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GAL galanin and GMAP prepropeptide [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 51083, updated on 29-May-2016
Official Symbol
GALprovided by HGNC
Official Full Name
galanin and GMAP prepropeptideprovided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:4114
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000069482 HPRD:00658; MIM:137035; Vega:OTTHUMG00000167890
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
ETL8; GALN; GLNN; GMAP; GAL-GMAP
Summary
This gene encodes a neuroendocrine peptide that is widely expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems and also the gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, adrenal gland and urogenital tract. The encoded protein is a precursor that is proteolytically processed to generate two mature peptides: galanin and galanin message-associated peptide (GMAP). Galanin has diverse physiological functions including nociception, feeding and energy homeostasis, osmotic regulation and water balance. GMAP has been demonstrated to possess antifungal activity and hypothesized to be part of the innate immune system. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2015]
Orthologs
Location:
11q13.3
Exon count:
6
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
107 current GRCh38.p2 (GCF_000001405.28) 11 NC_000011.10 (68684515..68691175)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 11 NC_000011.9 (68451983..68458643)

Chromosome 11 - NC_000011.10Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC101928175 Neighboring gene LDL receptor related protein 5 Neighboring gene protein phosphatase 6 regulatory subunit 3 Neighboring gene testis expressed metallothionein like protein Neighboring gene carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

  • Class A/1 (Rhodopsin-like receptors), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Class A/1 (Rhodopsin-like receptors), organism-specific biosystemRhodopsin-like receptors (class A/1) are the largest group of GPCRs and are the best studied group from a functional and structural point of view. They show great diversity at the sequence level and ...
  • G alpha (i) signalling events, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    G alpha (i) signalling events, organism-specific biosystemThe classical signalling mechanism for G alpha (i) is inhibition of the cAMP dependent pathway through inhibition of adenylate cyclase. Decreased production of cAMP from ATP results in decreased act...
  • GPCR downstream signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    GPCR downstream signaling, organism-specific biosystemG protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are classically defined as the receptor, G-protein and downstream effectors, the alpha subunit of the G-protein being the primary signaling molecule. However, it h...
  • GPCR ligand binding, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    GPCR ligand binding, organism-specific biosystemThere are more than 800 G-protein coupled receptor (GPCRs) in the human genome, making it the largest receptor superfamily. GPCRs are also the largest class of drug targets, involved in virtually all...
  • Peptide ligand-binding receptors, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Peptide ligand-binding receptors, organism-specific biosystemThese receptors, a subset of the Class A/1 (Rhodopsin-like) family, all bind peptide ligands which include the chemokines, opioids and somatostatins.
  • Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystemSignal transduction is a process in which extracellular signals elicit changes in cell state and activity. Transmembrane receptors sense changes in the cellular environment by binding ligands, such a...
  • Signaling by GPCR, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by GPCR, organism-specific biosystemG protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs; 7TM receptors; seven transmembrane domain receptors; heptahelical receptors; G protein-linked receptors [GPLR]) are the largest family of transmembrane receptors i...
Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

Markers

Homology

Clone Names

  • MGC40167

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
galanin receptor activity IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
neuropeptide hormone activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
neuropeptide hormone activity NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
type 1 galanin receptor binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
type 2 galanin receptor binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
type 3 galanin receptor binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
cAMP-mediated signaling IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
feeding behavior IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
inflammatory response IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
insulin secretion NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of lymphocyte proliferation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
negative regulation of root hair elongation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
nervous system development IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
neuropeptide signaling pathway IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of apoptotic process IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of catagen IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of cortisol secretion IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of large conductance calcium-activated potassium channel activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
protein kinase A signaling IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
regulation of glucocorticoid metabolic process IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to drug IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to estrogen IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to immobilization stress IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to insulin IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
Golgi apparatus IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
extracellular region TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
extracellular space IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
neuronal cell body IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
secretory granule IBA
Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
more info
 
Preferred Names
galanin peptides
Names
galanin prepropeptide
galanin-message-associated peptide
galanin-related peptide
galanin/GMAP prepropeptide

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_015973.4NP_057057.2  galanin peptides preproprotein

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_057057.2

    Status: REVIEWED

    Source sequence(s)
    AP003096, BC030241, BM846531
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS8183.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P22466
    Related
    ENSP00000265643, OTTHUMP00000237192, ENST00000265643, OTTHUMT00000396843
    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    pfam01296
    Location:3361
    Galanin; Galanin
    smart00071
    Location:23123
    Galanin; Galanin
    pfam06540
    Location:62123
    GMAP; Galanin message associated peptide (GMAP)

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 107 details...

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p2 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000011.10 Reference GRCh38.p2 Primary Assembly

    Range
    68684515..68691175
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

Alternate CHM1_1.1

Genomic

  1. NC_018922.2 Alternate CHM1_1.1

    Range
    68335752..68342412
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)