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IL15 interleukin 15 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 3600, updated on 16-Apr-2014
Official Symbol
IL15provided by HGNC
Official Full Name
interleukin 15provided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:5977
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000164136; HPRD:02776; MIM:600554; Vega:OTTHUMG00000133418
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
IL-15
Summary
The protein encoded by this gene is a cytokine that regulates T and natural killer cell activation and proliferation. This cytokine and interleukine 2 share many biological activities. They are found to bind common hematopoietin receptor subunits, and may compete for the same receptor, and thus negatively regulate each other's activity. The number of CD8+ memory cells is shown to be controlled by a balance between this cytokine and IL2. This cytokine induces the activation of JAK kinases, as well as the phosphorylation and activation of transcription activators STAT3, STAT5, and STAT6. Studies of the mouse counterpart suggested that this cytokine may increase the expression of apoptosis inhibitor BCL2L1/BCL-x(L), possibly through the transcription activation activity of STAT6, and thus prevent apoptosis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011]
Location :
4q31
Sequence :
Chromosome: 4; NC_000004.12 (141636596..141733987)
See IL15 in Epigenomics, MapViewer

Chromosome 4 - NC_000004.12Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC102724501 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC100507639 Neighboring gene inositol polyphosphate-4-phosphatase, type II, 105kDa Neighboring gene ribosomal protein L5 pseudogene 13 Neighboring gene LSM3 pseudogene 4

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

NHGRI GWAS Catalog

Description
Genome-wide interrogation of germline genetic variation associated with treatment response in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
NHGRI GWA Catalog

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 env HIV-1 gp120 modulates expression of the cytokines IL1beta, IL3, IL6, IL10, IL13, IL15, IFNbeta2A, IFNgamma, IFNomega, TNFalpha, VEGF, VEGF B, and LIF in PBMCs and MDMs PubMed
Nef, p27 nef IL-1beta, IL-12, and IL-15 are factors involved in the upregulation of IFN-gamma expression in coculture between Nef-pulsed iDCs and NK cells PubMed
nef Exogenous HIV-1 Nef protein induces the proliferation of unstimulated and suboptimally stimulated normal human PBMC through upregulation of IL-15 synthesis in the monocyte/macrophage population PubMed
matrix gag HIV-1 Matrix upregulates levels of IL-2, IL-12 and IL-15 in natural killer cells and induces natural killer cell proliferation PubMed
gag HIV-1 Matrix is able to reduce MIP-1alpha secretion from IL-15-stimulated monocyte cells PubMed
gag HIV-1 Matrix slightly enhances TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma secretion induced by IL-15 monocyte stimulation and counteracts IL-4 mediated inhibition of the production of these cytokines PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Protein Interaction Database

  • Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, organism-specific biosystemCytokines are soluble extracellular proteins or glycoproteins that are crucial intercellular regulators and mobilizers of cells engaged in innate as well as adaptive inflammatory host defenses, cell ...
  • Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, conserved biosystemCytokines are soluble extracellular proteins or glycoproteins that are crucial intercellular regulators and mobilizers of cells engaged in innate as well as adaptive inflammatory host defenses, cell ...
  • Cytokines and Inflammatory Response, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Cytokines and Inflammatory Response, organism-specific biosystemInflammation is a protective response to infection by the immune system that requires communication between different classes of immune cells to coordinate their actions. Acute inflammation is an imp...
  • HTLV-I infection, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    HTLV-I infection, organism-specific biosystemHuman T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a pathogenic retrovirus that is associated with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL). It is also strongly implicated in non-neoplastic chronic inflammato...
  • HTLV-I infection, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    HTLV-I infection, conserved biosystemHuman T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a pathogenic retrovirus that is associated with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL). It is also strongly implicated in non-neoplastic chronic inflammato...
  • Herpes simplex infection, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Herpes simplex infection, organism-specific biosystemHerpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are very common worldwide, with the prevalence of HSV-1 reaching up to 80%-90%. Primary infection with HSV takes place in the mucosa, followed by the establishme...
  • Herpes simplex infection, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Herpes simplex infection, conserved biosystemHerpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are very common worldwide, with the prevalence of HSV-1 reaching up to 80%-90%. Primary infection with HSV takes place in the mucosa, followed by the establishme...
  • Intestinal immune network for IgA production, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Intestinal immune network for IgA production, organism-specific biosystemThe intestine is the largest lymphoid tissue in the body. One striking feature of intestinal immunity is its ability to generate great amounts of noninflammatory immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies tha...
  • Intestinal immune network for IgA production, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Intestinal immune network for IgA production, conserved biosystemThe intestine is the largest lymphoid tissue in the body. One striking feature of intestinal immunity is its ability to generate great amounts of noninflammatory immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies tha...
  • Jak-STAT signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Jak-STAT signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway is one of a handful of pleiotropic cascades used to transduce a multitude of signals for development and homeost...
  • Jak-STAT signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Jak-STAT signaling pathway, conserved biosystemThe Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway is one of a handful of pleiotropic cascades used to transduce a multitude of signals for development and homeost...
  • Rheumatoid arthritis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Rheumatoid arthritis, organism-specific biosystemRheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune joint disease where persistent inflammation affects bone remodeling leading to progressive bone destruction. In RA, abnormal activation of the immune...
  • Rheumatoid arthritis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Rheumatoid arthritis, conserved biosystemRheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune joint disease where persistent inflammation affects bone remodeling leading to progressive bone destruction. In RA, abnormal activation of the immune...
  • TNF signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    TNF signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemTumor necrosis factor (TNF), as a critical cytokine, can induce a wide range of intracellular signal pathways including apoptosis and cell survival as well as inflammation and immunity. Activated TNF...
  • TNF signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    TNF signaling pathway, conserved biosystemTumor necrosis factor (TNF), as a critical cytokine, can induce a wide range of intracellular signal pathways including apoptosis and cell survival as well as inflammation and immunity. Activated TNF...
Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

Markers

Homology

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
cytokine activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cytokine receptor binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
NK T cell proliferation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
aging IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cell maturation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cell-cell signaling TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
cellular response to vitamin D IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
extrathymic T cell selection IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
hyaluronan metabolic process IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
immune response IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
inflammatory response IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
lymph node development IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
natural killer cell differentiation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
negative regulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of T cell proliferation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of cell proliferation TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of immune response IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of inflammatory response IC
Inferred by Curator
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of interleukin-17 production IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of natural killer cell differentiation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of natural killer cell proliferation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of tissue remodeling IC
Inferred by Curator
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat3 protein IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
regulation of T cell differentiation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
regulation of defense response to virus by host IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
signal transduction TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
skeletal muscle atrophy IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
Golgi apparatus TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
cell surface IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cytoplasm IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 
endosome TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
extracellular region NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
extracellular space IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
integral component of plasma membrane TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
membrane TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
NOT nucleolus IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 
nucleus IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 
Preferred Names
interleukin-15
Names
interleukin-15

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

Genomic

  1. NG_029605.1 RefSeqGene

    Range
    5001..102392
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_000585.4NP_000576.1  interleukin-15 isoform 1 preproprotein

    See proteins identical to NP_000576.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (3) represents the shortest transcript and encodes the longer isoform (1, also known as 48aa(LSP)-IL15).
    Source sequence(s)
    AA897685, AC096774, AC118480, BX116580, CX761071
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS3755.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P40933
    Related
    ENSP00000296545, OTTHUMP00000164616, ENST00000296545, OTTHUMT00000257278
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    pfam02372
    Location:33160
    Blast Score: 444
    IL15; Interleukin 15
  2. NM_172175.2NP_751915.1  interleukin-15 isoform 2 preproprotein

    See proteins identical to NP_751915.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (2) differs in the 5' UTR and contains an alternate exon in the 5' coding region. This variant uses an alternate downstream start codon, compared to variant 1. Isoform 2 (also known as (21aa(SSP)-IL15) has a shorter and distinct N-terminus, compared to isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AA897685, AC096774, AK290619, BX116580, CX761071
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS3756.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P40933
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    Q6FGX7
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    pfam02372
    Location:6133
    Blast Score: 428
    IL15; Interleukin 15

RNA

  1. NR_037840.2 RNA Sequence

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1) has an alternate 5' exon, compared to variant 3. This variant is represented as non-coding due to the presence of an upstream ORF that is predicted to interfere with translation of the longest ORF; translation of the upstream ORF renders the transcript a candidate for nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD).
    Source sequence(s)
    AA897685, AC096774, BC018149, CX761071

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 106

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000004.12 Reference GRCh38 Primary Assembly

    Range
    141636596..141733987
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

Alternate HuRef

Genomic

  1. AC_000136.1 Alternate HuRef

    Range
    138287515..138384970
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

Alternate CHM1_1.1

Genomic

  1. NC_018915.2 Alternate CHM1_1.1

    Range
    142535127..142632588
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

Suppressed Reference Sequence(s)

The following Reference Sequences have been suppressed. Explain

  1. NM_172174.2: Suppressed sequence

    Description
    NM_172174.2: This RefSeq was permanently suppressed because it is a nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) candidate.

Supplemental Content

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