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PSMA1 proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, alpha type, 1 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 5682, updated on 26-Aug-2014
Official Symbol
PSMA1provided by HGNC
Official Full Name
proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, alpha type, 1provided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:9530
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000129084; HPRD:04170; MIM:602854; Vega:OTTHUMG00000165825
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
NU; HC2; PROS30; HEL-S-275
Summary
The proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered ring-shaped 20S core structure. The core structure is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. This gene encodes a member of the peptidase T1A family, that is a 20S core alpha subunit. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms.[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2009]
See PSMA1 in Epigenomics, MapViewer
Location:
11p15.1
Exon count:
12
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
106 current GRCh38 (GCF_000001405.26) 11 NC_000011.10 (14504876..14643634, complement)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 11 NC_000011.9 (14526422..14665180, complement)

Chromosome 11 - NC_000011.10Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene related RAS viral (r-ras) oncogene homolog 2 Neighboring gene RNA, U7 small nuclear 49 pseudogene Neighboring gene coatomer protein complex, subunit beta 1 Neighboring gene mortality factor 4 like 1 pseudogene 3 Neighboring gene phosphodiesterase 3B, cGMP-inhibited Neighboring gene cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily R, polypeptide 1

NHGRI GWAS Catalog

Description
Genome-wide association study of the rate of cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease.
NHGRI GWA Catalog

Replication interactions

Interaction Pubs
Knockdown of proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, alpha type, 1 (PSMA1) by siRNA inhibits the early stages of HIV-1 replication in 293T cells infected with VSV-G pseudotyped HIV-1 PubMed

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Tat tat HIV-1 Tat slightly enhances the activity of the purified 26 S proteasome PubMed
tat Amino acids Lys51, Arg52, and Asp67 of HIV-1 Tat represent the proteasome binding site of Tat, and Tat amino acids 37-72 are necessary for proteasomal interaction and suppression of 11 S regulator-mediated antigen presentation PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat inhibits the peptidase activity of the 20 S proteasome and interferes with the formation of the 20 S proteasome-11 S regulator complex PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat binds to the alpha2, alpha4, alpha6, alpha7, beta1, beta2, beta3, beta5, beta6, beta7, LMP7/beta5i, and MECL1/beta2i subunits of the proteasome 20 S core structure and can inhibit cellular proteasome function PubMed
Vif vif HIV-1 Vif binds to the cellular cytidine deaminase APOBEC3G and targets it for degradation through an interaction with the proteasome, thereby inhibiting APOBEC3G mediated restriction of HIV-1 replication PubMed
integrase gag-pol Proteasomal degradation of HIV-1 integrase in mammalian cells occurs by the N-end rule pathway PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Protein Interaction Database

  • AMER1 mutants destabilize the destruction complex, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    AMER1 mutants destabilize the destruction complex, organism-specific biosystemAMER1/WTX is a component of the destruction complex that interacts directly with beta-catenin through its C-terminal half. Depletion of AMER1 through siRNA stabilizes cellular beta-catenin levels an...
  • APC truncation mutants are not K63 polyubiquitinated, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    APC truncation mutants are not K63 polyubiquitinated, organism-specific biosystemAPC has been shown to be reversibly modified with K63-linked polyubiquitin chains. This modification is required for the association is required for the assembly of the destruction complex and subse...
  • APC truncation mutants have impaired AXIN binding, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    APC truncation mutants have impaired AXIN binding, organism-specific biosystemMutations in the APC tumor suppressor gene are common in colorectal and other cancers and cluster in the central mutation cluster region (MCR) of the gene (Miyoshi et al, 1992; Nagase and Nakamura, ...
  • APC/C-mediated degradation of cell cycle proteins, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    APC/C-mediated degradation of cell cycle proteins, organism-specific biosystemThe Anaphase Promoting Complex or Cyclosome (APC/C) functions during mitosis to promote sister chromatid separation and mitotic exit through the degradation of mitotic cyclins and securin. This compl...
  • APC/C:Cdc20 mediated degradation of Securin, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    APC/C:Cdc20 mediated degradation of Securin, organism-specific biosystemThe separation of sister chromatids in anaphase requires the destruction of the anaphase inhibitor, securin. Securin associates with and inactivates the protease, separase. Separase cleaves the cohe...
  • APC/C:Cdc20 mediated degradation of mitotic proteins, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    APC/C:Cdc20 mediated degradation of mitotic proteins, organism-specific biosystemFollowing phosphorylation of the APC/C core subunits by mitotic kinases, the activating protein, Cdc20 is recruited to the APC and promotes the multiubiquitination and subsequent degradation of the ...
  • APC/C:Cdh1 mediated degradation of Cdc20 and other APC/C:Cdh1 targeted proteins in late mitosis/early G1, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    APC/C:Cdh1 mediated degradation of Cdc20 and other APC/C:Cdh1 targeted proteins in late mitosis/early G1, organism-specific biosystemFrom late mitosis through G1 phase APC/C:Cdh1 insures the continued degradation of the mitotic proteins and during mitotic exit and G1 its substrates include Cdc20, Plk1, Aurora A, Cdc6 and Gemin...
  • AUF1 (hnRNP D0) destabilizes mRNA, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    AUF1 (hnRNP D0) destabilizes mRNA, organism-specific biosystemAUF1 (hnRNP D0) dimers bind U-rich regions of AU-rich elements (AREs) in the 3' untranslated regions of mRNAs. The binding causes AUF1 dimers to assemble into higher order tetrameric complexes. Dipho...
  • AXIN missense mutants destabilize the destruction complex, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    AXIN missense mutants destabilize the destruction complex, organism-specific biosystemAlterations in AXIN1 have been detected in a number of different cancers including liver and colorectal cancer and medullablastoma, among others (reviewed in Salahshor and Woodgett, 2005). Missense ...
  • AXIN mutants destabilize the destruction complex, activating WNT signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    AXIN mutants destabilize the destruction complex, activating WNT signaling, organism-specific biosystemAXIN1 and AXIN2 are critical scaffolding proteins of the beta-catenin destruction complex and make protein-protein interactions with several of the other complex components including APC, GSK3, CK1 a...
  • Activation of APC/C and APC/C:Cdc20 mediated degradation of mitotic proteins, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Activation of APC/C and APC/C:Cdc20 mediated degradation of mitotic proteins, organism-specific biosystemAPC/C:Cdc20 is first activated at the prometaphase/metaphase transition through phosphorylation of core subunits of the APC/C by mitotic kinases as well as recruitment of the APC/C activator protein ...
  • Activation of NF-kappaB in B cells, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Activation of NF-kappaB in B cells, organism-specific biosystemDAG and calcium activate protein kinase C beta (PKC-beta, Kochs et al. 1991) which phosphorylates CARMA1 and other proteins (Sommer et al. 2005). Phosphorylated CARMA1 recruits BCL10 and MALT1 to for...
  • Adaptive Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Adaptive Immune System, organism-specific biosystemAdaptive immunity refers to antigen-specific immune response efficiently involved in clearing the pathogens. The adaptive immune system is comprised of B and T lymphocytes that express receptors with...
  • Antigen processing-Cross presentation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Antigen processing-Cross presentation, organism-specific biosystemMHC class I molecules generally present peptide antigens derived from proteins synthesized by the cell itself to CD8+ T cells. However, in some circumstances, antigens from extracellular environment ...
  • Antigen processing: Ubiquitination & Proteasome degradation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Antigen processing: Ubiquitination & Proteasome degradation, organism-specific biosystemIntracellular foreign or aberrant host proteins are cleaved into peptide fragments of a precise size, such that they can be loaded on to class I MHC molecules and presented externally to cytotoxic T ...
  • Apoptosis, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Apoptosis, organism-specific biosystemApoptosis is a distinct form of cell death that is functionally and morphologically different from necrosis. Nuclear chromatin condensation, cytoplasmic shrinking, dilated endoplasmic reticulum, and ...
  • Assembly of the pre-replicative complex, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Assembly of the pre-replicative complex, organism-specific biosystemDNA replication pre-initiation in eukaryotic cells begins with the formation of the pre-replicative complex (pre-RC) during the late M phase and continues in the G1 phase of the mitotic cell cycle, a...
  • Asymmetric localization of PCP proteins, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Asymmetric localization of PCP proteins, organism-specific biosystemOne of the hallmarks of the Planar Cell Polarity pathway is the asymmetric distribution of proteins on opposite membranes of a single cell. In Drosophila, Stbm and Pk (homologues to the human VANGL1/...
  • Autodegradation of Cdh1 by Cdh1:APC/C, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Autodegradation of Cdh1 by Cdh1:APC/C, organism-specific biosystemCdh1 is degraded by the APC/C during in G1 and G0. This auto-regulation may contribute to reducing the levels of Cdh1 levels during G1 and G0 (Listovsky et al., 2004).
  • Autodegradation of the E3 ubiquitin ligase COP1, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Autodegradation of the E3 ubiquitin ligase COP1, organism-specific biosystemCOP1 is one of several E3 ubiquitin ligases responsible for the tight regulation of p53 abundance. Following DNA damage, COP1 dissociates from p53 and is inactivated by autodegradation via a path...
  • CDK-mediated phosphorylation and removal of Cdc6, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    CDK-mediated phosphorylation and removal of Cdc6, organism-specific biosystemAs cells enter S phase, HsCdc6p is phosphorylated by CDK promoting its export from the nucleus (see Bell and Dutta 2002).
  • CDT1 association with the CDC6:ORC:origin complex, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    CDT1 association with the CDC6:ORC:origin complex, organism-specific biosystemInitiation protein Cdt1 was first identified in X. laevis, where it has been shown to be the second component of licensing factor (RLF-B) and in S. pombe. Cdt1 homologs have been identified in D. mel...
  • Cell Cycle, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Cell Cycle, organism-specific biosystem
    Cell Cycle
  • Cell Cycle Checkpoints, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Cell Cycle Checkpoints, organism-specific biosystemA hallmark of the human cell cycle in normal somatic cells is its precision. This remarkable fidelity is achieved by a number of signal transduction pathways, known as checkpoints, which monitor cell...
  • Cell Cycle, Mitotic, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Cell Cycle, Mitotic, organism-specific biosystemThe replication of the genome and the subsequent segregation of chromosomes into daughter cells are controlled by a series of events collectively known as the cell cycle. DNA replication is carried o...
  • Class I MHC mediated antigen processing & presentation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Class I MHC mediated antigen processing & presentation, organism-specific biosystemMajor histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules play an important role in cell mediated immunity by reporting on intracellular events such as viral infection, the presence of intracellular b...
  • Cross-presentation of soluble exogenous antigens (endosomes), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Cross-presentation of soluble exogenous antigens (endosomes), organism-specific biosystemExogenous soluble antigens are cross-presented by dendritic cells, albeit with lower efficiency than for particulate substrates. Soluble antigens destined for cross-presentation are taken up by disti...
  • Cyclin A:Cdk2-associated events at S phase entry, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Cyclin A:Cdk2-associated events at S phase entry, organism-specific biosystemCyclin A:Cdk2 plays a key role in S phase entry by phosphorylation of proteins including Cdh1, Rb, p21 and p27. During G1 phase of the cell cycle, cyclin A is synthesized and associates with Cdk2. Af...
  • Cyclin E associated events during G1/S transition, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Cyclin E associated events during G1/S transition, organism-specific biosystemThe transition from the G1 to S phase is controlled by the Cyclin E:Cdk2 complexes. As the Cyclin E:Cdk2 complexes are formed, the Cdk2 is phosphorylated by the Wee1 and Myt1 kinases. This phosphoryl...
  • DNA Replication, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    DNA Replication, organism-specific biosystemStudies in the past decade have suggested that the basic mechanism of DNA replication initiation is conserved in all kingdoms of life. Initiation in unicellular eukaryotes, in particular Saccharomyce...
  • DNA Replication Pre-Initiation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    DNA Replication Pre-Initiation, organism-specific biosystemAlthough, DNA replication occurs in the S phase of the cell cycle, the formation of the DNA replication pre-initiation complex begins during G1 phase.
  • Degradation of beta-catenin by the destruction complex, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Degradation of beta-catenin by the destruction complex, organism-specific biosystemThe beta-catenin destruction complex plays a key role in the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. In the absence of Wnt signaling, this complex controls the levels of cytoplamic beta-catenin. Beta-cateni...
  • Disease, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Disease, organism-specific biosystemBiological processes are captured in Reactome by identifying the molecules (DNA, RNA, protein, small molecules) involved in them and describing the details of their interactions. From this molecular ...
  • Downstream signaling events of B Cell Receptor (BCR), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Downstream signaling events of B Cell Receptor (BCR), organism-specific biosystemSecond messengers (calcium, diacylglycerol, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, and phosphatidyinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate) trigger signaling pathways: NF-kappaB is activated via protein kinase C beta, RA...
  • ER-Phagosome pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    ER-Phagosome pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe other TAP-dependent cross-presentation mechanism in phagocytes is the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-phagosome model. Desjardins proposed that ER is recruited to the cell surface, where it fuses wit...
  • G1/S DNA Damage Checkpoints, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    G1/S DNA Damage Checkpoints, organism-specific biosystemIn the G1 phase there are two types of DNA damage responses, the p53-dependent and the p53-independent pathways. The p53-dependent responses inhibit CDKs through the up-regulation of genes encoding ...
  • G1/S Transition, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    G1/S Transition, organism-specific biosystemCyclin E - Cdk2 complexes control the transition from G1 into S-phase. In this case, the binding of p21Cip1/Waf1 or p27kip1 is inhibitory. Important substrates for Cyclin E - Cdk2 complexes include p...
  • Gene Expression, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Gene Expression, organism-specific biosystemGene Expression covers the pathways by which genomic DNA is transcribed to yield RNA, the regulation of these transcription processes, and the pathways by which newly-made RNA Transcripts are process...
  • HIV Infection, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    HIV Infection, organism-specific biosystemThe global pandemic of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection has resulted in tens of millions of people infected by the virus and millions more affected. UNAIDS estimates around 40 million ...
  • Hedgehog ligand biogenesis, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Hedgehog ligand biogenesis, organism-specific biosystemMammalian genomes encode three Hedgehog ligands, Sonic Hedgehog (SHH), Indian Hedgehog (IHH) and Desert Hedgehog (DHH). These secreted morphogens can remain associated with lipid rafts on the surfac...
  • Hh ligand biogenesis disease, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Hh ligand biogenesis disease, organism-specific biosystemHh signaling is required for a number of developmental processes, and mutations that disrupt the normal processing and biogenesis of Hh ligand can result in neonatal abnormalities. SHH is one of a n...
  • Host Interactions of HIV factors, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Host Interactions of HIV factors, organism-specific biosystemLike all viruses, HIV-1 must co-opt the host cell macromolecular transport and processing machinery. HIV-1 Vpr and Rev proteins play key roles in this co-optation. Efficient HIV-1 replication likewis...
  • Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Immune System, organism-specific biosystemHumans are exposed to millions of potential pathogens daily, through contact, ingestion, and inhalation. Our ability to avoid infection depends on the adaptive immune system and during the first crit...
  • Immunoproteasome, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Immunoproteasome, organism-specific biosystemStructural complex; Genetic information processing; Proteasome
  • Immunoproteasome, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Immunoproteasome, conserved biosystemStructural complex; Genetic information processing; Proteasome
  • M Phase, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    M Phase, organism-specific biosystemMitosis, or the M phase, involves nuclear division and cytokinesis, where two identical daughter cells are produced. Mitosis involves prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. Fin...
  • M/G1 Transition, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    M/G1 Transition, organism-specific biosystemFinally, progression out of mitosis and division of the cell into two daughters (cytokinesis) requires the inactivation of Cyclin B - Cdc2 by ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis of Cyclin A and B, which ...
  • Metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Metabolism, organism-specific biosystemMetabolic processes in human cells generate energy through the oxidation of molecules consumed in the diet and mediate the synthesis of diverse essential molecules not taken in the diet as well as th...
  • Metabolism of amino acids and derivatives, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Metabolism of amino acids and derivatives, organism-specific biosystemThis group of reactions is responsible for: 1) the breakdown of amino acids; 2) the synthesis of urea from ammonia and amino groups generated by amino acid breakdown; 3) the synthesis of the ten amin...
  • Mitotic Anaphase, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Mitotic Anaphase, organism-specific biosystemIn anaphase, the paired chromosomes separate at the centromeres, and move to the opposite sides of the cell. The movement of the chromosomes is facilitated by a combination of kinetochore movement al...
  • Mitotic G1-G1/S phases, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Mitotic G1-G1/S phases, organism-specific biosystem
    Mitotic G1-G1/S phases
  • Mitotic Metaphase and Anaphase, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Mitotic Metaphase and Anaphase, organism-specific biosystemMetaphase is marked by the formation of the metaphase plate. The metaphase plate is formed when the spindle fibers align the chromosomes along the middle of the cell. Such an organization helps to ...
  • Orc1 removal from chromatin, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Orc1 removal from chromatin, organism-specific biosystem
    Orc1 removal from chromatin
  • PCP/CE pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    PCP/CE pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway controls the establishment of polarity within the plane of a sheet of cells. PCP was initially characterized in Drosophila, where it controls the arrangement o...
  • Processing-defective Hh variants abrogate ligand secretion, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Processing-defective Hh variants abrogate ligand secretion, organism-specific biosystemHh signaling is required for a number of developmental processes, and mutations that disrupt the normal processing and biogenesis of Hh ligand can result in neonatal abnormalities. SHH is one of a n...
  • Proteasome, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Proteasome, organism-specific biosystemThe proteasome is a protein-destroying apparatus involved in many essential cellular functions, such as regulation of cell cycle, cell differentiation, signal transduction pathways, antigen processin...
  • Proteasome, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Proteasome, conserved biosystemThe proteasome is a protein-destroying apparatus involved in many essential cellular functions, such as regulation of cell cycle, cell differentiation, signal transduction pathways, antigen processin...
  • Proteasome Degradation, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Proteasome Degradation, organism-specific biosystem
    Proteasome Degradation
  • Proteasome, 20S core particle, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Proteasome, 20S core particle, organism-specific biosystemStructural complex; Genetic information processing; Proteasome
  • Proteasome, 20S core particle, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Proteasome, 20S core particle, conserved biosystemStructural complex; Genetic information processing; Proteasome
  • RNF mutants show enhanced WNT signaling and proliferation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    RNF mutants show enhanced WNT signaling and proliferation, organism-specific biosystemRNF43 and related protein ZNRF3 are E3 ubiquitin ligases that negatively regulate WNT signaling by downregulating FZD receptors at the cell surface (Mukai et al, 2010; Hao et al, 2012). Frameshift l...
  • Regulation of APC/C activators between G1/S and early anaphase, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Regulation of APC/C activators between G1/S and early anaphase, organism-specific biosystemThe APC/C is activated by either Cdc20 or Cdh1. While both activators associate with the APC/C, they do so at different points in the cell cycle and their binding is regulated differently (see Zacha...
  • Regulation of Apoptosis, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Regulation of Apoptosis, organism-specific biosystemA regulated balance between cell survival and apoptosis is essential for normal development and homeostasis of multicellular organisms (see Matsuzawa, 2001). Defects in control of this balance may...
  • Regulation of DNA replication, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Regulation of DNA replication, organism-specific biosystemDNA replication is regulated at various levels via ORC proteins. This pathway includes annotation of individual events that lead to the regulation of replication.
  • Regulation of activated PAK-2p34 by proteasome mediated degradation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Regulation of activated PAK-2p34 by proteasome mediated degradation, organism-specific biosystemStimulation of cell death by PAK-2 requires the generation and stabilization of the caspase-activated form, PAK-2p34 (Walter et al., 1998;Jakobi et al., 2003). Levels of proteolytically activated P...
  • Regulation of mRNA stability by proteins that bind AU-rich elements, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Regulation of mRNA stability by proteins that bind AU-rich elements, organism-specific biosystemRNA elements rich in adenine and uracil residues (AU-rich elements) bind specific proteins which either target the RNA for degradation or, more rarely, stabilize the RNA. The activity of the AU-eleme...
  • Regulation of mitotic cell cycle, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Regulation of mitotic cell cycle, organism-specific biosystem
    Regulation of mitotic cell cycle
  • Regulation of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Regulation of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), organism-specific biosystemPolyamines increase the production of antizyme (AZ). The carboxy-terminal half of antizyme interacts with ODC, generating an inactive AZ:ODC heterodimer complex. A carboxy-terminal domain of ODC is ...
  • Removal of licensing factors from origins, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Removal of licensing factors from origins, organism-specific biosystemLicensing factors are removed from the origin by various means like biochemical modification (phosphorylation) or by physical association with other proteins. This pathway includes the annotations of...
  • S Phase, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    S Phase, organism-specific biosystemDNA synthesis occurs in the S phase, or the synthesis phase, of the cell cycle. The cell duplicates its hereditary material, and two copies of the chromosome are formed. As DNA replication continues,...
  • S33 mutants of beta-catenin aren't phosphorylated, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    S33 mutants of beta-catenin aren't phosphorylated, organism-specific biosystemS33 mutations of beta-catenin interfere with GSK3 phosphorylation and result in stabilization and nuclear localization of the protein and enhanced WNT signaling (Groen et al, 2008; Nhieu et al, 1999;...
  • S37 mutants of beta-catenin aren't phosphorylated, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    S37 mutants of beta-catenin aren't phosphorylated, organism-specific biosystemS37 mutations of beta-catenin interfere with GSK3 phosphorylation and stabilize the protein, resulting in enhanced WNT pathway signaling (Nhieu et al, 1999; Clements et al, 2002; reviewed in Polakis,...
  • S45 mutants of beta-catenin aren't phosphorylated, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    S45 mutants of beta-catenin aren't phosphorylated, organism-specific biosystemS45 mutants of beta-catenin have been identified in colorectal and hepatocellular carcinomas, soft tissue cancer and Wilms Tumors, among others (reviewed in Polakis, 2000). These mutations abolish th...
  • SCF(Skp2)-mediated degradation of p27/p21, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    SCF(Skp2)-mediated degradation of p27/p21, organism-specific biosystemDuring G1, the activity of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) is kept in check by the CDK inhibitors (CKIs) p27 and p21, thereby preventing premature entry into S phase (see Guardavaccaro and Pagano, 20...
  • SCF-beta-TrCP mediated degradation of Emi1, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    SCF-beta-TrCP mediated degradation of Emi1, organism-specific biosystemEmi1 destruction in early mitosis requires the SCF beta-TrCP ubiquitin ligase complex. Binding of beta-TrCP to Emi1 occurs in late prophase and requires phosphorylation at the DSGxxS consensus motif...
  • Separation of Sister Chromatids, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Separation of Sister Chromatids, organism-specific biosystemWhile sister chromatids resolve in prometaphase, separating along chromosomal arms, the cohesion of sister centromeres persists until anaphase. At the anaphase onset, the anaphase promoting complex/c...
  • Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystemSignal transduction is a process in which extracellular signals elicit changes in cell state and activity. Transmembrane receptors sense changes in the cellular environment by binding ligands, such a...
  • Signaling by Hedgehog, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by Hedgehog, organism-specific biosystemHedgehog (Hh) is a secreted morphogen that regulates developmental processes in vertebrates including limb bud formation, neural tube patterning, cell growth and differentiation (reviewed in Hui and ...
  • Signaling by WNT in cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by WNT in cancer, organism-specific biosystemThe WNT signaling pathway has been linked with cancer ever since the identification of the first WNT as a gene activated by integration of mouse mammary tumor virus proviral DNA in virally-induced br...
  • Signaling by Wnt, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by Wnt, organism-specific biosystemWNT signaling pathways control a wide range of developmental and adult process in metozoans including cell proliferation, cell fate decisions, cell polarity and stem cell maintenance (reviewed in Sai...
  • Signaling by the B Cell Receptor (BCR), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by the B Cell Receptor (BCR), organism-specific biosystemMature B cells express IgM and IgD immunoglobulins which are complexed at the plasma membrane with Ig-alpha (CD79A, MB-1) and Ig-beta (CD79B, B29) to form the B cell receptor (BCR) (Fu et al. 1974, F...
  • Stabilization of p53, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Stabilization of p53, organism-specific biosystemLater studies pin-pointed that a single serine (Ser-15) was phosphorylated by ATM and phosphorylation of Ser-15 was rapidly-induced in IR-treated cells and this response was ATM-dependent (Canman et ...
  • Switching of origins to a post-replicative state, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Switching of origins to a post-replicative state, organism-specific biosystem
    Switching of origins to a post-replicative state
  • Synthesis of DNA, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Synthesis of DNA, organism-specific biosystemThe actual synthesis of DNA occurs in the S phase of the cell cycle. This includes the initiation of DNA replication, when the first nucleotide of the new strand is laid down during the synthesis of ...
  • T41 mutants of beta-catenin aren't phosphorylated, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    T41 mutants of beta-catenin aren't phosphorylated, organism-specific biosystemT41 mutations of beta-catenin interfere with GSK3 phosphorylation and result in stabilization and nuclear accumulation of the protein (Moreno-Bueno et al, 2002; Taniguchi et al, 2002; reviewed in Pol...
  • TCF dependent signaling in response to WNT, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    TCF dependent signaling in response to WNT, organism-specific biosystem19 WNT ligands and 10 FZD receptors have been identified in human cells; interactions amongst these ligands and receptors vary in a developmental and tissue-specific manner and lead to activation of ...
  • TCF7L2 mutants don't bind CTBP, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    TCF7L2 mutants don't bind CTBP, organism-specific biosystem~50% of colorectal cancers with microsatellite instability show frameshift mutations in TCF7L2 that result in the loss of the CTBP-binding region (Duval et al, 1999; Cuillliere-Dartigues et al, 2006)...
  • Ubiquitin Mediated Degradation of Phosphorylated Cdc25A, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Ubiquitin Mediated Degradation of Phosphorylated Cdc25A, organism-specific biosystemcdc25A protein is degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome machinery in both terminally differentiating and cycling cells (Bernardi et al. 2000).
  • Ubiquitin-dependent degradation of Cyclin D, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Ubiquitin-dependent degradation of Cyclin D, organism-specific biosystemCyclin D turnover is regulated by ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation which are positively regulated by cyclin D phosphorylation on threonine-286 (Diehl et al., 1997).
  • Ubiquitin-dependent degradation of Cyclin D1, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Ubiquitin-dependent degradation of Cyclin D1, organism-specific biosystemAfter the Cyclin D serves the role of mediating reactions by Cdk4 and Cdk6, it is shuttled to the cytoplasm and degraded in a ubiquitin-dependent manner. Whether Cdk4 and Cdk6 are truly redundant is...
  • Vif-mediated degradation of APOBEC3G, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Vif-mediated degradation of APOBEC3G, organism-specific biosystemThe HIV-1 accessory protein Vif (Viral infectivity factor) is required for the efficient infection of primary cell populations (e.g., lymphocytes and macrophages) and 'non-permissive' cell lines. Vif...
  • Vpu mediated degradation of CD4, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Vpu mediated degradation of CD4, organism-specific biosystemThe HIV-1 Vpu protein promotes the degradation of the CD4 receptor by recruiting an SCF like ubiquitination complex that promotes CD4 degradation. Vpu links beta-TrCP to CD4 at the ER membrane thro...
  • XAV939 inhibits tankyrase, stabilizing AXIN, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    XAV939 inhibits tankyrase, stabilizing AXIN, organism-specific biosystemXAV939 binds to the catalytic sites of tankyrase 1 and 2 and inhibits the ADP-ribosylation of AXIN1 and 2. Treatment of cells with XAV939 significantly increases the protein, but not the mRNA levels ...
  • beta-catenin independent WNT signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    beta-catenin independent WNT signaling, organism-specific biosystemHumans and mice have 19 identified WNT proteins that were originally classified as either 'canonical' or 'non-canonical' depending upon whether they were able to transform the mouse mammary epithelia...
  • degradation of AXIN, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    degradation of AXIN, organism-specific biosystemAXIN is present in low concentrations in the cell and is considered to be the limiting component of the beta-catenin destruction complex in Xenopus; this may not be the case in mammalian cells, howev...
  • degradation of DVL, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    degradation of DVL, organism-specific biosystemDVL protein levels are regulated by both proteasomal and lysosomal degradation (reviewed in Gao and Chen, 2010). The E3 ligases HECF1, ITCH and KLHL12:CUL3 have all been shown to contribute to the po...
  • deletions in the AMER1 gene destabilize the destruction complex, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    deletions in the AMER1 gene destabilize the destruction complex, organism-specific biosystemGenomic deletions of the entire AMER1/WTX gene occur in about 12% of Wilms tumors, a pediatric kidney cancer. Nonsense and missense mutations have also been identified (Ruteshouser et al, 2008; Wege...
  • deletions in the AXIN genes in hepatocellular carcinoma result in elevated WNT signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    deletions in the AXIN genes in hepatocellular carcinoma result in elevated WNT signaling, organism-specific biosystemDeletions in the AXIN1 gene have been identified in 2 hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines. These deletions, which remove the N-terminal exons of the gene, compromise AXIN1 expression and result in ...
  • misspliced GSK3beta mutants stabilize beta-catenin, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    misspliced GSK3beta mutants stabilize beta-catenin, organism-specific biosystemGSK3beta is subject to in-frame missplicing in CML stem cells resulting in the production of mutant protein that lacks the AXIN and FRAT binding domains. Cells containing this mutant GSK3beta show e...
  • misspliced LRP5 mutants have enhanced beta-catenin-dependent signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    misspliced LRP5 mutants have enhanced beta-catenin-dependent signaling, organism-specific biosystemLRP5 is subject to an in-frame missplicing event in breast and parathyroid cancers that renders the protein insensitive to inhibition by the WNT antagonist DKK1. Expression of the mutant protein res...
  • p53-Dependent G1 DNA Damage Response, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    p53-Dependent G1 DNA Damage Response, organism-specific biosystemMost of the damage-induced modifications of p53 are dependent on the ATM kinase. The first link between ATM and p53 was predicted based on the earlier studies that showed that AT cells exhibit a redu...
  • p53-Dependent G1/S DNA damage checkpoint, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    p53-Dependent G1/S DNA damage checkpoint, organism-specific biosystemThe arrest at G1/S checkpoint is mediated by the action of a widely known tumor suppressor protein, p53. Loss of p53 functions, as a result of mutations in cancer prevent the G1/S checkpoint (Kuerbi...
  • p53-Independent DNA Damage Response, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    p53-Independent DNA Damage Response, organism-specific biosystemIn response to DNA damage due to exposure to ultraviolet light or to ionizing radiation, Cdc25A is phosphorylated by Chk1 or Chk2. The phosphorylation of Cdc25A at ser-123, in response to DNA damage...
  • p53-Independent G1/S DNA damage checkpoint, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    p53-Independent G1/S DNA damage checkpoint, organism-specific biosystemThe G1 arrest induced by DNA damage has been ascribed to the transcription factor and tumor suppressor protein p53. To be effective within minutes after DNA damage, induction of the G1 block should ...
  • phosphorylation site mutants of CTNNB1 are not targeted to the proteasome by the destruction complex, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    phosphorylation site mutants of CTNNB1 are not targeted to the proteasome by the destruction complex, organism-specific biosystemMutations in exon 3 of the beta-catenin gene have been identified in a number of human cancers (Morin et al, 1997; Rubinfeld et al, 1997; reviewed in Polakis, 2000; Polakis, 2007). These mutations g...
  • truncated APC mutants destabilize the destruction complex, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    truncated APC mutants destabilize the destruction complex, organism-specific biosystemAPC is a large and central component of the destruction complex, which limits signaling in the absence of WNT ligand by promoting the ubiquitin-mediated degradation of beta-catenin. APC interacts wi...
  • truncations of AMER1 destabilize the destruction complex, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    truncations of AMER1 destabilize the destruction complex, organism-specific biosystemAMER1/WTX is a known component of the destruction complex and interacts directly with beta-catenin through the C-terminal half (Major et al, 2007). siRNA depletion of AMER1 in mammalian cells stabil...
Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

Markers

Homology

Clone Names

  • MGC1667, MGC14542, MGC14575, MGC14751, MGC21459, MGC22853, MGC23915

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
RNA binding TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
threonine-type endopeptidase activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
DNA damage response, signal transduction by p53 class mediator resulting in cell cycle arrest TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
RNA metabolic process TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
anaphase-promoting complex-dependent proteasomal ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class I TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class I, TAP-dependent TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
antigen processing and presentation of peptide antigen via MHC class I TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
apoptotic process TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
cellular nitrogen compound metabolic process TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
gene expression TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
mRNA metabolic process TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
mitotic cell cycle TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
negative regulation of apoptotic process TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
negative regulation of ubiquitin-protein ligase activity involved in mitotic cell cycle TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
positive regulation of ubiquitin-protein ligase activity involved in mitotic cell cycle TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
protein polyubiquitination TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
regulation of apoptotic process TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
regulation of cellular amino acid metabolic process TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
regulation of ubiquitin-protein ligase activity involved in mitotic cell cycle TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
small molecule metabolic process TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
viral process TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
centrosome IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 
cytosol TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
extracellular vesicular exosome IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
NOT nucleolus IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 
nucleoplasm TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
nucleus IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 
polysome TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
proteasome complex TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
proteasome core complex ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
proteasome core complex, alpha-subunit complex IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
Preferred Names
proteasome subunit alpha type-1
Names
proteasome subunit alpha type-1
PROS-30
protein P30-33K
proteasome nu chain
macropain subunit C2
macropain subunit nu
proteasome subunit nu
30 kDa prosomal protein
proteasome component C2
proteasome subunit, alpha-type, 1
epididymis secretory protein Li 275
multicatalytic endopeptidase complex subunit C2
NP_001137409.1
NP_002777.1
NP_683877.1

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_001143937.1NP_001137409.1  proteasome subunit alpha type-1 isoform 3

    See proteins identical to NP_001137409.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (3) differs at both the 5' and 3' termini, compared to variant 1. The encoded isoform (3) has a shorter N- and C-terminus, compared to isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AK303565, DA549688
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    B4E0X6
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cl00467
    Location:6114
    Blast Score: 577
    Ntn_hydrolase; The Ntn hydrolases (N-terminal nucleophile) are a diverse superfamily of of enzymes that are activated autocatalytically via an N-terminally lcated nucleophilic amino acid. N-terminal nucleophile (NTN-) hydrolase superfamily, which contains a ...
  2. NM_002786.3NP_002777.1  proteasome subunit alpha type-1 isoform 2

    See proteins identical to NP_002777.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (2) differs in the 5' UTR and 5' coding region, compared to variant 1. The encoded isoform (2), also known as the short isoform, has a shorter N-terminus compared to isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    BC002577, DA549688
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS7816.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P25786
    Related
    ENSP00000379676, OTTHUMP00000231103, ENST00000396394, OTTHUMT00000386421
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    COG0638
    Location:4239
    Blast Score: 535
    PRE1; 20S proteasome, alpha and beta subunits [Posttranslational modification, protein turnover, chaperones]
    cd03749
    Location:6216
    Blast Score: 1101
    proteasome_alpha_type_1; proteasome_alpha_type_1. The 20S proteasome, multisubunit proteolytic complex, is the central enzyme of nonlysosomal protein degradation in both the cytosol and nucleus. It is composed of 28 subunits arranged as four homoheptameric rings that stack on ...
  3. NM_148976.2NP_683877.1  proteasome subunit alpha type-1 isoform 1

    See proteins identical to NP_683877.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1) encodes the longest isoform (1), also referred to as the long isoform.
    Source sequence(s)
    AC018523, AC087207, AW015660, BC002577
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS31431.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P25786
    Related
    ENSP00000414359, OTTHUMP00000237996, ENST00000418988, OTTHUMT00000386422
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    COG0638
    Location:10245
    Blast Score: 535
    PRE1; 20S proteasome, alpha and beta subunits [Posttranslational modification, protein turnover, chaperones]
    cd03749
    Location:12222
    Blast Score: 1101
    proteasome_alpha_type_1; proteasome_alpha_type_1. The 20S proteasome, multisubunit proteolytic complex, is the central enzyme of nonlysosomal protein degradation in both the cytosol and nucleus. It is composed of 28 subunits arranged as four homoheptameric rings that stack on ...

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 106

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000011.10 

    Range
    14504876..14643634
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

Alternate HuRef

Genomic

  1. AC_000143.1 

    Range
    14207557..14313706
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

Alternate CHM1_1.1

Genomic

  1. NC_018922.2 

    Range
    14525354..14664092
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)