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MMP9 matrix metallopeptidase 9 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 4318, updated on 15-May-2016
Official Symbol
MMP9provided by HGNC
Official Full Name
matrix metallopeptidase 9provided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:7176
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000100985 HPRD:00387; MIM:120361; Vega:OTTHUMG00000033044
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
GELB; CLG4B; MMP-9; MANDP2
Summary
Proteins of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family are involved in the breakdown of extracellular matrix in normal physiological processes, such as embryonic development, reproduction, and tissue remodeling, as well as in disease processes, such as arthritis and metastasis. Most MMP's are secreted as inactive proproteins which are activated when cleaved by extracellular proteinases. The enzyme encoded by this gene degrades type IV and V collagens. Studies in rhesus monkeys suggest that the enzyme is involved in IL-8-induced mobilization of hematopoietic progenitor cells from bone marrow, and murine studies suggest a role in tumor-associated tissue remodeling. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Orthologs
Location:
20q13.12
Exon count:
13
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
107 current GRCh38.p2 (GCF_000001405.28) 20 NC_000020.11 (46008908..46016561)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 20 NC_000020.10 (44637547..44645200)

Chromosome 20 - NC_000020.11Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene zinc finger protein 335 Neighboring gene ferritin, light polypeptide pseudogene 1 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105372632 Neighboring gene solute carrier family 12 member 5 Neighboring gene nuclear receptor coactivator 5

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

Associated conditions

Description Tests
Metaphyseal anadysplasia 2
MedGen: C2751322 OMIM: 613073 GeneReviews: Not available
Compare labs

NHGRI GWAS Catalog

Description
Host-microbe interactions have shaped the genetic architecture of inflammatory bowel disease.
NHGRI GWA Catalog

Replication interactions

Interaction Pubs
Knockdown of matrix metallopeptidase 9 (gelatinase B; 92kDa gelatinase; 92kDa type IV collagenase; MMP9) by siRNA inhibits HIV-1 replication in HeLa P4/R5 cells PubMed

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 env HIV-1 gp120-mediated binding of human mannose receptor induces MMP-9 expression in vaginal epithelial cells PubMed
env Inhibition of NRF2 by siRNA results in increased NOX2, NFkappaB (p65/p50), TNF-alpha, and MMP-9 proteins in astrocytes exposed to HIV-1 gp120 PubMed
env Matrix metalloproteinases MMP2 and MMP9 participate in the maturation process of cleavage and activation of IL-1beta based on the intracerebroventricular injection of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 PubMed
env Concomitant incubation with gp120 and methamphetamine stimulates LPS-induced MMP-9 expression and biological activity in monocyte-derived macrophages PubMed
env T- and M-tropic HIV-1 gp120 proteins are able to induce the secretion of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) by T cells or glioma cells; MMP-9 is an extracellular metalloproteinase present in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with HIV-1 PubMed
Nef nef Overexpression of HIV-1 Nef and ALK effect gelatinase activation in astrocytic glioma cells PubMed
nef MMP-9 activity in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from rats is induced by injecting the rats intracisternally with recombinant HIV-1 Nef protein, but not after injection of heat-treated Nef, HIV-1 gp120, HIV-1 gp160 or PBS PubMed
Tat tat The basic domain (49RKKRRQRRR57) of HIV-1 Tat is essential for enhancing the FGF-induced activation of ERK, Rho-A, and MLC2 and upregulates the expression of MMP-9 in human podocytes PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat protein increases the permeability of primary human brain micro vascular endothelial cells by both inhibiting occludin expression and cleaving occludin via matrix metalloproteinase-9 PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat-induced MAPK (ERK, JNK, and p38) activation is required for MMP-9 expression in human astrocytes PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat-mediated upregulation of MMP-9 in human astrocytes results from NF-kappaB activation pathway PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat upregulates the expression of MMP-9 in monocytes in an IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, and tyrosine phosphatase dependent manner PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

  • AGE/RAGE pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    AGE/RAGE pathway, organism-specific biosystemAdvanced glycation end products (AGEs) are heterogeneous group of non-enzymatic malliard reaction products of aldose sugar with proteins and lipids. Formation of AGEs is an indicator of one of the ma...
  • Activation of Matrix Metalloproteinases, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Activation of Matrix Metalloproteinases, organism-specific biosystemThe matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), previously known as matrixins, are classically known to be involved in the turnover of extracellular matrix (ECM) components. However, recent high throughput pro...
  • Angiogenesis, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Angiogenesis, organism-specific biosystemThis pathway is a concise and simplified version of the basic proteins involved in angiogenesis. The proces is regulated by hyopoxia, which results in the transcription of eg. VEGF1, FGF2, PDGFbeta, ...
  • Assembly of collagen fibrils and other multimeric structures, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Assembly of collagen fibrils and other multimeric structures, organism-specific biosystemCollagen trimers in triple-helical form, referred to as procollagen or collagen molecules, are exported from the ER and trafficked through the Golgi network before secretion into the extracellular sp...
  • Axon guidance, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • Bladder cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Bladder cancer, organism-specific biosystemThe urothelium covers the luminal surface of almost the entire urinary tract, extending from the renal pelvis, through the ureter and bladder, to the proximal urethra. The majority of urothelial carc...
  • Bladder cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Bladder cancer, conserved biosystemThe urothelium covers the luminal surface of almost the entire urinary tract, extending from the renal pelvis, through the ureter and bladder, to the proximal urethra. The majority of urothelial carc...
  • CXCR4-mediated signaling events, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    CXCR4-mediated signaling events, organism-specific biosystem
    CXCR4-mediated signaling events
  • Collagen degradation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Collagen degradation, organism-specific biosystemCollagen fibril diameter and spatial organisation are dependent on the species, tissue type and stage of development (Parry 1988). The lengths of collagen fibrils in mature tissues are largely unknow...
  • Collagen formation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Collagen formation, organism-specific biosystemCollagen is a family of at least 29 structural proteins derived from over 40 human genes (Myllyharju & Kivirikko 2004). It is the main component of connective tissue, and the most abundant protein in...
  • Degradation of the extracellular matrix, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Degradation of the extracellular matrix, organism-specific biosystemMatrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), previously referred to as matrixins because of their role in degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM), are zinc and calcium dependent proteases belonging to the...
  • Developmental Biology, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Developmental Biology, organism-specific biosystemAs a first step towards capturing the array of processes by which a fertilized egg gives rise to the diverse tissues of the body, examples of three kinds of processes have been annotated. These are a...
  • EPH-Ephrin signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    EPH-Ephrin signaling, organism-specific biosystemDuring the development process cell migration and adhesion are the main forces involved in morphing the cells into critical anatomical structures. The ability of a cell to migrate to its correct dest...
  • EPH-ephrin mediated repulsion of cells, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    EPH-ephrin mediated repulsion of cells, organism-specific biosystemDespite high-affinity multimeric interaction between EPHs and ephrins (EFNs), the cellular response to EPH-EFN engagement is usually repulsion between the two cells and signal termination. These repu...
  • Endochondral Ossification, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Endochondral Ossification, organism-specific biosystem
    Endochondral Ossification
  • Estrogen signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Estrogen signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemEstrogens are steroid hormones that regulate a plethora of physiological processes in mammals, including reproduction, cardiovascular protection, bone integrity, cellular homeostasis, and behavior. E...
  • Estrogen signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Estrogen signaling pathway, conserved biosystemEstrogens are steroid hormones that regulate a plethora of physiological processes in mammals, including reproduction, cardiovascular protection, bone integrity, cellular homeostasis, and behavior. E...
  • Extracellular matrix organization, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Extracellular matrix organization, organism-specific biosystemThe extracellular matrix is a component of all mammalian tissues, a network consisting largely of the fibrous proteins collagen, elastin and associated-microfibrils, fibronectin and laminins embedded...
  • FGF signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    FGF signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem
    FGF signaling pathway
  • Hepatitis B, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Hepatitis B, organism-specific biosystemHepatitis B virus (HBV) is an enveloped virus and contains a partially double-stranded relaxed circular DNA (RC-DNA) genome. After entry into hepatocytes, HBV RC-DNA is transported to the nucleus and...
  • IL-3 Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    IL-3 Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemInterleukin-3 belongs to a family of cytokines, which includes IL-5 and GM-CSF. It signals through a receptor complex comprising of an IL-3 specific IL-3 receptor alpha subunit (IL3RA) and a common b...
  • LPA receptor mediated events, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    LPA receptor mediated events, organism-specific biosystem
    LPA receptor mediated events
  • Leukocyte transendothelial migration, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Leukocyte transendothelial migration, organism-specific biosystemLeukocyte migaration from the blood into tissues is vital for immune surveillance and inflammation. During this diapedesis of leukocytes, the leukocytes bind to endothelial cell adhesion molecules (C...
  • Leukocyte transendothelial migration, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Leukocyte transendothelial migration, conserved biosystemLeukocyte migaration from the blood into tissues is vital for immune surveillance and inflammation. During this diapedesis of leukocytes, the leukocytes bind to endothelial cell adhesion molecules (C...
  • Matrix Metalloproteinases, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Matrix Metalloproteinases, organism-specific biosystemMatrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are zinc-dependent endopeptidases; other family members are adamalysins, serralysins, and astacins. The MMPs belong to a larger family of proteases known as the metzi...
  • MicroRNAs in cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    MicroRNAs in cancer, organism-specific biosystemMicroRNA (miRNA) is a cluster of small non-encoding RNA molecules of 21 - 23 nucleotides in length, which controls gene expression post-transcriptionally either via the degradation of target mRNAs or...
  • MicroRNAs in cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    MicroRNAs in cancer, conserved biosystemMicroRNA (miRNA) is a cluster of small non-encoding RNA molecules of 21 - 23 nucleotides in length, which controls gene expression post-transcriptionally either via the degradation of target mRNAs or...
  • Osteopontin Signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Osteopontin Signaling, organism-specific biosystemStudy of regulation of promatrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) by osteopontin (OPN) through IKK signaling pathway.
  • Osteopontin-mediated events, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Osteopontin-mediated events, organism-specific biosystem
    Osteopontin-mediated events
  • Pathways in cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Pathways in cancer, organism-specific biosystem
    Pathways in cancer
  • Plasma membrane estrogen receptor signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Plasma membrane estrogen receptor signaling, organism-specific biosystem
    Plasma membrane estrogen receptor signaling
  • Proteoglycans in cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Proteoglycans in cancer, organism-specific biosystemMany proteoglycans (PGs) in the tumor microenvironment have been shown to be key macromolecules that contribute to biology of various types of cancer including proliferation, adhesion, angiogenesis a...
  • Proteoglycans in cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Proteoglycans in cancer, conserved biosystemMany proteoglycans (PGs) in the tumor microenvironment have been shown to be key macromolecules that contribute to biology of various types of cancer including proliferation, adhesion, angiogenesis a...
  • Regulation of Wnt-mediated beta catenin signaling and target gene transcription, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Regulation of Wnt-mediated beta catenin signaling and target gene transcription, organism-specific biosystem
    Regulation of Wnt-mediated beta catenin signaling and target gene transcription
  • Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystemSignal transduction is a process in which extracellular signals elicit changes in cell state and activity. Transmembrane receptors sense changes in the cellular environment by binding ligands, such a...
  • Signaling by SCF-KIT, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by SCF-KIT, organism-specific biosystemStem cell factor (SCF) is a growth factor with membrane bound and soluble forms. It is expressed by fibroblasts and endothelial cells throughout the body, promoting proliferation, migration, survival...
  • Spinal Cord Injury, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Spinal Cord Injury, organism-specific biosystemThis pathway provides an overview of cell types, therapeutic targets, drugs, new proposed targets and pathways implicated in spinal cord injury. Spinal cord injury is a complex multistep process that...
  • Syndecan-1-mediated signaling events, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Syndecan-1-mediated signaling events, organism-specific biosystem
    Syndecan-1-mediated signaling events
  • Syndecan-4-mediated signaling events, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Syndecan-4-mediated signaling events, organism-specific biosystem
    Syndecan-4-mediated signaling events
  • TNF signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    TNF signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemTumor necrosis factor (TNF), as a critical cytokine, can induce a wide range of intracellular signal pathways including apoptosis and cell survival as well as inflammation and immunity. Activated TNF...
  • TNF signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    TNF signaling pathway, conserved biosystemTumor necrosis factor (TNF), as a critical cytokine, can induce a wide range of intracellular signal pathways including apoptosis and cell survival as well as inflammation and immunity. Activated TNF...
  • TWEAK Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    TWEAK Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemTNF related weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) is a small pleiotropic cytokine of the TNF super family and its gene is located at chromosome 17p13.1. TWEAK has been reported to be expressed in tissues...
  • Transcriptional misregulation in cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Transcriptional misregulation in cancer, organism-specific biosystem
    Transcriptional misregulation in cancer
  • Transcriptional misregulation in cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Transcriptional misregulation in cancer, conserved biosystem
    Transcriptional misregulation in cancer
  • Validated targets of C-MYC transcriptional activation, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Validated targets of C-MYC transcriptional activation, organism-specific biosystem
    Validated targets of C-MYC transcriptional activation
  • Validated transcriptional targets of AP1 family members Fra1 and Fra2, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Validated transcriptional targets of AP1 family members Fra1 and Fra2, organism-specific biosystem
    Validated transcriptional targets of AP1 family members Fra1 and Fra2
  • amb2 Integrin signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    amb2 Integrin signaling, organism-specific biosystem
    amb2 Integrin signaling
Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

Markers

Homology

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
collagen binding TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
endopeptidase activity EXP
Inferred from Experiment
more info
PubMed 
endopeptidase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
identical protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
metalloendopeptidase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
metalloendopeptidase activity TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
metallopeptidase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
serine-type endopeptidase activity EXP
Inferred from Experiment
more info
PubMed 
serine-type endopeptidase activity TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
zinc ion binding TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
collagen catabolic process TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
embryo implantation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
endodermal cell differentiation IEP
Inferred from Expression Pattern
more info
PubMed 
ephrin receptor signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
extracellular matrix disassembly TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
leukocyte migration IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
macrophage differentiation TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of apoptotic process IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of cation channel activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic signaling pathway IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
ossification IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of DNA binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of keratinocyte migration IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of protein phosphorylation IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of receptor binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of release of cytochrome c from mitochondria IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
proteolysis IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
skeletal system development IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
extracellular exosome IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
extracellular region TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
extracellular space IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
proteinaceous extracellular matrix IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
Preferred Names
matrix metalloproteinase-9
Names
macrophage gelatinase
matrix metallopeptidase 9 (gelatinase B, 92kDa gelatinase, 92kDa type IV collagenase)
matrix metalloproteinase 9 (gelatinase B, 92kDa gelatinase, 92kDa type IV collagenase)
type V collagenase
NP_004985.2

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

Genomic

  1. NG_011468.1 RefSeqGene

    Range
    5001..12654
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_004994.2NP_004985.2  matrix metalloproteinase-9 preproprotein

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_004985.2

    Status: REVIEWED

    Source sequence(s)
    AW468235, BC006093, CN288579, J05070
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS13390.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P14780
    Related
    ENSP00000361405, OTTHUMP00000031674, ENST00000372330, OTTHUMT00000080337
    Conserved Domains (5) summary
    pfam04886
    Location:472506
    PT; PT repeat
    cd00062
    Location:282329
    FN2; Fibronectin Type II domain: FN2 is one of three types of internal repeats which combine to form larger domains within fibronectin. Fibronectin, a plasma protein that binds cell surfaces and various compounds including collagen, fibrin, heparin, DNA, and ...
    cd00094
    Location:514704
    HX; Hemopexin-like repeats.; Hemopexin is a heme-binding protein that transports heme to the liver. Hemopexin-like repeats occur in vitronectin and some matrix metalloproteinases family (matrixins). The HX repeats of some matrixins bind tissue inhibitor of ...
    cd04278
    Location:115444
    ZnMc_MMP; Zinc-dependent metalloprotease, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) sub-family. MMPs are responsible for a great deal of pericellular proteolysis of extracellular matrix and cell surface molecules, playing crucial roles in morphogenesis, cell fate ...
    pfam00413
    Location:115444
    Peptidase_M10; Matrixin

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 107 details...

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p2 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000020.11 Reference GRCh38.p2 Primary Assembly

    Range
    46008908..46016561
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

Alternate CHM1_1.1

Genomic

  1. NC_018931.2 Alternate CHM1_1.1

    Range
    44540180..44547844
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)