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PRM2 protamine 2 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 5620, updated on 8-May-2016
Official Symbol
PRM2provided by HGNC
Official Full Name
protamine 2provided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:9448
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000122304 HPRD:01691; MIM:182890; Vega:OTTHUMG00000172317
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
CT94.2
Summary
Protamines substitute for histones in the chromatin of sperm during the haploid phase of spermatogenesis, and are the major DNA-binding proteins in the nucleus of sperm in many vertebrates. They package the sperm DNA into a highly condensed complex in a volume less than 5% of a somatic cell nucleus. Many mammalian species have only one protamine (protamine 1); however, a few species, including human and mouse, have two. This gene encodes protamine 2, which is cleaved to give rise to a family of protamine 2 peptides. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have also been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2015]
Orthologs
Location:
16p13.2
Exon count:
2
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
107 current GRCh38.p2 (GCF_000001405.28) 16 NC_000016.10 (11275636..11276480, complement)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 16 NC_000016.9 (11369493..11370337, complement)

Chromosome 16 - NC_000016.10Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105371082 Neighboring gene transition protein 2 (during histone to protamine replacement) Neighboring gene protamine 3 Neighboring gene protamine 1 Neighboring gene microRNA 548h-2

Related articles in PubMed

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

NHGRI GWAS Catalog

Description
Genetic variants associated with disordered eating.
NHGRI GWA Catalog
Genome-wide meta-analysis identifies novel multiple sclerosis susceptibility loci.
NHGRI GWA Catalog
Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

Markers

Clone Names

  • FLJ27447

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
DNA binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
DNA packaging TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
chromosome condensation IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
 
multicellular organism development IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
nucleus organization IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
 
spermatid development IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
 
spermatogenesis TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
nucleoplasm TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
nucleosome IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
nucleus IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
Preferred Names
protamine-2
Names
cancer/testis antigen family 94, member 2
sperm histone P2
sperm protamine P2
testicular secretory protein Li 40

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_001286356.1NP_001273285.1  protamine-2 isoform 2

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001273285.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (2) uses an alternate acceptor splice site at the last exon that causes a frameshift compared to variant 1. The resulting isoform (2) has a longer and distinct C-terminus compared to isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AK131573, BP371180
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS66944.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P04554
    Related
    ENSP00000403681, OTTHUMP00000248094, ENST00000435245, OTTHUMT00000417809
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    pfam00841
    Location:185
    Protamine_P2; Sperm histone P2
  2. NM_001286357.1NP_001273286.1  protamine-2 isoform 3

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (3) uses alternate donor and acceptor splice sites at the junction of exons 1 and 2 compared to variant 1. The resulting isoform (3) lacks an internal protein segment and has a shorter C-terminus compared to isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AK307320, BP371180
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    pfam00841
    Location:176
    Protamine_P2; Sperm histone P2
  3. NM_001286358.1NP_001273287.1  protamine-2 isoform 4

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (4) uses an alternate acceptor splice site at the last exon that causes a frameshift compared to variant 1. The resulting isoform (4) has a longer and distinct C-terminus compared to isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AK131573, BP371180, DB066857
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P04554
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    pfam00841
    Location:185
    Protamine_P2; Sperm histone P2
  4. NM_001286359.1NP_001273288.1  protamine-2 isoform 5

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (5) uses an alternate donor splice site at the first exon compared to variant 1. The resulting isoform (5) has a distinct C-terminus compared to isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AC009121, AK131573, BP371180, DB066922
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P04554
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    pfam00841
    Location:191
    Protamine_P2; Sperm histone P2
  5. NM_002762.3NP_002753.2  protamine-2 isoform 1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_002753.2

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1) represents the predominant transcript and encodes the predominant isoform (1).
    Source sequence(s)
    AK130957, BP371180
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS42118.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P04554
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    Q1LZN1
    Related
    ENSP00000241808, OTTHUMP00000248093, ENST00000241808, OTTHUMT00000417808
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    pfam00841
    Location:187
    Protamine_P2; Sperm histone P2

RNA

  1. NR_104428.1 RNA Sequence

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (6) is alternatively spliced at the 3' end compared to variant 1. This variant is represented as non-coding because the use of the 5'-most expected translational start codon, as used in variant 1, renders the transcript a candidate for nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD).
    Source sequence(s)
    BP368978, BP371180

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 107 details...

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p2 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000016.10 Reference GRCh38.p2 Primary Assembly

    Range
    11275636..11276480 complement
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

Alternate CHM1_1.1

Genomic

  1. NC_018927.2 Alternate CHM1_1.1

    Range
    11369399..11370243 complement
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)