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ACSS2 acyl-CoA synthetase short-chain family member 2 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 55902, updated on 8-May-2016
Official Symbol
ACSS2provided by HGNC
Official Full Name
acyl-CoA synthetase short-chain family member 2provided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:15814
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000131069 MIM:605832; Vega:OTTHUMG00000032317
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
ACS; ACSA; ACAS2; ACECS; dJ1161H23.1
Summary
This gene encodes a cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the activation of acetate for use in lipid synthesis and energy generation. The protein acts as a monomer and produces acetyl-CoA from acetate in a reaction that requires ATP. Expression of this gene is regulated by sterol regulatory element-binding proteins, transcription factors that activate genes required for the synthesis of cholesterol and unsaturated fatty acids. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2009]
Orthologs
Location:
20q11.22
Exon count:
22
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
107 current GRCh38.p2 (GCF_000001405.28) 20 NC_000020.11 (34874942..34927966)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 20 NC_000020.10 (33462766..33515769)

Chromosome 20 - NC_000020.11Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene high mobility group box 3 pseudogene 1 Neighboring gene gamma-glutamyltransferase 7 Neighboring gene glutathione synthetase Neighboring gene myosin, heavy chain 7B, cardiac muscle, beta Neighboring gene microRNA 499a Neighboring gene microRNA 499b

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

  • Amino acid conjugation of benzoic acid, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Amino acid conjugation of benzoic acid, organism-specific biosystem
    Amino acid conjugation of benzoic acid
  • Biological oxidations, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Biological oxidations, organism-specific biosystemAll organisms are constantly exposed to foreign chemicals every day. These can be man-made (drugs, industrial chemicals) or natural (alkaloids, toxins from plants and animals). Uptake is usually via ...
  • Carbon metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Carbon metabolism, organism-specific biosystemCarbon metabolism is the most basic aspect of life. This map presents an overall view of central carbon metabolism, where the number of carbons is shown for each compound denoted by a circle, excludi...
  • Carbon metabolism, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Carbon metabolism, conserved biosystemCarbon metabolism is the most basic aspect of life. This map presents an overall view of central carbon metabolism, where the number of carbons is shown for each compound denoted by a circle, excludi...
  • Ethanol oxidation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Ethanol oxidation, organism-specific biosystemEthanol and related alcohols can be ingested as part of the diet and are formed by microorganisms in the intestinal tract. Ethanol oxidation to acetate occurs primarily in liver cells in a multistep ...
  • Fatty Acid Beta Oxidation, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Fatty Acid Beta Oxidation, organism-specific biosystemComplete fatty acid beta-oxidation pathway for saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, developed and curated internally by BiGCaT Bioinformatics. This pathway was previously split into three parts p...
  • Fatty Acid Biosynthesis, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Fatty Acid Biosynthesis, organism-specific biosystem
    Fatty Acid Biosynthesis
  • Glycolysis / Gluconeogenesis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Glycolysis / Gluconeogenesis, organism-specific biosystemGlycolysis is the process of converting glucose into pyruvate and generating small amounts of ATP (energy) and NADH (reducing power). It is a central pathway that produces important precursor metabol...
  • Glycolysis / Gluconeogenesis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Glycolysis / Gluconeogenesis, conserved biosystemGlycolysis is the process of converting glucose into pyruvate and generating small amounts of ATP (energy) and NADH (reducing power). It is a central pathway that produces important precursor metabol...
  • Metabolic pathways, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Metabolic pathways, organism-specific biosystem
    Metabolic pathways
  • Metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Metabolism, organism-specific biosystemMetabolic processes in human cells generate energy through the oxidation of molecules consumed in the diet and mediate the synthesis of diverse essential molecules not taken in the diet as well as th...
  • Phase 1 - Functionalization of compounds, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Phase 1 - Functionalization of compounds, organism-specific biosystemPhase 1 of metabolism is concerned with functionalization, that is the introduction or exposure of functional groups on the chemical structure of a compound. This provides a 'handle' for phase 2 conj...
  • Propanoate metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Propanoate metabolism, organism-specific biosystem
    Propanoate metabolism
  • Propanoate metabolism, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Propanoate metabolism, conserved biosystem
    Propanoate metabolism
  • Pyruvate metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Pyruvate metabolism, organism-specific biosystem
    Pyruvate metabolism
  • Pyruvate metabolism, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Pyruvate metabolism, conserved biosystem
    Pyruvate metabolism
  • Signaling events mediated by HDAC Class III, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Signaling events mediated by HDAC Class III, organism-specific biosystem
    Signaling events mediated by HDAC Class III
  • acetate conversion to acetyl-CoA, organism-specific biosystem (from BIOCYC)
    acetate conversion to acetyl-CoA, organism-specific biosystem: HS05484-MONOMER catalyzes the activation of acetate with coenzyme A for use in lipid synthesis and energy generation . The gene encoding this protein has been cloned and expressed in human cells, ...
  • acetate conversion to acetyl-CoA, conserved biosystem (from BIOCYC)
    acetate conversion to acetyl-CoA, conserved biosystemThis pathway is widely spread, and is found in archaea, bacteria and eukarya. When halophilic archaebacteria grow on glucose they form |FRAME:ACET| which is excreted into the medium. This conversion...
  • ethanol degradation II, organism-specific biosystem (from BIOCYC)
    ethanol degradation II, organism-specific biosystemThis ethanol degradation pathway begins with conversion of ethanol to acetaldehyde by cytosolic alcohol dehydrogenase. The resulting acetaldehyde passes into the mitochondrial compartment where it is...
  • ethanol degradation II, conserved biosystem (from BIOCYC)
    ethanol degradation II, conserved biosystemThis ethanol degradation pathway begins with conversion of ethanol to acetaldehyde by |FRAME: CPLX66-101 "cytosolic alcohol dehydrogenase"|. The resulting acetaldehyde passes into the mitochondrial c...
  • ethanol degradation IV, organism-specific biosystem (from BIOCYC)
    ethanol degradation IV, organism-specific biosystemThis ethanol degradation pathway begins with conversion of ethanol to acetaldehyde by peroxisomal catalase . The resulting acetaldehyde passes from the peroxisome to the cytoplasm and into the mitoch...
  • ethanol degradation IV, conserved biosystem (from BIOCYC)
    ethanol degradation IV, conserved biosystemThis ethanol degradation pathway begins with conversion of ethanol to acetaldehyde by |FRAME: CPLX66-121 "peroxisomal catalase"| |CITS: [SALWAYJG2002]|. The resulting acetaldehyde passes from the per...
  • oxidative ethanol degradation III, organism-specific biosystem (from BIOCYC)
    oxidative ethanol degradation III, organism-specific biosystemThis ethanol degradation pathway begins with conversion of ethanol to acetaldehyde by the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Microsomal Ethanol Oxidising System (MEOS) ( page 90). This ER system is also kno...
  • oxidative ethanol degradation III, conserved biosystem (from BIOCYC)
    oxidative ethanol degradation III, conserved biosystemThis ethanol degradation pathway begins with conversion of ethanol to acetaldehyde by the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) |FRAME: HS05414-MONOMER "Microsomal Ethanol Oxidising System"| (MEOS), also known ...
Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

Markers

Homology

Clone Names

  • DKFZp762G026

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
AMP binding IC
Inferred by Curator
more info
PubMed 
ATP binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
acetate-CoA ligase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
acetate-CoA ligase activity TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
acetate biosynthetic process IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
acetyl-CoA biosynthetic process from acetate IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
ethanol oxidation TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
lipid biosynthetic process IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
propionate biosynthetic process IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
cytoplasm IC
Inferred by Curator
more info
PubMed 
cytoplasm IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 
cytosol TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
intracellular membrane-bounded organelle IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 
nucleoplasm IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 
Preferred Names
acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase, cytoplasmic
Names
acetate thiokinase
acetate-CoA ligase
acetyl-Coenzyme A synthetase 2 (ADP forming)
acyl-activating enzyme
cytoplasmic acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase
NP_001070020.2
NP_001229322.1
NP_061147.1

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

Genomic

  1. NG_011520.1 RefSeqGene

    Range
    6584..58025
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_001076552.2NP_001070020.2  acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase, cytoplasmic isoform 2

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001070020.2

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (2) includes an alternate in-frame exon in the central coding region, compared to variant 1, resulting in a longer isoform (2), compared to isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AI674262, AK092281, BC010141, DA411343
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS42868.2
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q9NR19
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    Q96FY7
    Related
    ENSP00000253382, OTTHUMP00000030717, ENST00000253382, OTTHUMT00000078828
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    cd05966
    Location:51698
    ACS; Acetyl-CoA synthetase (also known as acetate-CoA ligase and acetyl-activating enzyme)
    PRK00174
    Location:31705
    PRK00174; acetyl-CoA synthetase; Provisional
  2. NM_001242393.1NP_001229322.1  acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase, cytoplasmic isoform 3

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001229322.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (3) differs in the 5' UTR, lacks a portion of the 5' coding region, and initiates translation at a downstream start codon compared to variant 1. The encoded isoform (2) has a distinct N-terminus and is shorter than isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AI674262, AK000162, BC010141, DA626707
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    Q4G0E8, Q96FY7
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    cd05966
    Location:1590
    ACS; Acetyl-CoA synthetase (also known as acetate-CoA ligase and acetyl-activating enzyme)
    TIGR02188
    Location:2597
    Ac_CoA_lig_AcsA; acetate--CoA ligase
  3. NM_018677.3NP_061147.1  acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase, cytoplasmic isoform 1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_061147.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1) encodes the predominant isoform (1).
    Source sequence(s)
    AI674262, BC073846, DA411343
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS13243.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    Q9NR19
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    Q6DKJ3
    Related
    ENSP00000353804, OTTHUMP00000030713, ENST00000360596, OTTHUMT00000078823
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    cd05966
    Location:51685
    ACS; Acetyl-CoA synthetase (also known as acetate-CoA ligase and acetyl-activating enzyme)
    PRK00174
    Location:31692
    PRK00174; acetyl-CoA synthetase; Provisional

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 107 details...

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p2 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000020.11 Reference GRCh38.p2 Primary Assembly

    Range
    34874942..34927966
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. XM_011528911.1XP_011527213.1  

    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    cd05966
    Location:10658
    ACS; Acetyl-CoA synthetase (also known as acetate-CoA ligase and acetyl-activating enzyme)
    PRK00174
    Location:10665
    PRK00174; acetyl-CoA synthetase; Provisional
  2. XM_006723826.1XP_006723889.1  

    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    cd05966
    Location:1613
    ACS; Acetyl-CoA synthetase (also known as acetate-CoA ligase and acetyl-activating enzyme)
    TIGR02188
    Location:2620
    Ac_CoA_lig_AcsA; acetate--CoA ligase
  3. XM_011528909.1XP_011527211.1  

    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    cd05966
    Location:10671
    ACS; Acetyl-CoA synthetase (also known as acetate-CoA ligase and acetyl-activating enzyme)
    PRK00174
    Location:10678
    PRK00174; acetyl-CoA synthetase; Provisional
  4. XM_011528912.1XP_011527214.1  

    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    cd05966
    Location:1626
    ACS; Acetyl-CoA synthetase (also known as acetate-CoA ligase and acetyl-activating enzyme)
    TIGR02188
    Location:2633
    Ac_CoA_lig_AcsA; acetate--CoA ligase
  5. XM_005260455.1XP_005260512.1  

    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    cd05966
    Location:51708
    ACS; Acetyl-CoA synthetase (also known as acetate-CoA ligase and acetyl-activating enzyme)
    PRK00174
    Location:31715
    PRK00174; acetyl-CoA synthetase; Provisional
  6. XM_005260456.1XP_005260513.1  

    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    cd05966
    Location:51695
    ACS; Acetyl-CoA synthetase (also known as acetate-CoA ligase and acetyl-activating enzyme)
    PRK00174
    Location:31702
    PRK00174; acetyl-CoA synthetase; Provisional
  7. XM_011528905.1XP_011527207.1  

    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    cd05966
    Location:51721
    ACS; Acetyl-CoA synthetase (also known as acetate-CoA ligase and acetyl-activating enzyme)
    PRK00174
    Location:31728
    PRK00174; acetyl-CoA synthetase; Provisional
  8. XM_011528910.1XP_011527212.1  

    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    cd05966
    Location:51662
    ACS; Acetyl-CoA synthetase (also known as acetate-CoA ligase and acetyl-activating enzyme)
    PRK00174
    Location:31669
    PRK00174; acetyl-CoA synthetase; Provisional
  9. XM_011528906.1XP_011527208.1  

    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    cd05966
    Location:51711
    ACS; Acetyl-CoA synthetase (also known as acetate-CoA ligase and acetyl-activating enzyme)
    PRK00174
    Location:31718
    PRK00174; acetyl-CoA synthetase; Provisional
  10. XM_011528907.1XP_011527209.1  

    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    cd05966
    Location:51708
    ACS; Acetyl-CoA synthetase (also known as acetate-CoA ligase and acetyl-activating enzyme)
    PRK00174
    Location:31715
    PRK00174; acetyl-CoA synthetase; Provisional
  11. XM_011528908.1XP_011527210.1  

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_011527210.1

    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    cd05966
    Location:51698
    ACS; Acetyl-CoA synthetase (also known as acetate-CoA ligase and acetyl-activating enzyme)
    PRK00174
    Location:31705
    PRK00174; acetyl-CoA synthetase; Provisional

Alternate CHM1_1.1

Genomic

  1. NC_018931.2 Alternate CHM1_1.1

    Range
    33364136..33416989
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

Suppressed Reference Sequence(s)

The following Reference Sequences have been suppressed. Explain

  1. NM_139274.1: Suppressed sequence

    Description
    NM_139274.1: This RefSeq was permanently suppressed because it is a nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) candidate.