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PCNA proliferating cell nuclear antigen [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 5111, updated on 27-Sep-2014
Official Symbol
PCNAprovided by HGNC
Official Full Name
proliferating cell nuclear antigenprovided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:8729
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000132646; HPRD:01456; MIM:176740; Vega:OTTHUMG00000031798
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
ATLD2
Summary
The protein encoded by this gene is found in the nucleus and is a cofactor of DNA polymerase delta. The encoded protein acts as a homotrimer and helps increase the processivity of leading strand synthesis during DNA replication. In response to DNA damage, this protein is ubiquitinated and is involved in the RAD6-dependent DNA repair pathway. Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. Pseudogenes of this gene have been described on chromosome 4 and on the X chromosome. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
See PCNA in Epigenomics, MapViewer
Location:
20pter-p12
Exon count:
7
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
106 current GRCh38 (GCF_000001405.26) 20 NC_000020.11 (5114953..5126622, complement)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 20 NC_000020.10 (5095599..5107268, complement)

Chromosome 20 - NC_000020.11Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC102724905 Neighboring gene ribosomal protein S21 pseudogene 7 Neighboring gene transmembrane protein 230 Neighboring gene PCNA antisense RNA 1 Neighboring gene CDP-diacylglycerol synthase (phosphatidate cytidylyltransferase) 2 Neighboring gene ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2D 3 pseudogene 1

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Tat tat HIV-1 Tat upregulates the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in Jurkat cells PubMed
tat When expressed in astrocytes, neurons, and non-glial 293T cells, HIV-1 Tat interacts with a number of cell cycle-related proteins including cyclin A, cyclin B, cyclin D3, Cdk2, Cdk4, Cdk1/Cdc2, cdc6, p27, p53, p63, hdlg, and PCNA PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

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    Base excision repair, organism-specific biosystemBase excision repair (BER) is the predominant DNA damage repair pathway for the processing of small base lesions, derived from oxidation and alkylation damages. BER is normally defined as DNA repair ...
  • Base excision repair, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
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  • Cell Cycle, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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    Cell Cycle
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  • Cell cycle, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Cell cycle, organism-specific biosystemMitotic cell cycle progression is accomplished through a reproducible sequence of events, DNA replication (S phase) and mitosis (M phase) separated temporally by gaps known as G1 and G2 phases. Cycli...
  • Cell cycle, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Cell cycle, conserved biosystemMitotic cell cycle progression is accomplished through a reproducible sequence of events, DNA replication (S phase) and mitosis (M phase) separated temporally by gaps known as G1 and G2 phases. Cycli...
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  • DNA replication, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
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  • DNA strand elongation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    DNA strand elongation, organism-specific biosystemAccurate and efficient genome duplication requires coordinated processes to replicate two template strands at eucaryotic replication forks. Knowledge of the fundamental reactions involved in replicat...
  • Direct p53 effectors, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Direct p53 effectors, organism-specific biosystem
    Direct p53 effectors
  • E2F mediated regulation of DNA replication, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • Extension of Telomeres, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • G0 and Early G1, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • G1 to S cell cycle control, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    G1 to S cell cycle control, organism-specific biosystemIn the G1 phase there are two types of DNA damage responses, the p53-dependent and the p53-independent pathways. The p53-dependent responses inhibit CDKs through the up-regulation of genes encoding C...
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  • G1/S-Specific Transcription, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • Gap-filling DNA repair synthesis and ligation in GG-NER, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Gap-filling DNA repair synthesis and ligation in GG-NER, organism-specific biosystemThe resultant gap is filled by polymerase activities of Pol delta and Pol epsilon. Accessory replication protein complexes of RPA, PCNA and RFC play a role in this synthesis. DNA Ligase 1 seals the ...
  • Gap-filling DNA repair synthesis and ligation in TC-NER, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • Global Genomic NER (GG-NER), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Global Genomic NER (GG-NER), organism-specific biosystemGG-NER is considered to be transcription-independent, removing lesions from non-transcribed regions of genome in addition to non-transcribed strands of transcribed regions. The three events that char...
  • HTLV-I infection, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    HTLV-I infection, organism-specific biosystemHuman T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a pathogenic retrovirus that is associated with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL). It is also strongly implicated in non-neoplastic chronic inflammato...
  • HTLV-I infection, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
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  • Hepatitis B, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Hepatitis B, organism-specific biosystemHepatitis B virus (HBV) is an enveloped virus and contains a partially double-stranded relaxed circular DNA (RC-DNA) genome. After entry into hepatocytes, HBV RC-DNA is transported to the nucleus and...
  • Integrated Pancreatic Cancer Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Integrated Pancreatic Cancer Pathway, organism-specific biosystemAn integrated pathway model which displays the protein-protein interactions (PPIs) among the relevant proteins for pancreatic cancer. This pathway is a collection of different mechanistic protein pat...
  • Lagging Strand Synthesis, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • Leading Strand Synthesis, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • Mismatch Repair, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Mismatch Repair, organism-specific biosystemThe mismatch repair (MMR) system corrects single base mismatches and small insertion and deletion loops (IDLs) of unpaired bases. MMR is primarily associated with DNA replication and is highly conser...
  • Mismatch repair, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
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  • Mismatch repair, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
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  • Mismatch repair, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
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    Mismatch repair (MMR) directed by MSH2:MSH3 (MutSbeta), organism-specific biosystemMSH2:MSH3 (MutSbeta) binds unpaired loops of 2 or more nucleotides (Palombo et al. 1996, Genschel et al. 1998). Human cells contain about 6-fold more MSH2:MSH6 than MSH2:MSH3 (MutSbeta) and an imbala...
  • Mismatch repair (MMR) directed by MSH2:MSH6 (MutSalpha), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Mismatch repair (MMR) directed by MSH2:MSH6 (MutSalpha), organism-specific biosystemMSH2:MSH6 (MutSalpha) binds single base mismatches and unpaired loops of 1-2 nucleotides (reviewed in Edelbrock et al. 2013). Human cells contain about 6-fold more MSH2:MSH6 than MSH2:MSH3 (MutSbeta)...
  • Mitotic G1-G1/S phases, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Mitotic G1-G1/S phases, organism-specific biosystem
    Mitotic G1-G1/S phases
  • Nifedipine Activity, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Nifedipine Activity, organism-specific biosystem
    Nifedipine Activity
  • Nucleotide Excision Repair, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Nucleotide Excision Repair, organism-specific biosystemNER was first described in the model organism E. coli in the early 1960s as a process whereby bulky base damage is enzymatically removed from DNA, facilitating the recovery of DNA synthesis and cell ...
  • Nucleotide excision repair, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Nucleotide excision repair, organism-specific biosystemNucleotide excision repair (NER) is a mechanism to recognize and repair bulky DNA damage caused by compounds, environmental carcinogens, and exposure to UV-light. In humans hereditary defects in the ...
  • Nucleotide excision repair, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Nucleotide excision repair, conserved biosystemNucleotide excision repair (NER) is a mechanism to recognize and repair bulky DNA damage caused by compounds, environmental carcinogens, and exposure to UV-light. In humans hereditary defects in the ...
  • Polymerase switching, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Polymerase switching, organism-specific biosystemAfter the primers are synthesized, Replication Factor C binds to the 3'-end of the initiator DNA to trigger polymerase switching. The non-processive nature of pol alpha catalytic activity and the tig...
  • Polymerase switching on the C-strand of the telomere, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Polymerase switching on the C-strand of the telomere, organism-specific biosystemAfter the primers are synthesized on the G-Rich strand, Replication Factor C binds to the 3'-end of the initiator DNA to trigger polymerase switching. The non-processive nature of pol alpha catalytic...
  • Processive synthesis on the C-strand of the telomere, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Processive synthesis on the C-strand of the telomere, organism-specific biosystemOnce polymerase switching from pol alpha to pol delta is complete the processive synthesis of a short run of DNA called an Okazaki fragment begins. DNA synthesis is discontinuous and as the extending...
  • Processive synthesis on the lagging strand, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Processive synthesis on the lagging strand, organism-specific biosystemThe key event that allows the processive synthesis on the lagging strand, is polymerase switching from pol alpha to pol delta, as on the leading strand. However, the processive synthesis on the laggi...
  • RB in Cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
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  • Removal of DNA patch containing abasic residue, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Removal of DNA patch containing abasic residue, organism-specific biosystemDuring removal of DNA patch containing abasic residue, DNA glycosylase is displaced by APE1 which endonucleolytically cleaves the 5' side of the base-free deoxyribose residue. POL Beta is recruite...
  • Removal of the Flap Intermediate, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Removal of the Flap Intermediate, organism-specific biosystemTwo endonucleases, Dna2 and flap endonuclease 1 (FEN-1), are responsible for resolving the nascent flap structure (Tsurimoto and Stillman 1991). The Dna2 endonuclease/helicase in yeast is a monomer o...
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    Removal of the Flap Intermediate from the C-strand, organism-specific biosystemTwo endonucleases, Dna2 and flap endonuclease 1 (FEN-1), are responsible for resolving the nascent flap structure (Tsurimoto and Stillman 1991). The Dna2 endonuclease/helicase in yeast is a monomer o...
  • Repair synthesis for gap-filling by DNA polymerase in TC-NER, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Repair synthesis for gap-filling by DNA polymerase in TC-NER, organism-specific biosystem
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  • Repair synthesis of patch ~27-30 bases long by DNA polymerase, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • Resolution of AP sites via the multiple-nucleotide patch replacement pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • S Phase, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • Telomere C-strand (Lagging Strand) Synthesis, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Telomere C-strand (Lagging Strand) Synthesis, organism-specific biosystemDue to the antiparallel nature of DNA, DNA polymerization is unidirectional, and one strand is synthesized discontinuously. This strand is called the lagging strand. Although the polymerase switching...
  • Telomere Maintenance, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • Transcription-coupled NER (TC-NER), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Transcription-coupled NER (TC-NER), organism-specific biosystemThe preferential repair of UV-induced damage in transcribed strands of active genes is known as Transcription-coupled NER (TC-NER). Impairment of the ability for TC-NER results in the onset of a sev...
Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

Markers

Homology

Clone Names

  • MGC8367

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
DNA polymerase binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
DNA polymerase processivity factor activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
MutLalpha complex binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
dinucleotide insertion or deletion binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
identical protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
purine-specific mismatch base pair DNA N-glycosylase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
receptor tyrosine kinase binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
DNA repair TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
DNA strand elongation involved in DNA replication TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
base-excision repair TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
cell proliferation TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
epithelial cell differentiation IEP
Inferred from Expression Pattern
more info
 
heart development IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
leading strand elongation IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
 
mismatch repair IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
mitotic cell cycle TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
nucleotide-excision repair TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
nucleotide-excision repair, DNA gap filling TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
positive regulation of deoxyribonuclease activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
regulation of DNA replication IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
regulation of transcription involved in G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
response to cadmium ion IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to lipid IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
telomere maintenance TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
telomere maintenance via recombination TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
telomere maintenance via semi-conservative replication TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
transcription-coupled nucleotide-excision repair TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
translesion synthesis IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
DNA replication factor C complex TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
PCNA complex IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
 
PCNA-p21 complex IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
centrosome IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cytoplasm IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 
extracellular vesicular exosome IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 
nuclear replication fork IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
NOT nucleolus IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 
nucleoplasm TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
nucleus IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 
Preferred Names
proliferating cell nuclear antigen
Names
proliferating cell nuclear antigen
cyclin
DNA polymerase delta auxiliary protein

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_002592.2NP_002583.1  proliferating cell nuclear antigen

    See proteins identical to NP_002583.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1) represents the longer transcript. Variants 1 and 2 encode the same protein.
    Source sequence(s)
    BC000491, BU626265, CB990423
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS13087.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P12004
    Related
    ENSP00000368458, OTTHUMP00000030190, ENST00000379160, OTTHUMT00000077852
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    TIGR00590
    Location:1259
    pcna; proliferating cell nuclear antigen (pcna)
    cd00577
    Location:4256
    PCNA; Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) domain found in eukaryotes and archaea. These polymerase processivity factors play a role in DNA replication and repair. PCNA encircles duplex DNA in its central cavity, providing a DNA-bound platform for the ...
  2. NM_182649.1NP_872590.1  proliferating cell nuclear antigen

    See proteins identical to NP_872590.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (2) differs in the 5' UTR compared to variant 1. Variants 1 and 2 encode the same protein.
    Source sequence(s)
    BC000491, BG612192, BU626265
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS13087.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P12004
    Related
    ENSP00000368438, OTTHUMP00000030189, ENST00000379143, OTTHUMT00000077851
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    TIGR00590
    Location:1259
    pcna; proliferating cell nuclear antigen (pcna)
    cd00577
    Location:4256
    PCNA; Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) domain found in eukaryotes and archaea. These polymerase processivity factors play a role in DNA replication and repair. PCNA encircles duplex DNA in its central cavity, providing a DNA-bound platform for the ...

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 106

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000020.11 

    Range
    5114953..5126622
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

Alternate HuRef

Genomic

  1. AC_000152.1 

    Range
    5049534..5061197
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

Alternate CHM1_1.1

Genomic

  1. NC_018931.2 

    Range
    5096983..5108646
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)