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APOA2 apolipoprotein A-II [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 336, updated on 26-Aug-2014
Official Symbol
APOA2provided by HGNC
Official Full Name
apolipoprotein A-IIprovided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:601
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000158874; HPRD:00129; MIM:107670; Vega:OTTHUMG00000034346
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
apoAII; Apo-AII; ApoA-II
Summary
This gene encodes apolipoprotein (apo-) A-II, which is the second most abundant protein of the high density lipoprotein particles. The protein is found in plasma as a monomer, homodimer, or heterodimer with apolipoprotein D. Defects in this gene may result in apolipoprotein A-II deficiency or hypercholesterolemia. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
See APOA2 in Epigenomics
Location:
1q23.3
Exon count:
4
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
106 current GRCh38 (GCF_000001405.26) 1 NC_000001.11 (161222293..161223628, complement)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 1 NC_000001.10 (161192083..161193418, complement)

Chromosome 1 - NC_000001.11Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene ADAM metallopeptidase with thrombospondin type 1 motif, 4 Neighboring gene NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) Fe-S protein 2, 49kDa (NADH-coenzyme Q reductase) Neighboring gene Fc fragment of IgE, high affinity I, receptor for; gamma polypeptide Neighboring gene translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane 40 homolog (yeast)-like Neighboring gene microRNA 5187 Neighboring gene nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group I, member 3

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

  • Chylomicron-mediated lipid transport, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Chylomicron-mediated lipid transport, organism-specific biosystemChylomicrons transport triacylglycerol, phospholipid, and cholesterol derived from dietary lipid from the small intestine to other tissues of the body. Each chylomicron assembles around a single mole...
  • Complement and Coagulation Cascades, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Complement and Coagulation Cascades, organism-specific biosystemBlood coagulation is a series of coordinated and calcium-dependent proenzyme-to-serine protease conversions likely to be localized on the surfaces of activated cells in vivo. It culminates in the for...
  • Disease, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Disease, organism-specific biosystemBiological processes are captured in Reactome by identifying the molecules (DNA, RNA, protein, small molecules) involved in them and describing the details of their interactions. From this molecular ...
  • Diseases associated with visual transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Diseases associated with visual transduction, organism-specific biosystemThe process of vision involves two stages; the retinoid cycle which supplies and regenerates the visual chromophore required for vision and phototransduction which propagates the light signal. Defect...
  • Fatty acid, triacylglycerol, and ketone body metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Fatty acid, triacylglycerol, and ketone body metabolism, organism-specific biosystemThe reactions involved in the metabolism of fatty acids and of the triacylglycerols and ketone bodies derived from them form a closely interrelated, coordinately regulated module that plays a central...
  • Lipid digestion, mobilization, and transport, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Lipid digestion, mobilization, and transport, organism-specific biosystemProcesses annotated here include the digestion of dietary lipids, sterol uptake, the formation and turnover of lipoproteins (chylomicrons, VLDL, LDL, and HDL), and the mobilization of fatty acids thr...
  • Lipoprotein metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Lipoprotein metabolism, organism-specific biosystemBecause of their hydrophobicity, lipids are found in the extracellular spaces of the human body primarily in the form of lipoprotein complexes. Chylomicrons form in the small intestine and transport ...
  • Metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Metabolism, organism-specific biosystemMetabolic processes in human cells generate energy through the oxidation of molecules consumed in the diet and mediate the synthesis of diverse essential molecules not taken in the diet as well as th...
  • Metabolism of lipids and lipoproteins, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Metabolism of lipids and lipoproteins, organism-specific biosystemLipids are hydrophobic but otherwise chemically diverse molecules that play a wide variety of roles in human biology. They include ketone bodies, fatty acids, triacylglycerols, phospholipids and sphi...
  • PPAR signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    PPAR signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemPeroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear hormone receptors that are activated by fatty acids and their derivatives. PPAR has three subtypes (PPARalpha, beta/delta, and gamma) s...
  • PPAR signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    PPAR signaling pathway, conserved biosystemPeroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear hormone receptors that are activated by fatty acids and their derivatives. PPAR has three subtypes (PPARalpha, beta/delta, and gamma) s...
  • PPARA activates gene expression, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    PPARA activates gene expression, organism-specific biosystemThe set of genes regulated by PPAR-alpha is not fully known in humans, however many examples have been found in mice. Genes directly activated by PPAR-alpha contain peroxisome proliferator receptor e...
  • Regulation of lipid metabolism by Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Regulation of lipid metabolism by Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha), organism-specific biosystemPeroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR-alpha) is the major regulator of fatty acid oxidation in the liver. PPARalpha is also the target of fibrate drugs used to treat abnormal plasma ...
  • Retinoid metabolism and transport, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Retinoid metabolism and transport, organism-specific biosystemVitamin A (all-trans-retinol) must be taken up, either as carotenes from plants, or as retinyl esters from animal food. The most prominent carotenes are alpha-carotene, lycopene, lutein, beta-cryptox...
  • Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystemSignal transduction is a process in which extracellular signals elicit changes in cell state and activity. Transmembrane receptors sense changes in the cellular environment by binding ligands, such a...
  • Statin Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Statin Pathway, organism-specific biosystemStatins inhibit endogenous cholesterol production by competitive inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR), the enzyme that catalyzes conversion of HMG-CoA to mevalonate, an early rate-limiting step in...
  • Visual phototransduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Visual phototransduction, organism-specific biosystemVisual phototransduction is the process by which photon absorption by visual pigment molecules in photoreceptor cells is converted to an electrical cellular response. The events in this process are p...
Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

Markers

Homology

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
apolipoprotein receptor binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
cholesterol binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
contributes_to cholesterol transporter activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
high-density lipoprotein particle binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
high-density lipoprotein particle receptor binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
lipase inhibitor activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
lipid binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
lipid transporter activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
phosphatidylcholine binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
phosphatidylcholine-sterol O-acyltransferase activator activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
phospholipid binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
protein heterodimerization activity IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
protein homodimerization activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
acute inflammatory response IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cellular lipid metabolic process TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
cholesterol efflux IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cholesterol homeostasis IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cholesterol metabolic process IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
diacylglycerol catabolic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
high-density lipoprotein particle assembly IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
high-density lipoprotein particle clearance IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
high-density lipoprotein particle remodeling IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
lipoprotein metabolic process TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
low-density lipoprotein particle remodeling IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of cholesterol import IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of cholesterol transport IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of cholesterol transporter activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of cytokine secretion involved in immune response IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of lipase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of lipid catabolic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of very-low-density lipoprotein particle remodeling IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
organ regeneration IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
peptidyl-methionine modification IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
phosphatidylcholine biosynthetic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
phospholipid catabolic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
phospholipid efflux IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
phototransduction, visible light TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
positive regulation of catalytic activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of cholesterol esterification IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of interleukin-8 biosynthetic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of lipid catabolic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
protein folding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
protein oxidation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
regulation of intestinal cholesterol absorption IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
regulation of protein stability IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
response to drug IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to estrogen IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to glucocorticoid IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
response to glucose IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
retinoid metabolic process TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
reverse cholesterol transport IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
small molecule metabolic process TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
triglyceride metabolic process TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particle remodeling IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
viral process IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
blood microparticle IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 
chylomicron IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cytosol TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
early endosome TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
endoplasmic reticulum lumen TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
extracellular region NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
extracellular region TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
extracellular vesicular exosome IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
high-density lipoprotein particle IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
spherical high-density lipoprotein particle IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
very-low-density lipoprotein particle IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
Preferred Names
apolipoprotein A-II
Names
apolipoprotein A-II
apolipoprotein A2

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

Genomic

  1. NG_012043.1 

    Range
    5001..6336
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_001643.1NP_001634.1  apolipoprotein A-II preproprotein

    See proteins identical to NP_001634.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Source sequence(s)
    X02619
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS1226.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P02652
    Related
    ENSP00000356969, OTTHUMP00000032244, ENST00000367990, OTTHUMT00000083037
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    pfam04711
    Location:2499
    Blast Score: 344
    ApoA-II; Apolipoprotein A-II (ApoA-II)

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 106

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000001.11 

    Range
    161222293..161223628
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

Alternate HuRef

Genomic

  1. AC_000133.1 

    Range
    132549030..132550353
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

Alternate CHM1_1.1

Genomic

  1. NC_018912.2 

    Range
    162588335..162589660
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)