1 by the proteasome, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • Degradation of GLI2 by the proteasome, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • Degradation of beta-catenin by the destruction complex, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • Developmental Biology, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • Disease, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • Diseases of signal transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Diseases of signal transduction, organism-specific biosystemSignaling processes are central to human physiology (e.g., Pires-da Silva & Sommer 2003), and their disruption by either germ-line and somatic mutation can lead to serious disease. Here, the molecula...
  • Downstream signal transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Downstream signal transduction, organism-specific biosystemThe role of autophosphorylation sites on PDGF receptors are to provide docking sites for downstream signal transduction molecules which contain SH2 domains. The SH2 domain is a conserved motif of aro...
  • Downstream signaling events of B Cell Receptor (BCR), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • Downstream signaling of activated FGFR1, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • Downstream signaling of activated FGFR2, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • Downstream signaling of activated FGFR3, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • Downstream signaling of activated FGFR4, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • ER-Phagosome pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • FCERI mediated NF-kB activation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • FRS-mediated FGFR1 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • FRS-mediated FGFR2 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • FRS-mediated FGFR3 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • FRS-mediated FGFR4 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • Fc epsilon receptor (FCERI) signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • Frs2-mediated activation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • G1/S Transition, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • GLI3 is processed to GLI3R by the proteasome, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • GRB2 events in EGFR signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • GRB2 events in ERBB2 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • Gene Expression, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • HIV Infection, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • Hedgehog 'on' state, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • Hedgehog ligand biogenesis, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • Hh mutants abrogate ligand secretion, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Hh mutants abrogate ligand secretion, organism-specific biosystemHh signaling is required for a number of developmental processes, and mutations that disrupt the normal processing and biogenesis of Hh ligand can result in neonatal abnormalities. SHH is one of a n...
  • Hh mutants that don't undergo autocatalytic processing are degraded by ERAD, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Hh mutants that don't undergo autocatalytic processing are degraded by ERAD, organism-specific biosystemHh signaling is required for a number of developmental processes, and mutations that disrupt the normal processing and biogenesis of Hh ligand can result in neonatal abnormalities. SHH is one of a n...
  • Host Interactions of HIV factors, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Host Interactions of HIV factors, organism-specific biosystemLike all viruses, HIV-1 must co-opt the host cell macromolecular transport and processing machinery. HIV-1 Vpr and Rev proteins play key roles in this co-optation. Efficient HIV-1 replication likewis...
  • IGF1R signaling cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    IGF1R signaling cascade, organism-specific biosystemAfter autophosphorylation the type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF1R) binds and phosphorylates scaffold proteins, IRS1/2/4 and SHC1, which in turn bind effectors possessing enzymatic activ...
  • IRS-mediated signalling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • IRS-related events triggered by IGF1R, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    IRS-related events triggered by IGF1R, organism-specific biosystemThe phosphorylated type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor phosphorylates IR1, IRS2, IRS4 and possibly other IRS/DOK family members (reviewed in Pavelic et al. 2007, Chitnis et al. 2008, Maki et a...
  • Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Immune System, organism-specific biosystemHumans are exposed to millions of potential pathogens daily, through contact, ingestion, and inhalation. Our ability to avoid infection depends on the adaptive immune system and during the first crit...
  • Immunoproteasome, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
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  • Immunoproteasome, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Immunoproteasome, conserved biosystemStructural complex; Genetic information processing; Proteasome
  • Infectious disease, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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    Infectious disease
  • Innate Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Innate Immune System, organism-specific biosystemInnate immunity encompases the nonspecific part of immunity tha are part of an individual's natural biologic makeup
  • Insulin receptor signalling cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Insulin receptor signalling cascade, organism-specific biosystemAutophosphorylation of the insulin receptor triggers a series of signalling events, mediated by SHC or IRS, and resulting in activation of the Ras/RAF and MAP kinase cascades. A second effect of the ...
  • Interleukin receptor SHC signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Interleukin receptor SHC signaling, organism-specific biosystemPhosphorylation of Shc at three tyrosine residues, 239, 240 (Gotoh et al. 1996) and 317 (Salcini et al. 1994) involves unidentified tyrosine kinases presumed to be part of the activated receptor comp...
  • Interleukin-2 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Interleukin-2 signaling, organism-specific biosystemInterleukin-2 (IL-2) is a cytokine that is produced by T cells in response to antigen stimulation. Originally, IL-2 was discovered because of its potent growth factor activity on activated T cells in...
  • Interleukin-3, 5 and GM-CSF signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Interleukin-3, 5 and GM-CSF signaling, organism-specific biosystemThe Interleukin-3 (IL-3), IL-5 and Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) receptors form a family of heterodimeric receptors that have specific alpha chains but share a common beta...
  • M Phase, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    M Phase, organism-specific biosystemMitosis, or the M phase, involves nuclear division and cytokinesis, where two identical daughter cells are produced. Mitosis involves prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. Fin...
  • M/G1 Transition, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    M/G1 Transition, organism-specific biosystemFinally, progression out of mitosis and division of the cell into two daughters (cytokinesis) requires the inactivation of Cyclin B - Cdc2 by ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis of Cyclin A and B, which ...
  • MAPK family signaling cascades, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    MAPK family signaling cascades, organism-specific biosystemThe mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are a family of conserved protein serine threonine kinases that respond to varied extracellular stimuli to activate intracellular processes including gen...
  • MAPK1/MAPK3 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    MAPK1/MAPK3 signaling, organism-specific biosystemThe extracellular signal regulated kinases (ERKs) 1 and 2, also known as MAPK3 and MAPK1, are phosphorylated by the MAP2Ks 1 and 2 in response to a wide range of extracellular stimuli to promote diff...
  • MAPK6/MAPK4 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    MAPK6/MAPK4 signaling, organism-specific biosystemMAPK6 and MAPK4 (also known as ERK3 and ERK4) are vertebrate-specific atypical MAP kinases. Atypical MAPK are less well characterized than their conventional counterparts, and are generally classifi...
  • Metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Metabolism, organism-specific biosystemMetabolic processes in human cells generate energy through the oxidation of molecules consumed in the diet and mediate the synthesis of diverse essential molecules not taken in the diet as well as th...
  • Metabolism of amino acids and derivatives, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Metabolism of amino acids and derivatives, organism-specific biosystemThis group of reactions is responsible for: 1) the breakdown of amino acids; 2) the synthesis of urea from ammonia and amino groups generated by amino acid breakdown; 3) the synthesis of the ten amin...
  • Mitotic Anaphase, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Mitotic Anaphase, organism-specific biosystemIn anaphase, the paired chromosomes separate at the centromeres, and move to the opposite sides of the cell. The movement of the chromosomes is facilitated by a combination of kinetochore movement al...
  • Mitotic G1-G1/S phases, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Mitotic G1-G1/S phases, organism-specific biosystem
    Mitotic G1-G1/S phases
  • Mitotic Metaphase and Anaphase, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Mitotic Metaphase and Anaphase, organism-specific biosystemMetaphase is marked by the formation of the metaphase plate. The metaphase plate is formed when the spindle fibers align the chromosomes along the middle of the cell. Such an organization helps to ...
  • NCAM signaling for neurite out-growth, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    NCAM signaling for neurite out-growth, organism-specific biosystemThe neural cell adhesion molecule, NCAM, is a member of the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily and is involved in a variety of cellular processes of importance for the formation and maintenance of the n...
  • NGF signalling via TRKA from the plasma membrane, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    NGF signalling via TRKA from the plasma membrane, organism-specific biosystemTrk receptors signal from the plasma membrane and from intracellular membranes, particularly from early endosomes. Signalling from the plasma membrane is fast but transient; signalling from endosomes...
  • NIK-->noncanonical NF-kB signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    NIK-->noncanonical NF-kB signaling, organism-specific biosystemIn addition to the activation of canonical NF-kB subunits, activation of SYK pathway by Dectin-1 leads to the induction of the non-canonical NF-kB pathway, which mediates the nuclear translocation of...
  • Orc1 removal from chromatin, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Orc1 removal from chromatin, organism-specific biosystem
    Orc1 removal from chromatin
  • PCP/CE pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    PCP/CE pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway controls the establishment of polarity within the plane of a sheet of cells. PCP was initially characterized in Drosophila, where it controls the arrangement o...
  • Programmed Cell Death, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Programmed Cell Death, organism-specific biosystemCell death is a fundamental cellular response that has a crucial role in shaping our bodies during development and in regulating tissue homeostasis by eliminating unwanted cells. There are a number o...
  • Prolonged ERK activation events, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Prolonged ERK activation events, organism-specific biosystemAfter NGF binding, activated Trk receptors provide multiple docking sites for adaptor proteins and enzymes. Two docking proteins, the Ankyrin-Rich Membrane Spanning protein (ARMS/Kidins220) and Fibro...
  • Proteasome, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Proteasome, organism-specific biosystemThe proteasome is a protein-destroying apparatus involved in many essential cellular functions, such as regulation of cell cycle, cell differentiation, signal transduction pathways, antigen processin...
  • Proteasome, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Proteasome, conserved biosystemThe proteasome is a protein-destroying apparatus involved in many essential cellular functions, such as regulation of cell cycle, cell differentiation, signal transduction pathways, antigen processin...
  • Proteasome Degradation, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Proteasome Degradation, organism-specific biosystem
    Proteasome Degradation
  • RAF/MAP kinase cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    RAF/MAP kinase cascade, organism-specific biosystemThe RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK pathway regulates processes such as proliferation, differentiation, survival, senescence and cell motility in response to growth factors, hormones and cytokines, among others. Bin...
  • Regulation of APC/C activators between G1/S and early anaphase, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Regulation of APC/C activators between G1/S and early anaphase, organism-specific biosystemThe APC/C is activated by either Cdc20 or Cdh1. While both activators associate with the APC/C, they do so at different points in the cell cycle and their binding is regulated differently (see Zacha...
  • Regulation of Apoptosis, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Regulation of Apoptosis, organism-specific biosystemA regulated balance between cell survival and apoptosis is essential for normal development and homeostasis of multicellular organisms (see Matsuzawa, 2001). Defects in control of this balance may...
  • Regulation of DNA replication, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Regulation of DNA replication, organism-specific biosystemDNA replication is regulated at various levels via ORC proteins. This pathway includes annotation of individual events that lead to the regulation of replication.
  • Regulation of RAS by GAPs, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Regulation of RAS by GAPs, organism-specific biosystemThe intrinsic GTPase activity of RAS proteins is stimulated by the GAP proteins, of which there are at least 10 in the human genome (reviewed in King et al, 2013).
  • Regulation of activated PAK-2p34 by proteasome mediated degradation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Regulation of activated PAK-2p34 by proteasome mediated degradation, organism-specific biosystemStimulation of cell death by PAK-2 requires the generation and stabilization of the caspase-activated form, PAK-2p34 (Walter et al., 1998;Jakobi et al., 2003). Levels of proteolytically activated P...
  • Regulation of mRNA stability by proteins that bind AU-rich elements, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Regulation of mRNA stability by proteins that bind AU-rich elements, organism-specific biosystemRNA elements rich in adenine and uracil residues (AU-rich elements) bind specific proteins which either target the RNA for degradation or, more rarely, stabilize the RNA. The activity of the AU-eleme...
  • Regulation of mitotic cell cycle, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Regulation of mitotic cell cycle, organism-specific biosystem
    Regulation of mitotic cell cycle
  • Regulation of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Regulation of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), organism-specific biosystemPolyamines increase the production of antizyme (AZ). The carboxy-terminal half of antizyme interacts with ODC, generating an inactive AZ:ODC heterodimer complex. A carboxy-terminal domain of ODC is ...
  • Removal of licensing factors from origins, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Removal of licensing factors from origins, organism-specific biosystemLicensing factors are removed from the origin by various means like biochemical modification (phosphorylation) or by physical association with other proteins. This pathway includes the annotations of...
  • S Phase, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    S Phase, organism-specific biosystemDNA synthesis occurs in the S phase, or the synthesis phase, of the cell cycle. The cell duplicates its hereditary material, and two copies of the chromosome are formed. As DNA replication continues,...
  • SCF(Skp2)-mediated degradation of p27/p21, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    SCF(Skp2)-mediated degradation of p27/p21, organism-specific biosystemDuring G1, the activity of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) is kept in check by the CDK inhibitors (CKIs) p27 and p21, thereby preventing premature entry into S phase (see Guardavaccaro and Pagano, 20...
  • SCF-beta-TrCP mediated degradation of Emi1, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    SCF-beta-TrCP mediated degradation of Emi1, organism-specific biosystemEmi1 destruction in early mitosis requires the SCF beta-TrCP ubiquitin ligase complex. Binding of beta-TrCP to Emi1 occurs in late prophase and requires phosphorylation at the DSGxxS consensus motif...
  • SHC1 events in EGFR signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    SHC1 events in EGFR signaling, organism-specific biosystemGRB2 can bind EGFR directly or through another SH2-containing protein, SHC1. This association leads to RAS activation.
  • SHC1 events in ERBB2 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    SHC1 events in ERBB2 signaling, organism-specific biosystemAll ERBB2 heterodimers, ERBB2:EGFR, ERBB2:ERBB3 and ERBB2:ERBB4, are able to activate RAF/MAP kinase cascade by recruiting SHC1 (Pinkas-Kramarski et al. 1996, Sepp-Lorenzino et al. 1996) to phosphory...
  • SHC1 events in ERBB4 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    SHC1 events in ERBB4 signaling, organism-specific biosystemAll splicing isoforms of ERBB4 possess two tyrosine residues in the C-tail that serve as docking sites for SHC1 (Kaushansky et al. 2008, Pinkas-Kramarski et al. 1996, Cohen et al. 1996). Once bound t...
  • SOS-mediated signalling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    SOS-mediated signalling, organism-specific biosystemSOS is recruited to the plasma membrane and mediates activation of Ras.
  • Separation of Sister Chromatids, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Separation of Sister Chromatids, organism-specific biosystemWhile sister chromatids resolve in prometaphase, separating along chromosomal arms, the cohesion of sister centromeres persists until anaphase. At the anaphase onset, the anaphase promoting complex/c...
  • Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystemSignal transduction is a process in which extracellular signals elicit changes in cell state and activity. Transmembrane receptors sense changes in the cellular environment by binding ligands, such a...
  • Signaling by EGFR, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by EGFR, organism-specific biosystemThe epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is one member of the ERBB family of transmembrane glycoprotein tyrosine receptor kinases (RTK). Binding of EGFR to its ligands induces conformational chang...
  • Signaling by ERBB2, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by ERBB2, organism-specific biosystemERBB2, also known as HER2 or NEU, is a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) belonging to the EGFR family. ERBB2 possesses an extracellular domain that does not bind any known ligand, contrary to other EGFR...
  • Signaling by ERBB4, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by ERBB4, organism-specific biosystemERBB4, also known as HER4, belongs to the ERBB family of receptors, which also includes ERBB1 (EGFR i.e. HER1), ERBB2 (HER2 i.e. NEU) and ERBB3 (HER3). Similar to EGFR, ERBB4 has an extracellular lig...
  • Signaling by FGFR, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by FGFR, organism-specific biosystemThe 22 members of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family of growth factors mediate their cellular responses by binding to and activating the different isoforms encoded by the four receptor tyrosin...
  • Signaling by FGFR1, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by FGFR1, organism-specific biosystemThe 22 members of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family of growth factors mediate their cellular responses by binding to and activating the different isoforms encoded by the four receptor tyrosin...
  • Signaling by FGFR2, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by FGFR2, organism-specific biosystemThe 22 members of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family of growth factors mediate their cellular responses by binding to and activating the different isoforms encoded by the four receptor tyrosin...
  • Signaling by FGFR3, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by FGFR3, organism-specific biosystemThe 22 members of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family of growth factors mediate their cellular responses by binding to and activating the different isoforms encoded by the four receptor tyrosin...
  • Signaling by FGFR4, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by FGFR4, organism-specific biosystemThe 22 members of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family of growth factors mediate their cellular responses by binding to and activating the different isoforms encoded by the four receptor tyrosin...
  • Signaling by GPCR, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by GPCR, organism-specific biosystemG protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs; 7TM receptors; seven transmembrane domain receptors; heptahelical receptors; G protein-linked receptors [GPLR]) are the largest family of transmembrane receptors i...
  • Signaling by Hedgehog, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by Hedgehog, organism-specific biosystemHedgehog (Hh) is a secreted morphogen that regulates developmental processes in vertebrates including limb bud formation, neural tube patterning, cell growth and differentiation (reviewed in Hui and ...
  • Signaling by Insulin receptor, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by Insulin receptor, organism-specific biosystemInsulin binding to its receptor results in receptor autophosphorylation on tyrosine residues and the tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrates (e.g. IRS and Shc) by the insulin receptor...
  • Signaling by Interleukins, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by Interleukins, organism-specific biosystemInterleukins are low molecular weight proteins that bind to cell surface receptors and act in an autocrine and/or paracrine fashion. They were first identified as factors produced by leukocytes but a...
  • Signaling by Leptin, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by Leptin, organism-specific biosystemLeptin (LEP, OB, OBS), a circulating adipokine, and its receptor LEPR (DB, OBR) control food intake and energy balance and are implicated in obesity-related diseases (recently reviewed in Amitani et ...
  • Signaling by PDGF, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by PDGF, organism-specific biosystemPlatelet-derived Growth Factor (PDGF) is a potent stimulator of growth and motility of connective tissue cells such as fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells as well as other cells such as capillary end...
  • Signaling by SCF-KIT, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by SCF-KIT, organism-specific biosystemStem cell factor (SCF) is a growth factor with membrane bound and soluble forms. It is expressed by fibroblasts and endothelial cells throughout the body, promoting proliferation, migration, survival...
  • Signaling by Type 1 Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 Receptor (IGF1R), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by Type 1 Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 Receptor (IGF1R), organism-specific biosystemBinding of IGF1 (IGF-I) or IGF2 (IGF-II) to the extracellular alpha peptides of the type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF1R) triggers the activation of two major signaling pathways: the SOS...
  • Signaling by VEGF, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by VEGF, organism-specific biosystemIn normal development vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) are crucial regulators of vascular development during embryogenesis (vasculogenesis) and blood-vessel formation in the adult (angioge...
  • Signaling by Wnt, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by Wnt, organism-specific biosystemWNT signaling pathways control a wide range of developmental and adult process in metozoans including cell proliferation, cell fate decisions, cell polarity and stem cell maintenance (reviewed in Sai...
  • Signaling by the B Cell Receptor (BCR), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by the B Cell Receptor (BCR), organism-specific biosystemMature B cells express IgM and IgD immunoglobulins which are complexed at the plasma membrane with Ig-alpha (CD79A, MB-1) and Ig-beta (CD79B, B29) to form the B cell receptor (BCR) (Fu et al. 1974, F...
  • Signalling by NGF, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signalling by NGF, organism-specific biosystemNeurotrophins (NGF, BDNF, NT-3, NT-4/5) play pivotal roles in survival, differentiation, and plasticity of neurons in the peripheral and central nervous system. They are produced, and secreted in mi...
  • Signalling to ERKs, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signalling to ERKs, organism-specific biosystemNeurotrophins utilize multiple pathways to activate ERKs (ERK1 and ERK2), a subgroup of the large MAP kinase (MAPK) family, from the plasma membrane. The major signalling pathways to ERKs are via RAS...
  • Signalling to RAS, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signalling to RAS, organism-specific biosystemSignalling through Shc adaptor proteins appears to be identical for both NGF and EGF. It leads to a fast, but transient, MAPK/ERK activation, which is insufficient to explain the prolonged activation...
  • Signalling to p38 via RIT and RIN, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signalling to p38 via RIT and RIN, organism-specific biosystemRIT and RIN are two small guanine nucleotide binding proteins that share more than 50% sequence identity with RAS, including highly conserved core effector domains. Unlike RAS, the C termini of RIT a...
  • Stabilization of p53, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Stabilization of p53, organism-specific biosystemLater studies pin-pointed that a single serine (Ser-15) was phosphorylated by ATM and phosphorylation of Ser-15 was rapidly-induced in IR-treated cells and this response was ATM-dependent (Canman et ...
  • Switching of origins to a post-replicative state, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Switching of origins to a post-replicative state, organism-specific biosystem
    Switching of origins to a post-replicative state
  • Synthesis of DNA, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Synthesis of DNA, organism-specific biosystemThe actual synthesis of DNA occurs in the S phase of the cell cycle. This includes the initiation of DNA replication, when the first nucleotide of the new strand is laid down during the synthesis of ...
  • TCF dependent signaling in response to WNT, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    TCF dependent signaling in response to WNT, organism-specific biosystem19 WNT ligands and 10 FZD receptors have been identified in human cells; interactions amongst these ligands and receptors vary in a developmental and tissue-specific manner and lead to activation of ...
  • TNFR2 non-canonical NF-kB pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    TNFR2 non-canonical NF-kB pathway, organism-specific biosystemTumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFA) exerts a wide range of biological effects through TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) and TNF receptor 2 (TNFR2). Under normal physiological conditions TNFR2 exhibits more restr...
  • Ubiquitin Mediated Degradation of Phosphorylated Cdc25A, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Ubiquitin Mediated Degradation of Phosphorylated Cdc25A, organism-specific biosystemcdc25A protein is degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome machinery in both terminally differentiating and cycling cells (Bernardi et al. 2000).
  • Ubiquitin-dependent degradation of Cyclin D, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Ubiquitin-dependent degradation of Cyclin D, organism-specific biosystemCyclin D turnover is regulated by ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation which are positively regulated by cyclin D phosphorylation on threonine-286 (Diehl et al., 1997).
  • Ubiquitin-dependent degradation of Cyclin D1, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Ubiquitin-dependent degradation of Cyclin D1, organism-specific biosystemAfter the Cyclin D serves the role of mediating reactions by Cdk4 and Cdk6, it is shuttled to the cytoplasm and degraded in a ubiquitin-dependent manner. Whether Cdk4 and Cdk6 are truly redundant is...
  • VEGFA-VEGFR2 Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    VEGFA-VEGFR2 Pathway, organism-specific biosystemAngiogenesis is the formation of new blood vessels from preexisting vasculature. One of the most important proangiogenic factors is vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). VEGF exerts its biologic...
  • VEGFR2 mediated cell proliferation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    VEGFR2 mediated cell proliferation, organism-specific biosystemVEGFR2 stimulates ERK not via GRB2-SOS-RAS, but via pY1175-dependent phosphorylation of PLC gamma and subsequent activation of PKCs. PKC plays an important mediatory role in the proliferative Ras/Raf...
  • Vif-mediated degradation of APOBEC3G, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Vif-mediated degradation of APOBEC3G, organism-specific biosystemThe HIV-1 accessory protein Vif (Viral infectivity factor) is required for the efficient infection of primary cell populations (e.g., lymphocytes and macrophages) and 'non-permissive' cell lines. Vif...
  • Vpu mediated degradation of CD4, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Vpu mediated degradation of CD4, organism-specific biosystemThe HIV-1 Vpu protein promotes the degradation of the CD4 receptor by recruiting an SCF like ubiquitination complex that promotes CD4 degradation. Vpu links beta-TrCP to CD4 at the ER membrane thro...
  • beta-catenin independent WNT signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    beta-catenin independent WNT signaling, organism-specific biosystemHumans and mice have 19 identified WNT proteins that were originally classified as either 'canonical' or 'non-canonical' depending upon whether they were able to transform the mouse mammary epithelia...
  • degradation of AXIN, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    degradation of AXIN, organism-specific biosystemAXIN is present in low concentrations in the cell and is considered to be the limiting component of the beta-catenin destruction complex in Xenopus; this may not be the case in mammalian cells, howev...
  • degradation of DVL, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    degradation of DVL, organism-specific biosystemDVL protein levels are regulated by both proteasomal and lysosomal degradation (reviewed in Gao and Chen, 2010). The E3 ligases HECF1, ITCH and KLHL12:CUL3 have all been shown to contribute to the po...
  • p53-Dependent G1 DNA Damage Response, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    p53-Dependent G1 DNA Damage Response, organism-specific biosystemMost of the damage-induced modifications of p53 are dependent on the ATM kinase. The first link between ATM and p53 was predicted based on the earlier studies that showed that AT cells exhibit a redu...
  • p53-Dependent G1/S DNA damage checkpoint, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    p53-Dependent G1/S DNA damage checkpoint, organism-specific biosystemThe arrest at G1/S checkpoint is mediated by the action of a widely known tumor suppressor protein, p53. Loss of p53 functions, as a result of mutations in cancer prevent the G1/S checkpoint (Kuerbi...
  • p53-Independent DNA Damage Response, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    p53-Independent DNA Damage Response, organism-specific biosystemIn response to DNA damage due to exposure to ultraviolet light or to ionizing radiation, Cdc25A is phosphorylated by Chk1 or Chk2. The phosphorylation of Cdc25A at ser-123, in response to DNA damage...
  • p53-Independent G1/S DNA damage checkpoint, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    p53-Independent G1/S DNA damage checkpoint, organism-specific biosystemThe G1 arrest induced by DNA damage has been ascribed to the transcription factor and tumor suppressor protein p53. To be effective within minutes after DNA damage, induction of the G1 block should ...
Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

Markers

Homology

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Process Evidence Code Pubs
DNA damage response, signal transduction by p53 class mediator resulting in cell cycle arrest TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
anaphase-promoting complex-dependent proteasomal ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class I TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class I, TAP-dependent TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
antigen processing and presentation of peptide antigen via MHC class I TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
apoptotic process TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
cellular nitrogen compound metabolic process TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
gene expression TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
innate immune response TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
mitotic cell cycle TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
negative regulation of apoptotic process TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
negative regulation of canonical Wnt signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
negative regulation of ubiquitin-protein ligase activity involved in mitotic cell cycle TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
positive regulation of canonical Wnt signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
positive regulation of ubiquitin-protein ligase activity involved in regulation of mitotic cell cycle transition TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
programmed cell death TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
protein polyubiquitination TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
regulation of apoptotic process TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
regulation of cellular amino acid metabolic process TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
regulation of ubiquitin-protein ligase activity involved in mitotic cell cycle TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
small molecule metabolic process TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
stimulatory C-type lectin receptor signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
viral process TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
cytosol TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
extracellular exosome IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
membrane IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
nucleoplasm TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
proteasome activator complex IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
proteasome complex TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
Preferred Names
proteasome activator complex subunit 2
Names
11S regulator complex beta subunit
11S regulator complex subunit beta
MCP activator, 31-kD subunit
REG-beta
activator of multicatalytic protease subunit 2
cell migration-inducing protein 22
proteasome (prosome, macropain) activator subunit 2 (PA28 beta)
proteasome activator 28 subunit beta
proteasome activator 28-beta
proteasome activator hPA28 subunit beta

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_002818.2NP_002809.2  proteasome activator complex subunit 2

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_002809.2

    Status: REVIEWED

    Source sequence(s)
    D45248
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS9614.1
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    Q86SZ7
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q9UL46
    Related
    ENSP00000484569, ENST00000615264
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    pfam02252
    Location:90239
    PA28_beta; Proteasome activator pa28 beta subunit
    pfam02251
    Location:967
    PA28_alpha; Proteasome activator pa28 alpha subunit

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 107

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p2 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000014.9 Reference GRCh38.p2 Primary Assembly

    Range
    24143365..24147316
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. XM_006720213.1XP_006720276.1  

    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    pfam02252
    Location:13162
    PA28_beta; Proteasome activator pa28 beta subunit

Alternate CHM1_1.1

Genomic

  1. NC_018925.2 Alternate CHM1_1.1

    Range
    24611243..24614524
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)