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HRAS Harvey rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 3265, updated on 23-May-2015
Official Symbol
HRASprovided by HGNC
Official Full Name
Harvey rat sarcoma viral oncogene homologprovided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:5173
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000174775; HPRD:01813; MIM:190020; Vega:OTTHUMG00000131919
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
CTLO; HAMSV; HRAS1; RASH1; p21ras; C-H-RAS; H-RASIDX; C-BAS/HAS; C-HA-RAS1
Summary
This gene belongs to the Ras oncogene family, whose members are related to the transforming genes of mammalian sarcoma retroviruses. The products encoded by these genes function in signal transduction pathways. These proteins can bind GTP and GDP, and they have intrinsic GTPase activity. This protein undergoes a continuous cycle of de- and re-palmitoylation, which regulates its rapid exchange between the plasma membrane and the Golgi apparatus. Mutations in this gene cause Costello syndrome, a disease characterized by increased growth at the prenatal stage, growth deficiency at the postnatal stage, predisposition to tumor formation, mental retardation, skin and musculoskeletal abnormalities, distinctive facial appearance and cardiovascular abnormalities. Defects in this gene are implicated in a variety of cancers, including bladder cancer, follicular thyroid cancer, and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Multiple transcript variants, which encode different isoforms, have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Orthologs
See HRAS in MapViewer
Location:
11p15.5
Exon count:
7
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
107 current GRCh38.p2 (GCF_000001405.28) 11 NC_000011.10 (532242..535561, complement)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 11 NC_000011.9 (532242..535561, complement)

Chromosome 11 - NC_000011.10Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene ribonuclease/angiogenin inhibitor 1 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105376507 Neighboring gene leucine rich repeat containing 56 Neighboring gene collagen alpha-2(IV) chain-like Neighboring gene lamin tail domain containing 2 Neighboring gene Ras association (RalGDS/AF-6) domain family (N-terminal) member 7 Neighboring gene MIR210 host gene Neighboring gene microRNA 210

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp160, precursor env Pretreatment of cells with HIV-1 gp160 results in marked inhibition of tyrosine phosphorylation of p59(fyn), PLC-gamma1, ras activation, and TNF-alpha secretion in anti-CD3 mAb activated CD4+ T cells PubMed
env HIV-1 gp160 alone or CD4/gp160 cross-linking induces tyrosine phosphorylation of intracellular substrates p59fyn, zap 70, and p95vav and also leads to ras activation PubMed
Nef nef HIV-1 Nef activates signal transduction pathways from Ras to mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades leading to induction of HIV-1 from latency PubMed
nef In HIV-1 Nef-expressing cells, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate treatment results in a 100-fold increase in NFAT-directed gene expression, indicating that Nef and the Ras/MAPK pathway synergistically activate NFAT activity PubMed
Tat tat Knocking down oxidase Nox4 completely suppresses Tat-dependent Ras and ERK activation downstream of Rac1 and RhoA and blocks Tat-dependent proliferation PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat activates Ras activity and induces ERK phosphorylation through its arginine-glycine-aspartic (RGD) region in endothelial cells; Tat-induced Ras activation is mediated by tyrosine phosphorylation of Shc and recruitment of Grb2 PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

  • ARMS-mediated activation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    ARMS-mediated activation, organism-specific biosystemARMS (Ankyrin-Rich Membrane Spanning/Kidins 220) is a 220kD tetraspanning adaptor protein which becomes rapidly tyrosine phosphorylated by active Trk receptors. ARMS is another adaptor protein which ...
  • Activation of NMDA receptor upon glutamate binding and postsynaptic events, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • Activation of RAS in B cells, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Activation of RAS in B cells, organism-specific biosystemRasGRP1 and RasGRP3 bind diacylglycerol at the plasma membrane (Lorenzo et al. 2001) and are phosphorylated by protein kinase C (Teixeira et al. 2003, Zheng et al. 2005). Phosphorylated RasGRP1 (Roos...
  • Acute myeloid leukemia, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
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  • Acute myeloid leukemia, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
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  • Adaptive Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • Alcoholism, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
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  • Alcoholism, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
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  • Axon guidance, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Axon guidance, organism-specific biosystemAxon guidance represents a key stage in the formation of neuronal network. Axons are guided by a variety of guidance factors, such as netrins, ephrins, Slits, and semaphorins. These guidance cues are...
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    Axon guidance, conserved biosystemAxon guidance represents a key stage in the formation of neuronal network. Axons are guided by a variety of guidance factors, such as netrins, ephrins, Slits, and semaphorins. These guidance cues are...
  • Axon guidance, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Axon guidance, organism-specific biosystemAxon guidance / axon pathfinding is the process by which neurons send out axons to reach the correct targets. Growing axons have a highly motile structure at the growing tip called the growth cone, w...
  • B cell receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    B cell receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemB cells are an important component of adaptive immunity. They produce and secrete millions of different antibody molecules, each of which recognizes a different (foreign) antigen. The B cell receptor...
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  • BCR signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    BCR signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem
    BCR signaling pathway
  • BDNF signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    BDNF signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemBrain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin essential for growth, differentiation, plasticity, and survival of neurons. BDNF is also required for processes such as energy metabolism, b...
  • Bladder cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Bladder cancer, organism-specific biosystemThe urothelium covers the luminal surface of almost the entire urinary tract, extending from the renal pelvis, through the ureter and bladder, to the proximal urethra. The majority of urothelial carc...
  • Bladder cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Bladder cancer, conserved biosystemThe urothelium covers the luminal surface of almost the entire urinary tract, extending from the renal pelvis, through the ureter and bladder, to the proximal urethra. The majority of urothelial carc...
  • C-type lectin receptors (CLRs), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    C-type lectin receptors (CLRs), organism-specific biosystemPathogen recognition is central to the induction of T cell differentiation. Groups of pathogens share similar structures known as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), which are recognised ...
  • CD209 (DC-SIGN) signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    CD209 (DC-SIGN) signaling, organism-specific biosystemCD209 (also called as DC-SIGN (DC-specific intracellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing non-integrin)) is a type II transmembrane C-type lectin receptor preferentially expressed on dendritic cells (DCs...
  • CDC42 signaling events, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    CDC42 signaling events, organism-specific biosystem
    CDC42 signaling events
  • CREB phosphorylation through the activation of Ras, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    CREB phosphorylation through the activation of Ras, organism-specific biosystemCa2+ influx through the NMDA receptor initiates subsequent molecular pathways that have a defined role in establishing long-lasting synaptic changes. The molecular signaling initiated by a rise in Ca...
  • Cell surface interactions at the vascular wall, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Cell surface interactions at the vascular wall, organism-specific biosystemLeukocyte extravasation is a rigorously controlled process that guides white cell movement from the vascular lumen to sites of tissue inflammation. The powerful adhesive interactions that are require...
  • Central carbon metabolism in cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Central carbon metabolism in cancer, organism-specific biosystemMalignant transformation of cells requires specific adaptations of cellular metabolism to support growth and survival. In the early twentieth century, Otto Warburg established that there are fundamen...
  • Central carbon metabolism in cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Central carbon metabolism in cancer, conserved biosystemMalignant transformation of cells requires specific adaptations of cellular metabolism to support growth and survival. In the early twentieth century, Otto Warburg established that there are fundamen...
  • Chemokine signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Chemokine signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemInflammatory immune response requires the recruitment of leukocytes to the site of inflammation upon foreign insult. Chemokines are small chemoattractant peptides that provide directional cues for th...
  • Chemokine signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Chemokine signaling pathway, conserved biosystemInflammatory immune response requires the recruitment of leukocytes to the site of inflammation upon foreign insult. Chemokines are small chemoattractant peptides that provide directional cues for th...
  • Choline metabolism in cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Choline metabolism in cancer, organism-specific biosystemAbnormal choline metabolism is emerging as a metabolic hallmark that is associated with oncogenesis and tumour progression. Following transformation, oncogenic signalling via pathways such as the RAS...
  • Choline metabolism in cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Choline metabolism in cancer, conserved biosystemAbnormal choline metabolism is emerging as a metabolic hallmark that is associated with oncogenesis and tumour progression. Following transformation, oncogenic signalling via pathways such as the RAS...
  • Cholinergic synapse, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Cholinergic synapse, organism-specific biosystemAcetylcholine (ACh) is a neurotransmitter widely distributed in the central (and also peripheral, autonomic and enteric) nervous system (CNS). In the CNS, ACh facilitates many functions, such as lear...
  • Chronic myeloid leukemia, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Chronic myeloid leukemia, organism-specific biosystemChronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) originates in a pluripotent hematopoetic stem cell of the bone marrow and is characterized by greatly increased numbers of granulocytes in the blood. Myeloid and ot...
  • Chronic myeloid leukemia, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Chronic myeloid leukemia, conserved biosystemChronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) originates in a pluripotent hematopoetic stem cell of the bone marrow and is characterized by greatly increased numbers of granulocytes in the blood. Myeloid and ot...
  • Constitutive Signaling by EGFRvIII, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Constitutive Signaling by EGFRvIII, organism-specific biosystemIn glioblastoma, the most prevalent EGFR mutation, present in ~25% of tumors, is the deletion of the ligand binding domain of EGFR, accompanied with amplification of the mutated allele, which results...
  • Constitutive Signaling by Ligand-Responsive EGFR Cancer Variants, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Constitutive Signaling by Ligand-Responsive EGFR Cancer Variants, organism-specific biosystemSignaling by EGFR is frequently activated in cancer through activating mutations in the coding sequence of the EGFR gene, resulting in expression of a constitutively active mutant protein. Epidermal ...
  • Cytokine Signaling in Immune system, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Cytokine Signaling in Immune system, organism-specific biosystemCytokines are small proteins that regulate and mediate immunity, inflammation, and hematopoiesis. They are secreted in response to immune stimuli, and usually act briefly, locally, at very low concen...
  • DAP12 interactions, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    DAP12 interactions, organism-specific biosystemDNAX activation protein of 12kDa (DAP12) is an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-bearing adapter molecule that transduces activating signals in natural killer (NK) and myeloid cel...
  • DAP12 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    DAP12 signaling, organism-specific biosystemIn response to receptor ligation, the tyrosine residues in DAP12's immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) are phosphorylated by Src family kinases. These phosphotyrosines form the dock...
  • Developmental Biology, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Developmental Biology, organism-specific biosystemAs a first step towards capturing the array of processes by which a fertilized egg gives rise to the diverse tissues of the body, examples of three kinds of processes have been annotated. These are a...
  • Disease, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Disease, organism-specific biosystemBiological processes are captured in Reactome by identifying the molecules (DNA, RNA, protein, small molecules) involved in them and describing the details of their interactions. From this molecular ...
  • Diseases of signal transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Diseases of signal transduction, organism-specific biosystemSignaling processes are central to human physiology (e.g., Pires-da Silva & Sommer 2003), and their disruption by either germ-line and somatic mutation can lead to serious disease. Here, the molecula...
  • Downstream signal transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Downstream signal transduction, organism-specific biosystemThe role of autophosphorylation sites on PDGF receptors are to provide docking sites for downstream signal transduction molecules which contain SH2 domains. The SH2 domain is a conserved motif of aro...
  • Downstream signaling events of B Cell Receptor (BCR), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Downstream signaling events of B Cell Receptor (BCR), organism-specific biosystemSecond messengers (calcium, diacylglycerol, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, and phosphatidyinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate) trigger signaling pathways: NF-kappaB is activated via protein kinase C beta, RA...
  • Downstream signaling of activated FGFR1, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Downstream signaling of activated FGFR1, organism-specific biosystemSignaling via FGFRs is mediated via direct recruitment of signaling proteins that bind to tyrosine auto-phosphorylation sites on the activated receptor and via closely linked docking proteins that be...
  • Downstream signaling of activated FGFR2, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Downstream signaling of activated FGFR2, organism-specific biosystemSignaling via FGFRs is mediated via direct recruitment of signaling proteins that bind to tyrosine auto-phosphorylation sites on the activated receptor and via closely linked docking proteins that be...
  • Downstream signaling of activated FGFR3, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Downstream signaling of activated FGFR3, organism-specific biosystemSignaling via FGFRs is mediated via direct recruitment of signaling proteins that bind to tyrosine auto-phosphorylation sites on the activated receptor and via closely linked docking proteins that be...
  • Downstream signaling of activated FGFR4, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Downstream signaling of activated FGFR4, organism-specific biosystemSignaling via FGFRs is mediated via direct recruitment of signaling proteins that bind to tyrosine auto-phosphorylation sites on the activated receptor and via closely linked docking proteins that be...
  • EGFR Transactivation by Gastrin, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    EGFR Transactivation by Gastrin, organism-specific biosystemGastrin, through the action of diacylglycerol produced from downstream G alpha (q) events, transactivates EGFR via a PKC-mediated pathway by activation of MMP3 (Matrix Metalloproteinase 3) which allo...
  • EGFR-dependent Endothelin signaling events, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    EGFR-dependent Endothelin signaling events, organism-specific biosystem
    EGFR-dependent Endothelin signaling events
  • EGFR1 Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    EGFR1 Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe androgen receptor is a member of the nuclear receptor family of ligand activated transcription factors. These receptors bind to steroid hormones, thyroid hormone, retinoids and vitamin D among ot...
  • EPH-Ephrin signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    EPH-Ephrin signaling, organism-specific biosystemDuring the development process cell migration and adhesion are the main forces involved in morphing the cells into critical anatomical structures. The ability of a cell to migrate to its correct dest...
  • EPHB forward signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    EPHB forward signaling, organism-specific biosystem
    EPHB forward signaling
  • EPHB-mediated forward signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    EPHB-mediated forward signaling, organism-specific biosystemMultiple EPHB receptors contribute directly to dendritic spine development and morphogenesis. These are more broadly involved in post-synaptic development through activation of focal adhesion kinase ...
  • EPO signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    EPO signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem
    EPO signaling pathway
  • Endocytosis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Endocytosis, organism-specific biosystemEndocytosis is a mechanism for cells to remove ligands, nutrients, and plasma membrane (PM) proteins, and lipids from the cell surface, bringing them into the cell interior. Transmembrane proteins en...
  • Endocytosis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Endocytosis, conserved biosystemEndocytosis is a mechanism for cells to remove ligands, nutrients, and plasma membrane (PM) proteins, and lipids from the cell surface, bringing them into the cell interior. Transmembrane proteins en...
  • Endometrial cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Endometrial cancer, organism-specific biosystemEndometrial cancer (EC) is the most common gynaecological malignancy and the fourth most common malignancy in women in the developed world after breast, colorectal and lung cancer. Two types of endom...
  • Endometrial cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Endometrial cancer, conserved biosystemEndometrial cancer (EC) is the most common gynaecological malignancy and the fourth most common malignancy in women in the developed world after breast, colorectal and lung cancer. Two types of endom...
  • Endothelins, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Endothelins, organism-specific biosystem
    Endothelins
  • ErbB signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    ErbB signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe ErbB protein family or epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family is a family of four structurally related receptor tyrosine kinases. Insufficient ErbB signaling in humans is associated with ...
  • ErbB signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    ErbB signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) couples binding of extracellular growth factor ligands to intracellular signaling pathways regulating diverse biologic responses, including prolife...
  • ErbB signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    ErbB signaling pathway, conserved biosystemThe ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) couples binding of extracellular growth factor ligands to intracellular signaling pathways regulating diverse biologic responses, including prolife...
  • Estrogen signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Estrogen signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemEstrogens are steroid hormones that regulate a plethora of physiological processes in mammals, including reproduction, cardiovascular protection, bone integrity, cellular homeostasis, and behavior. E...
  • Estrogen signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
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  • FCERI mediated MAPK activation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • FRS-mediated FGFR1 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • FRS-mediated FGFR2 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • FRS-mediated FGFR3 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • FRS2-mediated FGFR4 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • Fc epsilon RI signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
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  • Fc epsilon RI signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
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  • Fc epsilon receptor (FCERI) signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • Fc-epsilon receptor I signaling in mast cells, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Fc-epsilon receptor I signaling in mast cells, organism-specific biosystem
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  • Focal adhesion, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
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  • Focal adhesion, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
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  • Frs2-mediated activation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • G Protein Signaling Pathways, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
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  • GRB2 events in EGFR signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • GRB2 events in ERBB2 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • Gap junction, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Gap junction, organism-specific biosystemGap junctions contain intercellular channels that allow direct communication between the cytosolic compartments of adjacent cells. Each gap junction channel is formed by docking of two 'hemichannels'...
  • Gap junction, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
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  • Gastrin-CREB signalling pathway via PKC and MAPK, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • Glioma, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Glioma, organism-specific biosystemGliomas are the most common of the primary brain tumors and account for more than 40% of all central nervous system neoplasms. Gliomas include tumours that are composed predominantly of astrocytes (a...
  • Glioma, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Glioma, conserved biosystemGliomas are the most common of the primary brain tumors and account for more than 40% of all central nervous system neoplasms. Gliomas include tumours that are composed predominantly of astrocytes (a...
  • GnRH signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    GnRH signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemGonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion from the hypothalamus acts upon its receptor in the anterior pituitary to regulate the production and release of the gonadotropins, LH and FSH. The GnR...
  • GnRH signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    GnRH signaling pathway, conserved biosystemGonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion from the hypothalamus acts upon its receptor in the anterior pituitary to regulate the production and release of the gonadotropins, LH and FSH. The GnR...
  • HTLV-I infection, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    HTLV-I infection, organism-specific biosystemHuman T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a pathogenic retrovirus that is associated with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL). It is also strongly implicated in non-neoplastic chronic inflammato...
  • HTLV-I infection, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    HTLV-I infection, conserved biosystemHuman T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a pathogenic retrovirus that is associated with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL). It is also strongly implicated in non-neoplastic chronic inflammato...
  • Hemostasis, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Hemostasis, organism-specific biosystemHemostasis is a physiological response that culminates in the arrest of bleeding from an injured vessel. Under normal conditions the vascular endothelium supports vasodilation, inhibits platelet adhe...
  • Hepatitis B, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Hepatitis B, organism-specific biosystemHepatitis B virus (HBV) is an enveloped virus and contains a partially double-stranded relaxed circular DNA (RC-DNA) genome. After entry into hepatocytes, HBV RC-DNA is transported to the nucleus and...
  • Hepatitis C, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Hepatitis C, organism-specific biosystemHepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of chronic liver disease. The HCV employ several strategies to perturb host cell immunity. After invasion, HCV RNA genome functions directly as an mRNA in the...
  • Hepatitis C, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Hepatitis C, conserved biosystemHepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of chronic liver disease. The HCV employ several strategies to perturb host cell immunity. After invasion, HCV RNA genome functions directly as an mRNA in the...
  • IGF1 pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    IGF1 pathway, organism-specific biosystem
    IGF1 pathway
  • IGF1R signaling cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    IGF1R signaling cascade, organism-specific biosystemAfter autophosphorylation the type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF1R) binds and phosphorylates scaffold proteins, IRS1/2/4 and SHC1, which in turn bind effectors possessing enzymatic activ...
  • IL-2 Signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    IL-2 Signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemIL-2 is a multifunctional cytokine with pleiotropic effects on several cells of the immune system. IL-2 was originally discovered as a T cell growth factor, but it was also found to have actions rela...
  • IL-3 Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    IL-3 Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemInterleukin-3 belongs to a family of cytokines, which includes IL-5 and GM-CSF. It signals through a receptor complex comprising of an IL-3 specific IL-3 receptor alpha subunit (IL3RA) and a common b...
  • IL-5 Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    IL-5 Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemInterleukin-5 belongs to the family of cytokines, which includes IL-3 and GM-CSF. It signals through a receptor complex comprising of an IL-5 receptor alpha subunit (IL5RA), and a common beta chain w...
  • IL-6 Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    IL-6 Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemInterleukin-6 belongs to a family of cytokines which includes IL-11, ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), cardiotropin-1, cardiotrophin-like cytokine, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and Oncostatin M...
  • IL-7 Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    IL-7 Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemInterleukin-7 belongs to a family of cytokines, which includes IL-2, IL-4, IL-9, IL-15 and IL-21. It signals through a receptor complex consisting of IL-7 receptor alpha chain (IL7RA) and a common ga...
  • IRS-mediated signalling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    IRS-mediated signalling, organism-specific biosystemRelease of phospho-IRS from the insulin receptor triggers a cascade of signalling events via PI3K, SOS, RAF and the MAP kinases.
  • IRS-related events, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    IRS-related events, organism-specific biosystemIRS is one of the mediators of insulin signalling events. It is activated by phosphorylation and triggers a cascade of events involving PI3K, SOS, RAF and the MAP kinases. The proteins mentioned unde...
  • IRS-related events triggered by IGF1R, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    IRS-related events triggered by IGF1R, organism-specific biosystemThe phosphorylated type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor phosphorylates IR1, IRS2, IRS4 and possibly other IRS/DOK family members (reviewed in Pavelic et al. 2007, Chitnis et al. 2008, Maki et a...
  • Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Immune System, organism-specific biosystemHumans are exposed to millions of potential pathogens daily, through contact, ingestion, and inhalation. Our ability to avoid infection depends on the adaptive immune system and during the first crit...
  • Innate Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Innate Immune System, organism-specific biosystemInnate immunity encompases the nonspecific part of immunity tha are part of an individual's natural biologic makeup
  • Insulin Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Insulin Pathway, organism-specific biosystem
    Insulin Pathway
  • Insulin Signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Insulin Signaling, organism-specific biosystemInsulin signaling influences energy metabolism as well as growth. The presence of insulin signals the fed state, and this signal is passed via the AKT branch, which leads to the uptake of glucose fro...
  • Insulin receptor signalling cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Insulin receptor signalling cascade, organism-specific biosystemAutophosphorylation of the insulin receptor triggers a series of signalling events, mediated by SHC or IRS, and resulting in activation of the Ras/RAF and MAP kinase cascades. A second effect of the ...
  • Insulin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Insulin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemInsulin binding to its receptor results in the tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrates (IRS) by the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase (INSR). This allows association of IRSs with the r...
  • Insulin signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Insulin signaling pathway, conserved biosystemInsulin binding to its receptor results in the tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrates (IRS) by the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase (INSR). This allows association of IRSs with the r...
  • Integrin-mediated cell adhesion, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Integrin-mediated cell adhesion, organism-specific biosystemIntegrins are receptors that mediate attachment between a cell and the tissues surrounding it, which may be other cells or the extracellular matrix (ECM). They also play a role in cell signaling and ...
  • Interleukin receptor SHC signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Interleukin receptor SHC signaling, organism-specific biosystemPhosphorylation of Shc at three tyrosine residues, 239, 240 (Gotoh et al. 1996) and 317 (Salcini et al. 1994) involves unidentified tyrosine kinases presumed to be part of the activated receptor comp...
  • Interleukin-11 Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Interleukin-11 Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemIL-11 is a multifunctional cytokine that belongs to the gp130 family. It was first isolated from a primate bone marrow derived cell line, PU-34 for its ability to stimulate the proliferation of a pla...
  • Interleukin-2 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Interleukin-2 signaling, organism-specific biosystemInterleukin-2 (IL-2) is a cytokine that is produced by T cells in response to antigen stimulation. Originally, IL-2 was discovered because of its potent growth factor activity on activated T cells in...
  • Interleukin-3, 5 and GM-CSF signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Interleukin-3, 5 and GM-CSF signaling, organism-specific biosystemThe Interleukin-3 (IL-3), IL-5 and Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) receptors form a family of heterodimeric receptors that have specific alpha chains but share a common beta...
  • Kit Receptor Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Kit Receptor Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemKit is a receptor protein tyrosine kinase, which is a receptor for stem cell factor or kit ligand. Signaling through Kit is important for formation of red cells, lymphocytes, mast cells and platelets...
  • LPA receptor mediated events, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    LPA receptor mediated events, organism-specific biosystem
    LPA receptor mediated events
  • Leptin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Leptin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemLeptin is a peptide hormone mainly synthesised and secreted from adipocytes. It is also expressed in other tissues including placenta, stomach and skeletal muscle. Leptin mediates its effects by bind...
  • Long-term depression, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Long-term depression, organism-specific biosystemCerebellar long-term depression (LTD), thought to be a molecular and cellular basis for cerebellar learning, is a process involving a decrease in the synaptic strength between parallel fiber (PF) and...
  • Long-term depression, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Long-term depression, conserved biosystemCerebellar long-term depression (LTD), thought to be a molecular and cellular basis for cerebellar learning, is a process involving a decrease in the synaptic strength between parallel fiber (PF) and...
  • Long-term potentiation, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Long-term potentiation, organism-specific biosystemHippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), a long-lasting increase in synaptic efficacy, is the molecular basis for learning and memory. Tetanic stimulation of afferents in the CA1 region of the hippo...
  • Long-term potentiation, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Long-term potentiation, conserved biosystemHippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), a long-lasting increase in synaptic efficacy, is the molecular basis for learning and memory. Tetanic stimulation of afferents in the CA1 region of the hippo...
  • MAPK Cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    MAPK Cascade, organism-specific biosystem
    MAPK Cascade
  • MAPK signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    MAPK signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is a highly conserved module that is involved in various cellular functions, including cell proliferation, differentiation and migration. Mammals e...
  • MAPK signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    MAPK signaling pathway, conserved biosystemThe mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is a highly conserved module that is involved in various cellular functions, including cell proliferation, differentiation and migration. Mammals e...
  • MEK activation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    MEK activation, organism-specific biosystemMEK is phosphorylated and activated by RAF.
  • Melanogenesis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Melanogenesis, organism-specific biosystemCutaneous melanin pigment plays a critical role in camouflage, mimicry, social communication, and protection against harmful effects of solar radiation. Melanogenesis is under complex regulatory cont...
  • Melanogenesis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Melanogenesis, conserved biosystemCutaneous melanin pigment plays a critical role in camouflage, mimicry, social communication, and protection against harmful effects of solar radiation. Melanogenesis is under complex regulatory cont...
  • Melanoma, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Melanoma, organism-specific biosystemMelanoma is a form of skin cancer that has a poor prognosis and which is on the rise in Western populations. Melanoma arises from the malignant transformation of pigment-producing cells, melanocytes...
  • Melanoma, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Melanoma, conserved biosystemMelanoma is a form of skin cancer that has a poor prognosis and which is on the rise in Western populations. Melanoma arises from the malignant transformation of pigment-producing cells, melanocytes...
  • MicroRNAs in cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    MicroRNAs in cancer, organism-specific biosystemMicroRNA (miRNA) is a cluster of small non-encoding RNA molecules of 21 - 23 nucleotides in length, which controls gene expression post-transcriptionally either via the degradation of target mRNAs or...
  • MicroRNAs in cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    MicroRNAs in cancer, conserved biosystemMicroRNA (miRNA) is a cluster of small non-encoding RNA molecules of 21 - 23 nucleotides in length, which controls gene expression post-transcriptionally either via the degradation of target mRNAs or...
  • NCAM signaling for neurite out-growth, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    NCAM signaling for neurite out-growth, organism-specific biosystemThe neural cell adhesion molecule, NCAM, is a member of the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily and is involved in a variety of cellular processes of importance for the formation and maintenance of the n...
  • NGF signalling via TRKA from the plasma membrane, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    NGF signalling via TRKA from the plasma membrane, organism-specific biosystemTrk receptors signal from the plasma membrane and from intracellular membranes, particularly from early endosomes. Signalling from the plasma membrane is fast but transient; signalling from endosomes...
  • Natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity, organism-specific biosystemNatural killer (NK) cells are lymphocytes of the innate immune system that are involved in early defenses against both allogeneic (nonself) cells and autologous cells undergoing various forms of stre...
  • Natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity, conserved biosystemNatural killer (NK) cells are lymphocytes of the innate immune system that are involved in early defenses against both allogeneic (nonself) cells and autologous cells undergoing various forms of stre...
  • Neuronal System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Neuronal System, organism-specific biosystemThe human brain contains at least 100 billion neurons, each with the ability to influence many other cells. Clearly, highly sophisticated and efficient mechanisms are needed to enable communication a...
  • Neurotransmitter Receptor Binding And Downstream Transmission In The Postsynaptic Cell, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Neurotransmitter Receptor Binding And Downstream Transmission In The Postsynaptic Cell, organism-specific biosystemThe neurotransmitter in the synaptic cleft released by the pre-synaptic neuron binds specific receptors located on the post-synaptic terminal. These receptors are either ion channels or G protein cou...
  • Neurotrophin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Neurotrophin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemNeurotrophins are a family of trophic factors involved in differentiation and survival of neural cells. The neurotrophin family consists of nerve growth factor (NGF), brain derived neurotrophic facto...
  • Neurotrophin signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Neurotrophin signaling pathway, conserved biosystemNeurotrophins are a family of trophic factors involved in differentiation and survival of neural cells. The neurotrophin family consists of nerve growth factor (NGF), brain derived neurotrophic facto...
  • Non-small cell lung cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Non-small cell lung cancer, organism-specific biosystemLung cancer is a leading cause of cancer death among men and women in industrialized countries. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for approximately 85% of lung cancer and represents a heter...
  • Non-small cell lung cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Non-small cell lung cancer, conserved biosystemLung cancer is a leading cause of cancer death among men and women in industrialized countries. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for approximately 85% of lung cancer and represents a heter...
  • Nongenotropic Androgen signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Nongenotropic Androgen signaling, organism-specific biosystem
    Nongenotropic Androgen signaling
  • Oncostatin M Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Oncostatin M Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemOncostatin M (OSM) is a member of the multifunctional cytokine interleukin 6 (IL6) - type cytokine family. It is mainly produced in cell types such as activated T lymphocytes, macrophages, monocytes,...
  • Oxytocin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Oxytocin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemOxytocin (OT) is a nonapeptide synthesized by the magno-cellular neurons located in the supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular (PVN) nuclei of the hypothalamus. It exerts a wide variety of central and ...
  • Oxytocin signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Oxytocin signaling pathway, conserved biosystemOxytocin (OT) is a nonapeptide synthesized by the magno-cellular neurons located in the supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular (PVN) nuclei of the hypothalamus. It exerts a wide variety of central and ...
  • PDGFR-beta signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    PDGFR-beta signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem
    PDGFR-beta signaling pathway
  • PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe phosphatidylinositol 3' -kinase(PI3K)-Akt signaling pathway is activated by many types of cellular stimuli or toxic insults and regulates fundamental cellular functions such as transcription, tra...
  • PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, conserved biosystemThe phosphatidylinositol 3' -kinase(PI3K)-Akt signaling pathway is activated by many types of cellular stimuli or toxic insults and regulates fundamental cellular functions such as transcription, tra...
  • Pathways in cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Pathways in cancer, organism-specific biosystem
    Pathways in cancer
  • Post NMDA receptor activation events, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Post NMDA receptor activation events, organism-specific biosystemCa2+ influx through the NMDA receptor initiates subsequent molecular pathways that have a defined role in establishing long-lasting synaptic changes. The molecular signaling initiated by a rise in Ca...
  • Prolactin Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Prolactin Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemProlactin (PRL), a pleiotropic polypeptide hormone, mostly secreted by the lactotrophic cells of anterior pituitary gland and to a lesser extent expressed in numerous extra pituitary tissues such as ...
  • Prolactin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Prolactin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemProlactin (PRL) is a polypeptide hormone known to be involved in a wide range of biological functions including osmoregulation, lactation, reproduction, growth and development, endocrinology and meta...
  • Prolactin signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Prolactin signaling pathway, conserved biosystemProlactin (PRL) is a polypeptide hormone known to be involved in a wide range of biological functions including osmoregulation, lactation, reproduction, growth and development, endocrinology and meta...
  • Prolonged ERK activation events, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Prolonged ERK activation events, organism-specific biosystemAfter NGF binding, activated Trk receptors provide multiple docking sites for adaptor proteins and enzymes. Two docking proteins, the Ankyrin-Rich Membrane Spanning protein (ARMS/Kidins220) and Fibro...
  • Prostate Cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Prostate Cancer, organism-specific biosystem
    Prostate Cancer
  • Prostate cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Prostate cancer, organism-specific biosystemProstate cancer constitutes a major health problem in Western countries. It is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among men and the second leading cause of male cancer deaths. The identification of...
  • Prostate cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Prostate cancer, conserved biosystemProstate cancer constitutes a major health problem in Western countries. It is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among men and the second leading cause of male cancer deaths. The identification of...
  • Proteoglycans in cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Proteoglycans in cancer, organism-specific biosystemMany proteoglycans (PGs) in the tumor microenvironment have been shown to be key macromolecules that contribute to biology of various types of cancer including proliferation, adhesion, angiogenesis a...
  • Proteoglycans in cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Proteoglycans in cancer, conserved biosystemMany proteoglycans (PGs) in the tumor microenvironment have been shown to be key macromolecules that contribute to biology of various types of cancer including proliferation, adhesion, angiogenesis a...
  • RAF activation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    RAF activation, organism-specific biosystemPhosphorylated RAF is activated by Ras binding and stabilised in its active form by transient disassociation and reassociation of 14-3-3, as well as further phosphorylation.
  • RAF phosphorylates MEK, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    RAF phosphorylates MEK, organism-specific biosystemActive Raf-1 phosphorylates MEK-1/2 on Serine residues, converting ATP to ADP. The MEK-1/2 kinase is now active.
  • RAF/MAP kinase cascade, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    RAF/MAP kinase cascade, organism-specific biosystemThe MAP kinase cascade describes a sequence of phosphorylation events involving serine/threonine-specific protein kinases. Used by various signal transduction pathways, this cascade constitutes a com...
  • Rap1 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Rap1 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemRap1 is a small GTPase that controls diverse processes, such as cell adhesion, cell-cell junction formation and cell polarity. Like all G proteins, Rap1 cycles between an inactive GDP-bound and an ac...
  • Rap1 signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Rap1 signaling pathway, conserved biosystemRap1 is a small GTPase that controls diverse processes, such as cell adhesion, cell-cell junction formation and cell polarity. Like all G proteins, Rap1 cycles between an inactive GDP-bound and an ac...
  • Ras activation uopn Ca2+ infux through NMDA receptor, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Ras activation uopn Ca2+ infux through NMDA receptor, organism-specific biosystemCa2+ influx through the NMDA receptor leads to the activation of Ras kinase via the activation of RasGRF.
  • Ras signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Ras signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe Ras proteins are GTPases that function as molecular switches for signaling pathways regulating cell proliferation, survival, growth, migration, differentiation or cytoskeletal dynamism. Ras prote...
  • Regulation of actin cytoskeleton, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Regulation of actin cytoskeleton, organism-specific biosystem
    Regulation of actin cytoskeleton
  • Regulation of actin cytoskeleton, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Regulation of actin cytoskeleton, conserved biosystem
    Regulation of actin cytoskeleton
  • Renal cell carcinoma, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Renal cell carcinoma, organism-specific biosystemRenal cell cancer (RCC) accounts for ~3% of human malignancies and its incidence appears to be rising. Although most cases of RCC seem to occur sporadically, an inherited predisposition to renal canc...
  • Renal cell carcinoma, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Renal cell carcinoma, conserved biosystemRenal cell cancer (RCC) accounts for ~3% of human malignancies and its incidence appears to be rising. Although most cases of RCC seem to occur sporadically, an inherited predisposition to renal canc...
  • SHC-mediated cascade:FGFR1, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    SHC-mediated cascade:FGFR1, organism-specific biosystemThe exact role of SHC1 in FGFR signaling remains unclear. Numerous studies have shown that the p46 and p52 isoforms of SHC1 are phosphorylated in response to FGF stimulation, but direct interaction...
  • SHC-mediated cascade:FGFR2, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    SHC-mediated cascade:FGFR2, organism-specific biosystemThe exact role of SHC1 in FGFR signaling remains unclear. Numerous studies have shown that the p46 and p52 isoforms of SHC1 are phosphorylated in response to FGF stimulation, but direct interaction...
  • SHC-mediated cascade:FGFR3, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    SHC-mediated cascade:FGFR3, organism-specific biosystemThe exact role of SHC1 in FGFR signaling remains unclear. Numerous studies have shown that the p46 and p52 isoforms of SHC1 are phosphorylated in response to FGF stimulation, but direct interaction...
  • SHC-mediated cascade:FGFR4, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    SHC-mediated cascade:FGFR4, organism-specific biosystemThe exact role of SHC1 in FGFR signaling remains unclear. Numerous studies have shown that the p46 and p52 isoforms of SHC1 are phosphorylated in response to FGF stimulation, but direct interaction...
  • SHC-mediated signalling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    SHC-mediated signalling, organism-specific biosystemRelease of phospho-SHC from the insulin receptor triggers a cascade of signalling events via SOS, RAF and the MAP kinases.
  • SHC-related events, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    SHC-related events, organism-specific biosystemSHC is one of the mediators of insulin signalling events. It is activated by phosphorylation and triggers a cascade of events involving SOS, RAF and the MAP kinases.
  • SHC-related events triggered by IGF1R, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    SHC-related events triggered by IGF1R, organism-specific biosystemPhosphorylated IGF1R binds and phosphorylates SHC1 (reviewed in Pavelic et al. 2007, Chitnis et al. 2008, Maki et al. 2010, Parrella et al. 2010, Siddle et al. 2012). Phosphorylated SHC then binds GR...
  • SHC1 events in EGFR signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    SHC1 events in EGFR signaling, organism-specific biosystemGRB2 can bind EGFR directly or through another SH2-containing protein, SHC1. This association leads to RAS activation.
  • SHC1 events in ERBB2 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    SHC1 events in ERBB2 signaling, organism-specific biosystemAll ERBB2 heterodimers, ERBB2:EGFR, ERBB2:ERBB3 and ERBB2:ERBB4, are able to activate RAF/MAP kinase cascade by recruiting SHC1 (Pinkas-Kramarski et al. 1996, Sepp-Lorenzino et al. 1996) to phosphory...
  • SHC1 events in ERBB4 signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    SHC1 events in ERBB4 signaling, organism-specific biosystemAll splicing isoforms of ERBB4 possess two tyrosine residues in the C-tail that serve as docking sites for SHC1 (Kaushansky et al. 2008, Pinkas-Kramarski et al. 1996, Cohen et al. 1996). Once bound t...
  • SOS-mediated signalling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    SOS-mediated signalling, organism-specific biosystemSOS is recruited to the plasma membrane and mediates activation of Ras.
  • Senescence and Autophagy, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Senescence and Autophagy, organism-specific biosystemSenescense and Autophagy Pathways in Cancer
  • Serotonergic synapse, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Serotonergic synapse, organism-specific biosystemSerotonin (5-Hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter that plays important roles in physiological functions such as learning and memory, emotion, sleep, pain, motor function and endoc...
  • Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystemSignal transduction is a process in which extracellular signals elicit changes in cell state and activity. Transmembrane receptors sense changes in the cellular environment by binding ligands, such a...
  • Signaling Pathways in Glioblastoma, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Signaling Pathways in Glioblastoma, organism-specific biosystemThe most frequently altered genes in glioblastoma. This pathway originally accompanied the 2008 Nature publication on the comprehensive genomic characterization of human glioblastoma genes and core p...
  • Signaling by EGFR, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by EGFR, organism-specific biosystemThe epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is one member of the ERBB family of transmembrane glycoprotein tyrosine receptor kinases (RTK). Binding of EGFR to its ligands induces conformational chang...
  • Signaling by EGFR in Cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by EGFR in Cancer, organism-specific biosystemThe pathway "Signaling by EGFR in Cancer" shows signaling by constitutively active EGFR cancer variants in the context of "Signaling by EGFR", allowing users to compare cancer events with the wild-ty...
  • Signaling by EGFRvIII in Cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by EGFRvIII in Cancer, organism-specific biosystemEGFRvIII (EGFR V30_R297delinsG) is the most prevalent EGFR variant in glioblastoma, but it is also found in other cancer types. In-frame deletion of the ligand binding domain in EGFRvIII is frequentl...
  • Signaling by ERBB2, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by ERBB2, organism-specific biosystemERBB2, also known as HER2 or NEU, is a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) belonging to the EGFR family. ERBB2 possesses an extracellular domain that does not bind any known ligand, contrary to other EGFR...
  • Signaling by ERBB4, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by ERBB4, organism-specific biosystemERBB4, also known as HER4, belongs to the ERBB family of receptors, which also includes ERBB1 (EGFR i.e. HER1), ERBB2 (HER2 i.e. NEU) and ERBB3 (HER3). Similar to EGFR, ERBB4 has an extracellular lig...
  • Signaling by FGFR, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by FGFR, organism-specific biosystemThe 22 members of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family of growth factors mediate their cellular responses by binding to and activating the different isoforms encoded by the four receptor tyrosin...
  • Signaling by FGFR in disease, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by FGFR in disease, organism-specific biosystemThe pathway 'Signaling by FGFR in disease' shows 'Signaling by FGFR mutants' in parallel with the wild-type pathway 'Signaling by FGFR', allowing users to compare disease and normal events. FGFR mut...
  • Signaling by FGFR1, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by FGFR1, organism-specific biosystemThe 22 members of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family of growth factors mediate their cellular responses by binding to and activating the different isoforms encoded by the four receptor tyrosin...
  • Signaling by FGFR1 in disease, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by FGFR1 in disease, organism-specific biosystemA number of skeletal and developmental diseases have been shown to arise as a result of mutations in the FGFR1, 2 and 3 genes. These include dwarfism syndromes (achondroplasia, hypochondroplasia and...
  • Signaling by FGFR1 mutants, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by FGFR1 mutants, organism-specific biosystemA number of skeletal and developmental diseases have been shown to arise as a result of mutations in the FGFR1, 2 and 3 genes. These include dwarfism syndromes (achondroplasia, hypochondroplasia and...
  • Signaling by FGFR2, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by FGFR2, organism-specific biosystemThe 22 members of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family of growth factors mediate their cellular responses by binding to and activating the different isoforms encoded by the four receptor tyrosin...
  • Signaling by FGFR2 in disease, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by FGFR2 in disease, organism-specific biosystemA number of skeletal and developmental diseases have been shown to arise as a result of mutations in the FGFR1, 2 and 3 genes. These include dwarfism syndromes (achondroplasia, hypochondroplasia and...
  • Signaling by FGFR2 mutants, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by FGFR2 mutants, organism-specific biosystemA number of skeletal and developmental diseases have been shown to arise as a result of mutations in the FGFR1, 2 and 3 genes. These include dwarfism syndromes (achondroplasia, hypochondroplasia and...
  • Signaling by FGFR3, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by FGFR3, organism-specific biosystemThe 22 members of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family of growth factors mediate their cellular responses by binding to and activating the different isoforms encoded by the four receptor tyrosin...
  • Signaling by FGFR3 in disease, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by FGFR3 in disease, organism-specific biosystemA number of skeletal and developmental diseases have been shown to arise as a result of mutations in the FGFR1, 2 and 3 genes. These include dwarfism syndromes (achondroplasia, hypochondroplasia and...
  • Signaling by FGFR3 mutants, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by FGFR3 mutants, organism-specific biosystemA number of skeletal and developmental diseases have been shown to arise as a result of mutations in the FGFR1, 2 and 3 genes. These include dwarfism syndromes (achondroplasia, hypochondroplasia and...
  • Signaling by FGFR4, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by FGFR4, organism-specific biosystemThe 22 members of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family of growth factors mediate their cellular responses by binding to and activating the different isoforms encoded by the four receptor tyrosin...
  • Signaling by FGFR4 in disease, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by FGFR4 in disease, organism-specific biosystemA number of skeletal and developmental diseases have been shown to arise as a result of mutations in the FGFR1, 2 and 3 genes. These include dwarfism syndromes (achondroplasia, hypochondroplasia and...
  • Signaling by FGFR4 mutants, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by FGFR4 mutants, organism-specific biosystemA number of skeletal and developmental diseases have been shown to arise as a result of mutations in the FGFR1, 2 and 3 genes. These include dwarfism syndromes (achondroplasia, hypochondroplasia and...
  • Signaling by GPCR, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by GPCR, organism-specific biosystemG protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs; 7TM receptors; seven transmembrane domain receptors; heptahelical receptors; G protein-linked receptors [GPLR]) are the largest family of transmembrane receptors i...
  • Signaling by Insulin receptor, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by Insulin receptor, organism-specific biosystemInsulin binding to its receptor results in receptor autophosphorylation on tyrosine residues and the tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrates (e.g. IRS and Shc) by the insulin receptor...
  • Signaling by Interleukins, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by Interleukins, organism-specific biosystemInterleukins are low molecular weight proteins that bind to cell surface receptors and act in an autocrine and/or paracrine fashion. They were first identified as factors produced by leukocytes but a...
  • Signaling by Leptin, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by Leptin, organism-specific biosystemLeptin (LEP, OB, OBS), a circulating adipokine, and its receptor LEPR (DB, OBR) control food intake and energy balance and are implicated in obesity-related diseases (recently reviewed in Amitani et ...
  • Signaling by Ligand-Responsive EGFR Variants in Cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by Ligand-Responsive EGFR Variants in Cancer, organism-specific biosystemLigand-responsive EGFR cancer variants harbor mutations in the kinase domain or point mutations in the extracellular domain. These altered EGFR proteins are able to signal in the absence of ligands, ...
  • Signaling by PDGF, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by PDGF, organism-specific biosystemPlatelet-derived Growth Factor (PDGF) is a potent stimulator of growth and motility of connective tissue cells such as fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells as well as other cells such as capillary end...
  • Signaling by SCF-KIT, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by SCF-KIT, organism-specific biosystemStem cell factor (SCF) is a growth factor with membrane bound and soluble forms. It is expressed by fibroblasts and endothelial cells throughout the body, promoting proliferation, migration, survival...
  • Signaling by Type 1 Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 Receptor (IGF1R), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by Type 1 Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 Receptor (IGF1R), organism-specific biosystemBinding of IGF1 (IGF-I) or IGF2 (IGF-II) to the extracellular alpha peptides of the type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF1R) triggers the activation of two major signaling pathways: the SOS...
  • Signaling by VEGF, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by VEGF, organism-specific biosystemIn normal development vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) are crucial regulators of vascular development during embryogenesis (vasculogenesis) and blood-vessel formation in the adult (angioge...
  • Signaling by the B Cell Receptor (BCR), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by the B Cell Receptor (BCR), organism-specific biosystemMature B cells express IgM and IgD immunoglobulins which are complexed at the plasma membrane with Ig-alpha (CD79A, MB-1) and Ig-beta (CD79B, B29) to form the B cell receptor (BCR) (Fu et al. 1974, F...
  • Signaling events mediated by Hepatocyte Growth Factor Receptor (c-Met), organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Signaling events mediated by Hepatocyte Growth Factor Receptor (c-Met), organism-specific biosystem
    Signaling events mediated by Hepatocyte Growth Factor Receptor (c-Met)
  • Signaling events mediated by Stem cell factor receptor (c-Kit), organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Signaling events mediated by Stem cell factor receptor (c-Kit), organism-specific biosystem
    Signaling events mediated by Stem cell factor receptor (c-Kit)
  • Signaling events mediated by VEGFR1 and VEGFR2, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Signaling events mediated by VEGFR1 and VEGFR2, organism-specific biosystem
    Signaling events mediated by VEGFR1 and VEGFR2
  • Signaling events regulated by Ret tyrosine kinase, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Signaling events regulated by Ret tyrosine kinase, organism-specific biosystem
    Signaling events regulated by Ret tyrosine kinase
  • Signaling of Hepatocyte Growth Factor Receptor, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Signaling of Hepatocyte Growth Factor Receptor, organism-specific biosystem
    Signaling of Hepatocyte Growth Factor Receptor
  • Signaling pathways regulating pluripotency of stem cells, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Signaling pathways regulating pluripotency of stem cells, organism-specific biosystemPluripotent stem cells (PSCs) are basic cells with an indefinite self-renewal capacity and the potential to generate all the cell types of the three germinal layers. The types of PSCs known to date i...
  • Signaling pathways regulating pluripotency of stem cells, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Signaling pathways regulating pluripotency of stem cells, conserved biosystemPluripotent stem cells (PSCs) are basic cells with an indefinite self-renewal capacity and the potential to generate all the cell types of the three germinal layers. The types of PSCs known to date i...
  • Signalling by NGF, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signalling by NGF, organism-specific biosystemNeurotrophins (NGF, BDNF, NT-3, NT-4/5) play pivotal roles in survival, differentiation, and plasticity of neurons in the peripheral and central nervous system. They are produced, and secreted in mi...
  • Signalling to ERKs, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signalling to ERKs, organism-specific biosystemNeurotrophins utilize multiple pathways to activate ERKs (ERK1 and ERK2), a subgroup of the large MAP kinase (MAPK) family, from the plasma membrane. The major signalling pathways to ERKs are via RAS...
  • Signalling to RAS, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signalling to RAS, organism-specific biosystemSignalling through Shc adaptor proteins appears to be identical for both NGF and EGF. It leads to a fast, but transient, MAPK/ERK activation, which is insufficient to explain the prolonged activation...
  • Signalling to p38 via RIT and RIN, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signalling to p38 via RIT and RIN, organism-specific biosystemRIT and RIN are two small guanine nucleotide binding proteins that share more than 50% sequence identity with RAS, including highly conserved core effector domains. Unlike RAS, the C termini of RIT a...
  • Sphingolipid signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Sphingolipid signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemSphingomyelin (SM) and its metabolic products are now known to have second messenger functions in a variety of cellular signaling pathways. Particularly, the sphingolipid metabolites, ceramide (Cer) ...
  • Sphingolipid signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Sphingolipid signaling pathway, conserved biosystemSphingomyelin (SM) and its metabolic products are now known to have second messenger functions in a variety of cellular signaling pathways. Particularly, the sphingolipid metabolites, ceramide (Cer) ...
  • Syndecan-2-mediated signaling events, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Syndecan-2-mediated signaling events, organism-specific biosystem
    Syndecan-2-mediated signaling events
  • T cell receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    T cell receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemActivation of T lymphocytes is a key event for an efficient response of the immune system. It requires the involvement of the T-cell receptor (TCR) as well as costimulatory molecules such as CD28. En...
  • T cell receptor signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    T cell receptor signaling pathway, conserved biosystemActivation of T lymphocytes is a key event for an efficient response of the immune system. It requires the involvement of the T-cell receptor (TCR) as well as costimulatory molecules such as CD28. En...
  • TCR Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    TCR Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) complex is composed of a ligand-binding subunit, the ? and ? chains, and a signaling subunit, namely the CD3?, ? and ? chains and the TCR? chain. This complex partic...
  • TGF Beta Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    TGF Beta Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe Transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) signaling pathway is involved in many cellular processes in both the adult organism and the developing embryo including cell growth, cell differentiat...
  • TSH signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    TSH signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemHuman thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) is a glycoprotein secreted by the anterior part of the pituitary gland (1). TSH plays an important physiological role in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pit...
  • Thyroid cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Thyroid cancer, organism-specific biosystemThyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy and accounts for the majority of endocrine cancer- related deaths each year. More than 95% of thyroid carcinomas are derived from follicular cel...
  • Thyroid cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Thyroid cancer, conserved biosystemThyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy and accounts for the majority of endocrine cancer- related deaths each year. More than 95% of thyroid carcinomas are derived from follicular cel...
  • Thyroid hormone signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Thyroid hormone signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe thyroid hormones (THs) are important regulators of growth, development and metabolism. The action of TH is mainly mediated by T3 (3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine). Thyroid hormones, L-thyroxine (T4) a...
  • Tie2 Signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Tie2 Signaling, organism-specific biosystemThe Tie2/Tek receptor tyrosine kinase plays a pivotal role in vascular and hematopoietic development and is expressed exclusively on endothelial lineage. Tie2 interacts with a group of ligands belong...
  • Tight junction, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Tight junction, organism-specific biosystemEpithelial tight junctions (TJs) are composed of at least three types of transmembrane protein -occludin, claudin and junctional adhesion molecules (JAMs)- and a cytoplasmic 'plaque' consisting of ma...
  • Tight junction, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Tight junction, conserved biosystemEpithelial tight junctions (TJs) are composed of at least three types of transmembrane protein -occludin, claudin and junctional adhesion molecules (JAMs)- and a cytoplasmic 'plaque' consisting of ma...
  • Transmission across Chemical Synapses, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Transmission across Chemical Synapses, organism-specific biosystemChemical synapses are specialized junctions that are used for communication between neurons, neurons and muscle or gland cells. The synapse involves a pre-synaptic neuron and a post-synaptic neuron,...
  • VEGF signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    VEGF signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThere is now much evidence that VEGFR-2 is the major mediator of VEGF-driven responses in endothelial cells and it is considered to be a crucial signal transducer in both physiologic and pathologic a...
  • VEGF signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    VEGF signaling pathway, conserved biosystemThere is now much evidence that VEGFR-2 is the major mediator of VEGF-driven responses in endothelial cells and it is considered to be a crucial signal transducer in both physiologic and pathologic a...
  • VEGFA-VEGFR2 Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    VEGFA-VEGFR2 Pathway, organism-specific biosystemAngiogenesis is the formation of new blood vessels from preexisting vasculature. One of the most important proangiogenic factors is vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). VEGF exerts its biologic...
  • VEGFR2 mediated cell proliferation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    VEGFR2 mediated cell proliferation, organism-specific biosystemVEGFR2 stimulates ERK not via GRB2-SOS-RAS, but via pY1175-dependent phosphorylation of PLC gamma and subsequent activation of PKCs. PKC plays an important mediatory role in the proliferative Ras/Raf...
  • Viral carcinogenesis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Viral carcinogenesis, organism-specific biosystemThere is a strong association between viruses and the development of human malignancies. We now know that at least six human viruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C vi...
  • Viral carcinogenesis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Viral carcinogenesis, conserved biosystemThere is a strong association between viruses and the development of human malignancies. We now know that at least six human viruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C vi...
  • a6b1 and a6b4 Integrin signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    a6b1 and a6b4 Integrin signaling, organism-specific biosystem
    a6b1 and a6b4 Integrin signaling
  • p38 MAPK Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    p38 MAPK Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemp38 MAPKs are members of the MAPK family that are activated by a variety of environmental stresses and inflammatory cytokines. Stress signals are delivered to this cascade by members of small GTPases...
  • p38MAPK events, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    p38MAPK events, organism-specific biosystemNGF induces sustained activation of p38, a member of the MAPK family (Morooka T, Nishida E, 1998). Both p38 and the ERKs appear to be involved in neurite outgrowth and differentiation caused by NGF i...
Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

Markers

Homology

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
GTP binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
protein C-terminus binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
Fc-epsilon receptor signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
MAPK cascade TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
Ras protein signal transduction IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
Ras protein signal transduction TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
actin cytoskeleton organization IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
activation of MAPKK activity TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
axon guidance TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
blood coagulation TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
cell cycle arrest IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cell cycle arrest IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
cell proliferation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cell surface receptor signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
cellular senescence IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
chemotaxis TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
endocytosis IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
ephrin receptor signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
epithelial tube branching involved in lung morphogenesis IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
innate immune response TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
insulin receptor signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
leukocyte migration TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
mitotic cell cycle checkpoint IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of GTPase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of cell differentiation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
negative regulation of cell proliferation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of gene expression IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of neuron apoptotic process IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
neurotrophin TRK receptor signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
organ morphogenesis TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of DNA replication IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of GTPase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of JNK cascade IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of MAP kinase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of MAPK cascade IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of Rac protein signal transduction IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of actin cytoskeleton reorganization IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of cell migration IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of cell proliferation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of epithelial cell proliferation IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of miRNA metabolic process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of protein phosphorylation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of ruffle assembly IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of wound healing IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
protein heterooligomerization IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
regulation of long-term neuronal synaptic plasticity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
regulation of synaptic transmission, GABAergic IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
signal transduction NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
small GTPase mediated signal transduction TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
social behavior IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
stimulatory C-type lectin receptor signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
striated muscle cell differentiation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
synaptic transmission TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
vascular endothelial growth factor receptor signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
visual learning IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
Golgi apparatus IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
Golgi membrane IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cytoplasm TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
cytosol TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
nucleus IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
perinuclear region of cytoplasm IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
plasma membrane IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
plasma membrane TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
Preferred Names
GTPase HRas
Names
GTPase HRas
GTP- and GDP-binding peptide B
Ha-Ras1 proto-oncoprotein
Harvey rat sarcoma viral oncoprotein
Ras family small GTP binding protein H-Ras
c-has/bas p21 protein
c-ras-Ki-2 activated oncogene
p19 H-RasIDX protein
transformation gene: oncogene HAMSV
transforming protein p21
v-Ha-ras Harvey rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

Genomic

  1. NG_007666.1 RefSeqGene

    Range
    5001..8309
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_001130442.1NP_001123914.1  GTPase HRas isoform 1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001123914.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (3) differs in the 3' UTR, compared to variant 1. Variants 1 and 3 encode the same protein.
    Source sequence(s)
    BQ574535, BQ674260, DN990077
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS7698.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P01112
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    X5D945
    Related
    ENSP00000407586, ENST00000451590
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    cd04138
    Location:3164
    H_N_K_Ras_like; Ras GTPase family containing H-Ras,N-Ras and K-Ras4A/4B
    PTZ00369
    Location:1184
    PTZ00369; Ras-like protein; Provisional
  2. NM_005343.2NP_005334.1  GTPase HRas isoform 1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_005334.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1) encodes the longer isoform (1). Variants 1 and 3 encode the same protein.
    Source sequence(s)
    BC006499, BM801632
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS7698.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P01112
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    X5D945
    Related
    ENSP00000309845, OTTHUMP00000162769, ENST00000311189, OTTHUMT00000254891
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    cd04138
    Location:3164
    H_N_K_Ras_like; Ras GTPase family containing H-Ras,N-Ras and K-Ras4A/4B
    PTZ00369
    Location:1184
    PTZ00369; Ras-like protein; Provisional
  3. NM_176795.3NP_789765.1  GTPase HRas isoform 2

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_789765.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (2) differs in the 3' UTR and includes an alternate exon in its 3' coding region, compared to variant 1. The resulting isoform (2) contains a distinct C-terminus and is shorter than isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    BQ574535, BQ674260, DN990077
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS7699.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P01112
    Related
    ENSP00000388246, ENST00000417302
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cd04138
    Location:3150
    H_N_K_Ras_like; Ras GTPase family containing H-Ras,N-Ras and K-Ras4A/4B

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 107

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p2 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000011.10 Reference GRCh38.p2 Primary Assembly

    Range
    532242..535561
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

RNA

  1. XR_242795.1 RNA Sequence

Reference GRCh38.p2 ALT_REF_LOCI_1

Genomic

  1. NT_187586.1 Reference GRCh38.p2 ALT_REF_LOCI_1

    Range
    61883..65202
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

RNA

  1. XR_430702.1 RNA Sequence

Alternate CHM1_1.1

Genomic

  1. NC_018922.2 Alternate CHM1_1.1

    Range
    529852..534465
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)