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PAM peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 5066, updated on 26-May-2016
Official Symbol
PAMprovided by HGNC
Official Full Name
peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenaseprovided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:8596
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000145730 HPRD:01361; MIM:170270; Vega:OTTHUMG00000128729
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
PAL; PHM
Summary
This gene encodes a multifunctional protein. The encoded preproprotein is proteolytically processed to generate the mature enzyme. This enzyme includes two domains with distinct catalytic activities, a peptidylglycine alpha-hydroxylating monooxygenase (PHM) domain and a peptidyl-alpha-hydroxyglycine alpha-amidating lyase (PAL) domain. These catalytic domains work sequentially to catalyze the conversion of neuroendocrine peptides to active alpha-amidated products. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants, at least one of which encodes an isoform that is proteolytically processed. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2016]
Orthologs
Location:
5q14-q21
Exon count:
28
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
107 current GRCh38.p2 (GCF_000001405.28) 5 NC_000005.10 (102755276..103031105)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 5 NC_000005.9 (102201527..102366809)

Chromosome 5 - NC_000005.10Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 492 Neighboring gene long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 491 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105379104 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105379103 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105379106 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105379105 Neighboring gene eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit K pseudogene 1

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

Markers

Homology

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
L-ascorbic acid binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
calcium ion binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
copper ion binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
peptidylamidoglycolate lyase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
peptidylglycine monooxygenase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
protein kinase binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
zinc ion binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
central nervous system development IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
heart development IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
lactation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
limb development IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
long-chain fatty acid metabolic process IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
maternal process involved in female pregnancy IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
odontogenesis IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
ovulation cycle process IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
oxidation-reduction process IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
peptide amidation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
protein amidation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
protein homooligomerization IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
regulation of actin cytoskeleton organization IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
regulation of protein secretion IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to copper ion IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to drug IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to estradiol IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to glucocorticoid IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to hypoxia IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to pH IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
toxin metabolic process IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
cell surface IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
extracellular exosome IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
extracellular space IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
integral component of membrane IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
membrane IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
neuron projection IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
perikaryon IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
perinuclear region of cytoplasm IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
plasma membrane IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
secretory granule membrane IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
trans-Golgi network IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
Preferred Names
peptidyl-glycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase
Names
pancreatic peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase
peptidyl alpha-amidating enzyme
peptidyl-alpha-hydroxyglycine alpha-amidating lyase
peptidylamidoglycolate lyase
peptidylglycine 2-hydroxylase
peptidylglycine alpha-hydroxylating monooxygenase
NP_000910.2
NP_001170777.1
NP_620121.1
NP_620176.1
NP_620177.1

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

Genomic

  1. NG_029444.2 RefSeqGene

    Range
    116041..281323
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_000919.3NP_000910.2  peptidyl-glycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase isoform a precursor

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_000910.2

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1) uses an alternate in-frame splice site in the 3' coding region compared to variant 5. The encoded isoform (a) is longer than isoform e. This isoform (a) may undergo proteolytic processing similar to isoform e.
    Source sequence(s)
    AC010250, BI966687, DA240822, M37721
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS43348.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P19021
    Related
    ENSP00000306100, OTTHUMP00000227957, ENST00000304400, OTTHUMT00000381031
    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    pfam01082
    Location:59177
    Cu2_monooxygen; Copper type II ascorbate-dependent monooxygenase, N-terminal domain
    pfam03712
    Location:194345
    Cu2_monoox_C; Copper type II ascorbate-dependent monooxygenase, C-terminal domain
    cd14958
    Location:500807
    NHL_PAL_like; Peptidyl-alpha-hydroxyglycine alpha-amidating lyase (PAL, EC 4.3.2.5)
  2. NM_001177306.1NP_001170777.1  peptidyl-glycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase isoform e preproprotein

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001170777.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (5) encodes isoform e.
    Source sequence(s)
    AB095007, AC010250, BI966687, DA240822
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS54885.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P19021
    Related
    ENSP00000396493, OTTHUMP00000158923, ENST00000438793, OTTHUMT00000250640
    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    pfam01082
    Location:59177
    Cu2_monooxygen; Copper type II ascorbate-dependent monooxygenase, N-terminal domain
    pfam03712
    Location:194345
    Cu2_monoox_C; Copper type II ascorbate-dependent monooxygenase, C-terminal domain
    cd14958
    Location:500807
    NHL_PAL_like; Peptidyl-alpha-hydroxyglycine alpha-amidating lyase (PAL, EC 4.3.2.5)
  3. NM_001319943.1NP_001306872.1  peptidyl-glycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase isoform f precursor

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (7) differs in the 5' UTR and contains an alternate in-frame exon in its central coding region compared to variant 5. The encoded isoform (f) is longer than isoform e and may undergo proteolytic processing similar to isoform e.
    Source sequence(s)
    AB095007, AC010250, BI966687, DA240822, DA406933, U19966
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P19021
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    O43832
    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    pfam01082
    Location:59177
    Cu2_monooxygen; Copper type II ascorbate-dependent monooxygenase, N-terminal domain
    pfam03712
    Location:194345
    Cu2_monoox_C; Copper type II ascorbate-dependent monooxygenase, C-terminal domain
    cd14958
    Location:518825
    NHL_PAL_like; Peptidyl-alpha-hydroxyglycine alpha-amidating lyase (PAL, EC 4.3.2.5)
  4. NM_138766.2NP_620121.1  peptidyl-glycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase isoform b precursor

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_620121.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (2, also known as PAM-15) lacks an alternate in-frame exon in the 3' coding region compared to variant 5. The encoded isoform (b) is shorter than isoform e. This isoform (b) may undergo proteolytic processing similar to isoform e.
    Source sequence(s)
    AC010250, BI966687, DA240822, S75038
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS4092.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P19021
    Related
    ENSP00000403461, OTTHUMP00000158921, ENST00000455264, OTTHUMT00000250638
    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    pfam01082
    Location:59177
    Cu2_monooxygen; Copper type II ascorbate-dependent monooxygenase, N-terminal domain
    pfam03712
    Location:194345
    Cu2_monoox_C; Copper type II ascorbate-dependent monooxygenase, C-terminal domain
    cd14958
    Location:500807
    NHL_PAL_like; Peptidyl-alpha-hydroxyglycine alpha-amidating lyase (PAL, EC 4.3.2.5)
  5. NM_138821.2NP_620176.1  peptidyl-glycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase isoform c precursor

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_620176.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (3) lacks an alternate in-frame exon in the 5' coding region compared to variant 5. The encoded isoform (c) is shorter than isoform e. This isoform (c) may undergo proteolytic processing similar to isoform e.
    Source sequence(s)
    AC010250, BI966687, BT007419, DA240822
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS4093.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P19021
    Related
    ENSP00000314638, OTTHUMP00000158920, ENST00000348126, OTTHUMT00000250637
    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    pfam01082
    Location:59177
    Cu2_monooxygen; Copper type II ascorbate-dependent monooxygenase, N-terminal domain
    pfam03712
    Location:194345
    Cu2_monoox_C; Copper type II ascorbate-dependent monooxygenase, C-terminal domain
    cd14958
    Location:393700
    NHL_PAL_like; Peptidyl-alpha-hydroxyglycine alpha-amidating lyase (PAL, EC 4.3.2.5)
  6. NM_138822.2NP_620177.1  peptidyl-glycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase isoform d precursor

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_620177.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (4) lacks two alternate in-frame exons in the 3' coding region compared to variant 5. The encoded isoform (d) is shorter than isoform e. This isoform (d) may undergo proteolytic processing similar to isoform e.
    Source sequence(s)
    AC010250, AF010472, BI966687, DA240822
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS4094.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P19021
    Related
    ENSP00000282992, OTTHUMP00000158922, ENST00000346918, OTTHUMT00000250639
    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    pfam01082
    Location:59177
    Cu2_monooxygen; Copper type II ascorbate-dependent monooxygenase, N-terminal domain
    pfam03712
    Location:194345
    Cu2_monoox_C; Copper type II ascorbate-dependent monooxygenase, C-terminal domain
    cd14958
    Location:500807
    NHL_PAL_like; Peptidyl-alpha-hydroxyglycine alpha-amidating lyase (PAL, EC 4.3.2.5)

RNA

  1. NR_033440.1 RNA Sequence

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (6) lacks an alternate internal exon in the 5' region and uses two alternate splice sites in the 3' region, compared to variant 1. This variant is represented as non-coding because the use of the supported translational start codon, as used in variant 1, renders the transcript a candidate for nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD).
    Source sequence(s)
    AC010250, AC113373, AK296521, BI966687, DA240822

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 107 details...

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p2 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000005.10 Reference GRCh38.p2 Primary Assembly

    Range
    102755276..103031105
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. XM_011543418.1XP_011541720.1  

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_011541720.1

    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    pfam01082
    Location:59177
    Cu2_monooxygen; Copper type II ascorbate-dependent monooxygenase, N-terminal domain
    pfam03712
    Location:194345
    Cu2_monoox_C; Copper type II ascorbate-dependent monooxygenase, C-terminal domain
    cd14958
    Location:518825
    NHL_PAL_like; Peptidyl-alpha-hydroxyglycine alpha-amidating lyase (PAL, EC 4.3.2.5)
  2. XM_011543420.1XP_011541722.1  

    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    pfam01082
    Location:59177
    Cu2_monooxygen; Copper type II ascorbate-dependent monooxygenase, N-terminal domain
    pfam03712
    Location:194345
    Cu2_monoox_C; Copper type II ascorbate-dependent monooxygenase, C-terminal domain
    cd14958
    Location:518825
    NHL_PAL_like; Peptidyl-alpha-hydroxyglycine alpha-amidating lyase (PAL, EC 4.3.2.5)
  3. XM_011543423.1XP_011541725.1  

    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    pfam01082
    Location:59177
    Cu2_monooxygen; Copper type II ascorbate-dependent monooxygenase, N-terminal domain
    pfam03712
    Location:194345
    Cu2_monoox_C; Copper type II ascorbate-dependent monooxygenase, C-terminal domain
    cd14958
    Location:518825
    NHL_PAL_like; Peptidyl-alpha-hydroxyglycine alpha-amidating lyase (PAL, EC 4.3.2.5)
  4. XM_011543421.1XP_011541723.1  

    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    pfam01082
    Location:59177
    Cu2_monooxygen; Copper type II ascorbate-dependent monooxygenase, N-terminal domain
    pfam03712
    Location:194345
    Cu2_monoox_C; Copper type II ascorbate-dependent monooxygenase, C-terminal domain
    cd14958
    Location:518825
    NHL_PAL_like; Peptidyl-alpha-hydroxyglycine alpha-amidating lyase (PAL, EC 4.3.2.5)
  5. XM_011543422.1XP_011541724.1  

    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    pfam01082
    Location:59177
    Cu2_monooxygen; Copper type II ascorbate-dependent monooxygenase, N-terminal domain
    pfam03712
    Location:194345
    Cu2_monoox_C; Copper type II ascorbate-dependent monooxygenase, C-terminal domain
    cd14958
    Location:518825
    NHL_PAL_like; Peptidyl-alpha-hydroxyglycine alpha-amidating lyase (PAL, EC 4.3.2.5)
  6. XM_011543424.1XP_011541726.1  

    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    pfam01082
    Location:59177
    Cu2_monooxygen; Copper type II ascorbate-dependent monooxygenase, N-terminal domain
    pfam03712
    Location:194345
    Cu2_monoox_C; Copper type II ascorbate-dependent monooxygenase, C-terminal domain
    cd14958
    Location:518825
    NHL_PAL_like; Peptidyl-alpha-hydroxyglycine alpha-amidating lyase (PAL, EC 4.3.2.5)
  7. XM_011543425.1XP_011541727.1  

    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    pfam01082
    Location:59177
    Cu2_monooxygen; Copper type II ascorbate-dependent monooxygenase, N-terminal domain
    pfam03712
    Location:194345
    Cu2_monoox_C; Copper type II ascorbate-dependent monooxygenase, C-terminal domain
    cd14958
    Location:518825
    NHL_PAL_like; Peptidyl-alpha-hydroxyglycine alpha-amidating lyase (PAL, EC 4.3.2.5)
  8. XM_011543426.1XP_011541728.1  

    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    pfam01082
    Location:59177
    Cu2_monooxygen; Copper type II ascorbate-dependent monooxygenase, N-terminal domain
    pfam03712
    Location:194345
    Cu2_monoox_C; Copper type II ascorbate-dependent monooxygenase, C-terminal domain
    cd14958
    Location:518795
    NHL_PAL_like; Peptidyl-alpha-hydroxyglycine alpha-amidating lyase (PAL, EC 4.3.2.5)
  9. XM_011543427.1XP_011541729.1  

    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    pfam01082
    Location:59177
    Cu2_monooxygen; Copper type II ascorbate-dependent monooxygenase, N-terminal domain
    pfam03712
    Location:194345
    Cu2_monoox_C; Copper type II ascorbate-dependent monooxygenase, C-terminal domain
    cd14958
    Location:518795
    NHL_PAL_like; Peptidyl-alpha-hydroxyglycine alpha-amidating lyase (PAL, EC 4.3.2.5)
  10. XM_006714632.1XP_006714695.1  

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_006714695.1

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P19021
    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    pfam01082
    Location:59177
    Cu2_monooxygen; Copper type II ascorbate-dependent monooxygenase, N-terminal domain
    pfam03712
    Location:194345
    Cu2_monoox_C; Copper type II ascorbate-dependent monooxygenase, C-terminal domain
    cd14958
    Location:500807
    NHL_PAL_like; Peptidyl-alpha-hydroxyglycine alpha-amidating lyase (PAL, EC 4.3.2.5)
  11. XM_006714634.1XP_006714697.1  

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_006714697.1

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P19021
    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    pfam01082
    Location:59177
    Cu2_monooxygen; Copper type II ascorbate-dependent monooxygenase, N-terminal domain
    pfam03712
    Location:194345
    Cu2_monoox_C; Copper type II ascorbate-dependent monooxygenase, C-terminal domain
    cd14958
    Location:500807
    NHL_PAL_like; Peptidyl-alpha-hydroxyglycine alpha-amidating lyase (PAL, EC 4.3.2.5)
  12. XM_006714636.1XP_006714699.1  

    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    pfam01082
    Location:59177
    Cu2_monooxygen; Copper type II ascorbate-dependent monooxygenase, N-terminal domain
    pfam03712
    Location:194345
    Cu2_monoox_C; Copper type II ascorbate-dependent monooxygenase, C-terminal domain
    cd14958
    Location:500807
    NHL_PAL_like; Peptidyl-alpha-hydroxyglycine alpha-amidating lyase (PAL, EC 4.3.2.5)
  13. XM_006714638.1XP_006714701.1  

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_006714701.1

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P19021
    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    pfam01082
    Location:59177
    Cu2_monooxygen; Copper type II ascorbate-dependent monooxygenase, N-terminal domain
    pfam03712
    Location:194345
    Cu2_monoox_C; Copper type II ascorbate-dependent monooxygenase, C-terminal domain
    cd14958
    Location:500807
    NHL_PAL_like; Peptidyl-alpha-hydroxyglycine alpha-amidating lyase (PAL, EC 4.3.2.5)
  14. XM_006714639.1XP_006714702.1  

    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    pfam01082
    Location:59177
    Cu2_monooxygen; Copper type II ascorbate-dependent monooxygenase, N-terminal domain
    pfam03712
    Location:194345
    Cu2_monoox_C; Copper type II ascorbate-dependent monooxygenase, C-terminal domain
    cd14958
    Location:393700
    NHL_PAL_like; Peptidyl-alpha-hydroxyglycine alpha-amidating lyase (PAL, EC 4.3.2.5)
  15. XM_006714640.1XP_006714703.1  

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_006714703.1

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P19021
    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    pfam01082
    Location:59177
    Cu2_monooxygen; Copper type II ascorbate-dependent monooxygenase, N-terminal domain
    pfam03712
    Location:194345
    Cu2_monoox_C; Copper type II ascorbate-dependent monooxygenase, C-terminal domain
    cd14958
    Location:393700
    NHL_PAL_like; Peptidyl-alpha-hydroxyglycine alpha-amidating lyase (PAL, EC 4.3.2.5)
  16. XM_011543419.1XP_011541721.1  

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for XP_011541721.1

    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    pfam01082
    Location:59177
    Cu2_monooxygen; Copper type II ascorbate-dependent monooxygenase, N-terminal domain
    pfam03712
    Location:194345
    Cu2_monoox_C; Copper type II ascorbate-dependent monooxygenase, C-terminal domain
    cd14958
    Location:518825
    NHL_PAL_like; Peptidyl-alpha-hydroxyglycine alpha-amidating lyase (PAL, EC 4.3.2.5)

RNA

  1. XR_948263.1 RNA Sequence

  2. XR_948265.1 RNA Sequence

  3. XR_948266.1 RNA Sequence

    Related
    ENST00000345721, OTTHUMT00000370583
  4. XR_948264.1 RNA Sequence

Alternate CHM1_1.1

Genomic

  1. NC_018916.2 Alternate CHM1_1.1

    Range
    101633901..101799441
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)