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INS insulin [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 3630, updated on 1-Sep-2014
Official Symbol
INSprovided by HGNC
Official Full Name
insulinprovided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:6081
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000254647; HPRD:01455; MIM:176730; Vega:OTTHUMG00000009558
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
ILPR; IRDN; IDDM1; IDDM2; MODY10
Summary
After removal of the precursor signal peptide, proinsulin is post-translationally cleaved into three peptides: the B chain and A chain peptides, which are covalently linked via two disulfide bonds to form insulin, and C-peptide. Binding of insulin to the insulin receptor (INSR) stimulates glucose uptake. A multitude of mutant alleles with phenotypic effects have been identified. There is a read-through gene, INS-IGF2, which overlaps with this gene at the 5' region and with the IGF2 gene at the 3' region. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2010]
Location:
11p15.5
Exon count:
3
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
106 current GRCh38 (GCF_000001405.26) 11 NC_000011.10 (2159779..2161209, complement)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 11 NC_000011.9 (2181009..2182439, complement)

Chromosome 11 - NC_000011.10Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene INS-IGF2 readthrough Neighboring gene insulin-like growth factor 2 (somatomedin A) Neighboring gene microRNA 483 Neighboring gene IGF2 antisense RNA Neighboring gene tyrosine hydroxylase Neighboring gene microRNA 4686

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

Associated conditions

Description Tests
Diabetes mellitus, insulin-dependent, 2
MedGen: C1852092 OMIM: 125852 GeneReviews: Not available
Compare labs
Maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 10
MedGen: C3150617 OMIM: 613370 GeneReviews: Not available
Compare labs
Permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus Compare labs

Copy number response

Description
Copy number response
Haploinsufficency

No evidence available (Last evaluated (2012-03-22)

ISCA Genome Curation Page
Triplosensitivity

No evidence available (Last evaluated (2012-03-22)

ISCA Genome Curation Page

NHGRI GWAS Catalog

Description
A genome-wide association study identifies KIAA0350 as a type 1 diabetes gene.
NHGRI GWA Catalog
A possible mechanism behind autoimmune disorders discovered by genome-wide linkage and association analysis in celiac disease.
NHGRI GWA Catalog
Genome-wide association analysis of autoantibody positivity in type 1 diabetes cases.
NHGRI GWA Catalog
Genome-wide association study and meta-analysis find that over 40 loci affect risk of type 1 diabetes.
NHGRI GWA Catalog
Identification of seven new prostate cancer susceptibility loci through a genome-wide association study.
NHGRI GWA Catalog
Robust associations of four new chromosome regions from genome-wide analyses of type 1 diabetes.
NHGRI GWA Catalog

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Vpr vpr HIV-1 Vpr antagonizes insulin's effect on the expression of glucose 6-phosphatase, manganese superoxide dismutase, and sterol carrier protein 2 genes in HepG2 cells PubMed
vpr HIV-1 Vpr inhibits insulin-induced association of 14-3-3 and Foxo3a in HeLa cells PubMed
vpr HIV-1 Vpr inhibits insulin-induced cytoplasmic translocation of Foxo3a, a subtype of the forkhead transcription factors PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Protein Interaction Database

  • AGE/RAGE pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    AGE/RAGE pathway, organism-specific biosystemAdvanced glycation end products (AGEs) are heterogeneous group of non-enzymatic malliard reaction products of aldose sugar with proteins and lipids. Formation of AGEs is an indicator of one of the ma...
  • AMPK signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    AMPK signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemAMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a serine threonine kinase that is highly conserved through evolution. AMPK system acts as a sensor of cellular energy status. It is activated by increases in th...
  • AMPK signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    AMPK signaling pathway, conserved biosystemAMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a serine threonine kinase that is highly conserved through evolution. AMPK system acts as a sensor of cellular energy status. It is activated by increases in th...
  • ATF-2 transcription factor network, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    ATF-2 transcription factor network, organism-specific biosystem
    ATF-2 transcription factor network
  • Adipogenesis, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Adipogenesis, organism-specific biosystemThe different classess of factors involved in adipogenesis are shown. Adipogenesis is the process by which fat cells differentiate from predadipocytes to adipocytes (fat cells). Adipose tissue, compo...
  • Aldosterone-regulated sodium reabsorption, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Aldosterone-regulated sodium reabsorption, organism-specific biosystemSodium transport across the tight epithelia of Na+ reabsorbing tissues such as the distal part of the kidney nephron and colon is the major factor determining total-body Na+ levels, and thus, long-te...
  • Aldosterone-regulated sodium reabsorption, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Aldosterone-regulated sodium reabsorption, conserved biosystemSodium transport across the tight epithelia of Na+ reabsorbing tissues such as the distal part of the kidney nephron and colon is the major factor determining total-body Na+ levels, and thus, long-te...
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    Amyloids, organism-specific biosystemAmyloid is a term used to describe typically extracellular deposits of aggregated proteins, sometimes known as plaques. Abnormal accumulation of amyloid is amyloidosis, a term associated with disease...
  • Arf6 trafficking events, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Arf6 trafficking events, organism-specific biosystem
    Arf6 trafficking events
  • Cardiac Progenitor Differentiation, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Cardiac Progenitor Differentiation, organism-specific biosystemFactors involved in the induction of cardiac differentiation in vitro and in vivo. This model was based on the below two review articles.
  • Developmental Biology, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Developmental Biology, organism-specific biosystemAs a first step towards capturing the array of processes by which a fertilized egg gives rise to the diverse tissues of the body, examples of three kinds of processes have been annotated. These are a...
  • Disease, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Disease, organism-specific biosystemBiological processes are captured in Reactome by identifying the molecules (DNA, RNA, protein, small molecules) involved in them and describing the details of their interactions. From this molecular ...
  • FOXA1 transcription factor network, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    FOXA1 transcription factor network, organism-specific biosystem
    FOXA1 transcription factor network
  • FOXA2 and FOXA3 transcription factor networks, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    FOXA2 and FOXA3 transcription factor networks, organism-specific biosystem
    FOXA2 and FOXA3 transcription factor networks
  • Folate Metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Folate Metabolism, organism-specific biosystem
    Folate Metabolism
  • FoxO signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    FoxO signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe forkhead box O (FOXO) family of transcription factors regulates the expression of genes in cellular physiological events including apoptosis, cell-cycle control, glucose metabolism, oxidative str...
  • HIF-1 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    HIF-1 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemHypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a transcription factor that functions as a master regulator of oxygen homeostasis. It consists of two subunits: an inducibly-expressed HIF-1alpha subunit and a c...
  • IRS activation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    IRS activation, organism-specific biosystemUsing receptor mutagenesis studies it is known that IRS1 via its PTB domain binds to the insulin receptor at the juxtamembrane region at tyrosine 972. The interaction is further stabilized by the PH ...
  • IRS-related events, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    IRS-related events, organism-specific biosystemIRS is one of the mediators of insulin signalling events. It is activated by phosphorylation and triggers a cascade of events involving PI3K, SOS, RAF and the MAP kinases. The proteins mentioned unde...
  • Insulin Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Insulin Pathway, organism-specific biosystem
    Insulin Pathway
  • Insulin processing, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Insulin processing, organism-specific biosystemThe generation of insulin-containing secretory granules from proinsulin in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) can be described in 4 steps: formation of intramolecular disulfide bonds, format...
  • Insulin receptor recycling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Insulin receptor recycling, organism-specific biosystemTriggered by acidification of the endosome, insulin dissociates from the receptor and is degraded. The receptor is dephosphorylated and re-integrated into the plasma membrane, ready to be activated a...
  • Insulin receptor signalling cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Insulin receptor signalling cascade, organism-specific biosystemAutophosphorylation of the insulin receptor triggers a series of signalling events, mediated by SHC or IRS, and resulting in activation of the Ras/RAF and MAP kinase cascades. A second effect of the ...
  • Insulin secretion, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Insulin secretion, organism-specific biosystemPancreatic beta cells are specialised endocrine cells that continuously sense the levels of blood sugar and other fuels and, in response, secrete insulin to maintain normal fuel homeostasis. Glucose-...
  • Insulin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Insulin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemInsulin binding to its receptor results in the tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrates (IRS) by the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase (INSR). This allows association of IRSs with the r...
  • Insulin signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Insulin signaling pathway, conserved biosystemInsulin binding to its receptor results in the tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrates (IRS) by the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase (INSR). This allows association of IRSs with the r...
  • Insulin-mediated glucose transport, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Insulin-mediated glucose transport, organism-specific biosystem
    Insulin-mediated glucose transport
  • Integration of energy metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Integration of energy metabolism, organism-specific biosystemMany hormones that affect individual physiological processes including the regulation of appetite, absorption, transport, and oxidation of foodstuffs influence energy metabolism pathways. While insul...
  • Maturity onset diabetes of the young, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Maturity onset diabetes of the young, organism-specific biosystemAbout 2-5% of type II diabetic patients suffer from a monogenic disease with autosomal dominant inheritance. This monogenic form of type II diabetes is called maturity onset diabetes of the young (MO...
  • Maturity onset diabetes of the young, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Maturity onset diabetes of the young, conserved biosystemAbout 2-5% of type II diabetic patients suffer from a monogenic disease with autosomal dominant inheritance. This monogenic form of type II diabetes is called maturity onset diabetes of the young (MO...
  • Metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Metabolism, organism-specific biosystemMetabolic processes in human cells generate energy through the oxidation of molecules consumed in the diet and mediate the synthesis of diverse essential molecules not taken in the diet as well as th...
  • Metabolism of proteins, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Metabolism of proteins, organism-specific biosystemProtein metabolism comprises the pathways of translation, post-translational modification and protein folding.
  • Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), organism-specific biosystemNon-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents a spectrum ranging from simple steatosis to more severe steatohepatitis with hepatic inflammation and fibrosis, known as nonalcoholic steatohepati...
  • Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), conserved biosystemNon-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents a spectrum ranging from simple steatosis to more severe steatohepatitis with hepatic inflammation and fibrosis, known as nonalcoholic steatohepati...
  • Oocyte meiosis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Oocyte meiosis, organism-specific biosystemDuring meiosis, a single round of DNA replication is followed by two rounds of chromosome segregation, called meiosis I and meiosis II. At meiosis I, homologous chromosomes recombine and then segrega...
  • Oocyte meiosis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Oocyte meiosis, conserved biosystemDuring meiosis, a single round of DNA replication is followed by two rounds of chromosome segregation, called meiosis I and meiosis II. At meiosis I, homologous chromosomes recombine and then segrega...
  • Ovarian steroidogenesis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Ovarian steroidogenesis, organism-specific biosystemThe ovarian steroids, 17-beta estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4), are critical for normal uterine function, establishment and maintenance of pregnancy, and mammary gland development. Furthermore, t...
  • Ovarian steroidogenesis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Ovarian steroidogenesis, conserved biosystemThe ovarian steroids, 17-beta estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4), are critical for normal uterine function, establishment and maintenance of pregnancy, and mammary gland development. Furthermore, t...
  • PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe phosphatidylinositol 3' -kinase(PI3K)-Akt signaling pathway is activated by many types of cellular stimuli or toxic insults and regulates fundamental cellular functions such as transcription, tra...
  • PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, conserved biosystemThe phosphatidylinositol 3' -kinase(PI3K)-Akt signaling pathway is activated by many types of cellular stimuli or toxic insults and regulates fundamental cellular functions such as transcription, tra...
  • Peptide hormone metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Peptide hormone metabolism, organism-specific biosystemPeptide hormones are cleaved from larger precursors in the secretory system (endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, secretory granules) of the cell. After secretion peptide hormones are modified and...
  • Progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation, organism-specific biosystemXenopus oocytes are naturally arrested at G2 of meiosis I. Exposure to either insulin/IGF-1 or the steroid hormone progesterone breaks this arrest and induces resumption of the two meiotic division c...
  • Progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation, conserved biosystemXenopus oocytes are naturally arrested at G2 of meiosis I. Exposure to either insulin/IGF-1 or the steroid hormone progesterone breaks this arrest and induces resumption of the two meiotic division c...
  • Prolactin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Prolactin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemProlactin (PRL) is a polypeptide hormone known to be involved in a wide range of biological functions including osmoregulation, lactation, reproduction, growth and development, endocrinology and meta...
  • Prolactin signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Prolactin signaling pathway, conserved biosystemProlactin (PRL) is a polypeptide hormone known to be involved in a wide range of biological functions including osmoregulation, lactation, reproduction, growth and development, endocrinology and meta...
  • Prostate cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Prostate cancer, organism-specific biosystemProstate cancer constitutes a major health problem in Western countries. It is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among men and the second leading cause of male cancer deaths. The identification of...
  • Prostate cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Prostate cancer, conserved biosystemProstate cancer constitutes a major health problem in Western countries. It is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among men and the second leading cause of male cancer deaths. The identification of...
  • Rap1 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Rap1 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemRap1 is a small GTPase that controls diverse processes, such as cell adhesion, cell-cell junction formation and cell polarity. Like all G proteins, Rap1 cycles between an inactive GDP-bound and an ac...
  • Rap1 signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Rap1 signaling pathway, conserved biosystemRap1 is a small GTPase that controls diverse processes, such as cell adhesion, cell-cell junction formation and cell polarity. Like all G proteins, Rap1 cycles between an inactive GDP-bound and an ac...
  • Ras signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Ras signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe Ras proteins are GTPases that function as molecular switches for signaling pathways regulating cell proliferation, survival, growth, migration, differentiation or cytoskeletal dynamism. Ras prote...
  • Regulation of actin cytoskeleton, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Regulation of actin cytoskeleton, organism-specific biosystem
    Regulation of actin cytoskeleton
  • Regulation of actin cytoskeleton, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Regulation of actin cytoskeleton, conserved biosystem
    Regulation of actin cytoskeleton
  • Regulation of autophagy, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Regulation of autophagy, organism-specific biosystem
    Regulation of autophagy
  • Regulation of autophagy, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Regulation of autophagy, conserved biosystem
    Regulation of autophagy
  • Regulation of beta-cell development, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Regulation of beta-cell development, organism-specific biosystemThe normal development of the pancreas during gestation has been intensively investigated over the past decade especially in the mouse (Servitja and Ferrer 2004; Chakrabarti and Mirmira 2003). Studie...
  • Regulation of gene expression in beta cells, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Regulation of gene expression in beta cells, organism-specific biosystemTwo transcription factors, PDX1 and HNF1A, play key roles in maintaining the gene expression pattern characteristic of mature beta cells in the endocrine pancreas. Targets of these regulatory molecul...
  • Regulation of insulin secretion, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Regulation of insulin secretion, organism-specific biosystemPancreatic beta cells integrate signals from several metabolites and hormones to control the secretion of insulin. In general, glucose triggers insulin secretion while other factors can amplify or in...
  • SHC activation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    SHC activation, organism-specific biosystemSHC interacts via its SH2 domain with the carboxyterminal phosphorylated tyrosines of the insulin receptor. As a result, SHC is tyrosine phosphorylated (Tyr317) by the insulin receptor, later falling...
  • SHC-related events, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    SHC-related events, organism-specific biosystemSHC is one of the mediators of insulin signalling events. It is activated by phosphorylation and triggers a cascade of events involving SOS, RAF and the MAP kinases.
  • SREBP signalling, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
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  • Selenium Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Selenium Pathway, organism-specific biosystem
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  • Senescence and Autophagy, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
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  • Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • Signal attenuation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • Signaling by Insulin receptor, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • Signaling events mediated by PTP1B, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Signaling events mediated by PTP1B, organism-specific biosystem
    Signaling events mediated by PTP1B
  • Signaling events mediated by TCPTP, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Signaling events mediated by TCPTP, organism-specific biosystem
    Signaling events mediated by TCPTP
  • Synthesis, secretion, and deacylation of Ghrelin, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • Type I diabetes mellitus, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
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  • Type I diabetes mellitus, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
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  • Type II diabetes mellitus, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Type II diabetes mellitus, organism-specific biosystemInsulin resistance is strongly associated with type II diabetes. "Diabetogenic" factors including FFA, TNFalpha and cellular stress induce insulin resistance through inhibition of IRS1 functions. Ser...
  • Type II diabetes mellitus, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Type II diabetes mellitus, conserved biosystemInsulin resistance is strongly associated with type II diabetes. "Diabetogenic" factors including FFA, TNFalpha and cellular stress induce insulin resistance through inhibition of IRS1 functions. Ser...
  • Vitamin B12 Metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Vitamin B12 Metabolism, organism-specific biosystem
    Vitamin B12 Metabolism
  • cGMP-PKG signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
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  • cGMP-PKG signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
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  • mTOR signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    mTOR signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem
    mTOR signaling pathway
  • mTOR signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    mTOR signaling pathway, conserved biosystem
    mTOR signaling pathway
Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

Markers

Readthrough INS-IGF2

Readthrough gene: INS-IGF2, Included gene: IGF2

Homology

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
hormone activity IC
Inferred by Curator
more info
PubMed 
hormone activity IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
hormone activity NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
identical protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
 
insulin receptor binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
insulin receptor binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
insulin-like growth factor receptor binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
protease binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
 
protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
MAPK cascade IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
activation of protein kinase B activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
acute-phase response IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
alpha-beta T cell activation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cell-cell signaling IC
Inferred by Curator
more info
PubMed 
cellular protein metabolic process TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
endocrine pancreas development TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
energy reserve metabolic process TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
fatty acid homeostasis IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
glucose homeostasis IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
glucose metabolic process IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
glucose transport IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
insulin receptor signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
negative regulation of NAD(P)H oxidase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of acute inflammatory response IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of fatty acid metabolic process IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of feeding behavior IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of gluconeogenesis NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of glycogen catabolic process IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of lipid catabolic process NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of oxidative stress-induced intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of protein catabolic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of protein oligomerization IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of protein secretion IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of proteolysis IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of respiratory burst involved in inflammatory response IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of vasodilation NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of DNA replication IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of MAPK cascade IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of brown fat cell differentiation TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of cell differentiation NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of cell growth NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of cell migration ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of cell proliferation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of cellular protein metabolic process IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of cytokine secretion IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of glucose import IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of glycogen biosynthetic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of glycolytic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of glycolytic process IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of insulin receptor signaling pathway IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of lipid biosynthetic process NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of mitosis IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of nitric oxide biosynthetic process NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of nitric-oxide synthase activity NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of peptide hormone secretion TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of protein autophosphorylation ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of protein kinase B signaling IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of respiratory burst IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of vasodilation NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
regulation of cellular amino acid metabolic process IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
regulation of insulin secretion TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
regulation of protein localization IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
regulation of protein secretion IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
regulation of transcription, DNA-templated NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
regulation of transmembrane transporter activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
small molecule metabolic process TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
wound healing IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
Golgi lumen TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
endoplasmic reticulum lumen TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
endosome lumen TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
extracellular region IC
Inferred by Curator
more info
PubMed 
extracellular region TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
extracellular space IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
secretory granule lumen TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
Preferred Names
insulin
Names
insulin
proinsulin
preproinsulin
insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus 2

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

Genomic

  1. NG_007114.1 

    Range
    4986..6416
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_000207.2NP_000198.1  insulin preproprotein

    See proteins identical to NP_000198.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1) represents the shortest variant. All variants encode the same protein.
    Source sequence(s)
    BC005255, BM510748
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS7729.1
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    I3WAC9
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P01308
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cd04367
    Location:26110
    Blast Score: 337
    IlGF_insulin_like; IlGF_like family, insulin_like subgroup, specific to vertebrates. Members include a number of peptides including insulin and insulin-like growth factors I and II, which play a variety of roles in controlling processes such as metabolism, growth and ...
  2. NM_001185097.1NP_001172026.1  insulin preproprotein

    See proteins identical to NP_001172026.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (2) differs in the 5' UTR, compared to variant 1. All variants encode the same protein.
    Source sequence(s)
    AY899304, BM510347, BP322143
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS7729.1
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    I3WAC9
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P01308
    Related
    ENSP00000250971, OTTHUMP00000011162, ENST00000250971, OTTHUMT00000026394
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cd04367
    Location:26110
    Blast Score: 337
    IlGF_insulin_like; IlGF_like family, insulin_like subgroup, specific to vertebrates. Members include a number of peptides including insulin and insulin-like growth factors I and II, which play a variety of roles in controlling processes such as metabolism, growth and ...
  3. NM_001185098.1NP_001172027.1  insulin preproprotein

    See proteins identical to NP_001172027.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (3) differs in the 5' UTR, compared to variant 1. All variants encode the same protein.
    Source sequence(s)
    AC132217, BM510347, BP322143
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS7729.1
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    I3WAC9
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P01308
    Related
    ENSP00000380432, OTTHUMP00000196038, ENST00000397262, OTTHUMT00000026395
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cd04367
    Location:26110
    Blast Score: 337
    IlGF_insulin_like; IlGF_like family, insulin_like subgroup, specific to vertebrates. Members include a number of peptides including insulin and insulin-like growth factors I and II, which play a variety of roles in controlling processes such as metabolism, growth and ...
  4. NM_001291897.1NP_001278826.1  insulin preproprotein

    See proteins identical to NP_001278826.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (4) differs in the 5' UTR, compared to variant 1. All variants encode the same protein.
    Source sequence(s)
    AC132217, BM510347
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    I3WAC9
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P01308
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cd04367
    Location:26110
    Blast Score: 337
    IlGF_insulin_like; IlGF_like family, insulin_like subgroup, specific to vertebrates. Members include a number of peptides including insulin and insulin-like growth factors I and II, which play a variety of roles in controlling processes such as metabolism, growth and ...

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 106

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000011.10 

    Range
    2159779..2161209
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

Alternate HuRef

Genomic

  1. AC_000143.1 

    Range
    1971272..1972702
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

Alternate CHM1_1.1

Genomic

  1. NC_018922.2 

    Range
    2179957..2181387
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)