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H2AFX H2A histone family, member X [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 3014, updated on 17-Feb-2015
Official Symbol
H2AFXprovided by HGNC
Official Full Name
H2A histone family, member Xprovided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:4739
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000188486; HPRD:03465; MIM:601772; Vega:OTTHUMG00000166196
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
H2AX; H2A.X; H2A/X
Summary
Histones are basic nuclear proteins that are responsible for the nucleosome structure of the chromosomal fiber in eukaryotes. Two molecules of each of the four core histones (H2A, H2B, H3, and H4) form an octamer, around which approximately 146 bp of DNA is wrapped in repeating units, called nucleosomes. The linker histone, H1, interacts with linker DNA between nucleosomes and functions in the compaction of chromatin into higher order structures. This gene encodes a member of the histone H2A family, and generates two transcripts through the use of the conserved stem-loop termination motif, and the polyA addition motif. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Orthologs
See H2AFX in MapViewer
Location:
11q23.3
Exon count:
1
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
106 current GRCh38 (GCF_000001405.26) 11 NC_000011.10 (119093874..119095467, complement)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 11 NC_000011.9 (118964580..118966177, complement)

Chromosome 11 - NC_000011.10Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene vacuolar protein sorting 11 homolog (S. cerevisiae) Neighboring gene hydroxymethylbilane synthase Neighboring gene dolichyl-phosphate (UDP-N-acetylglucosamine) N-acetylglucosaminephosphotransferase 1 (GlcNAc-1-P transferase) Neighboring gene C2CD2-like

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Tat tat HIV-1 Tat peptides bind core histones H2A, H2B, H3 and H4, and Tat protein recruits histone acetyltransferases to the HIV-1 LTR promoter leading to acetylation of histones H3 and H4, derepressing chromatin structure and increasing NFkappaB responsiveness PubMed
Vpr vpr Soluble HIV-1 Vpr induces a DNA damage response by forming H2AX- and 53BP1-containing DNA repair foci PubMed
vpr HIV-1 Vpr expression in HeLa cells and human primary CD4+ lymphocytes induces phosphorylation of H2AFX and formation of nuclear foci containing H2AFX and BRCA1 PubMed
vpr Recruitment of a catalytically active CRL4A (VPRBP) complex is required to observe HIV-1 Vpr-interacting unknown cellular ubiquitinated proteins. Phosphorylation of H2AX requires Vpr-induced K48 residue polyubiquitination PubMed
vpr HIV-1 Vpr binds DCAF1 and activates the DNA damage response in renal tubule epithelial cells, in which gamma H2AX-positive nuclei are abundant compared to the control PubMed
integrase gag-pol HIV-1 IN-mediated proviral DNA integration triggers cell death during HIV-1 infection. The mechanism of killing during viral integration involves activation of DNA-PK, which causes phosphorylation of p53 and histone gammaH2AX PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

  • ATM mediated phosphorylation of repair proteins, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    ATM mediated phosphorylation of repair proteins, organism-specific biosystemFollowing the detection of DSBs, ATM mediates the phosphorylation of proteins involved in DNA repair (Thompson and Schild, 2002).
  • ATM mediated response to DNA double-strand break, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    ATM mediated response to DNA double-strand break, organism-specific biosystemDetection of DNA double-strand breaks involves sensor proteins that become activated setting off of signaling cascades. This signaling leads to the recruitment of repair proteins and subsequent repai...
  • Alcoholism, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Alcoholism, organism-specific biosystemAlcoholism, also called dependence on alcohol (ethanol), is a chronic relapsing disorder that is progressive and has serious detrimental health outcomes. As one of the primary mediators of the reward...
  • Alcoholism, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Alcoholism, conserved biosystemAlcoholism, also called dependence on alcohol (ethanol), is a chronic relapsing disorder that is progressive and has serious detrimental health outcomes. As one of the primary mediators of the reward...
  • Amyloids, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Amyloids, organism-specific biosystemAmyloid is a term used to describe typically extracellular deposits of aggregated proteins, sometimes known as plaques. Abnormal accumulation of amyloid is amyloidosis, a term associated with disease...
  • Assembly of the RAD50-MRE11-NBS1 complex at DNA double-strand breaks, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Assembly of the RAD50-MRE11-NBS1 complex at DNA double-strand breaks, organism-specific biosystemAssembly of the RAD50-MRE11-NBS1 complex at DNA double-strand breaks involves the formation of RAD50:MRE11 complex, association of RAD50:MRE11 complex with NBS1 through MRE11 and association of the...
  • Cell Cycle, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Cell Cycle, organism-specific biosystem
    Cell Cycle
  • Cell Cycle, Mitotic, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Cell Cycle, Mitotic, organism-specific biosystemThe replication of the genome and the subsequent segregation of chromosomes into daughter cells are controlled by a series of events collectively known as the cell cycle. DNA replication is carried o...
  • Cellular Senescence, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Cellular Senescence, organism-specific biosystemCellular senescence involves irreversible growth arrest accompanied by phenotypic changes such as enlarged morphology, reorganization of chromatin through formation of senescence-associated heterochr...
  • Cellular responses to stress, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Cellular responses to stress, organism-specific biosystemCells are subject to external molecular and physical stresses such as foreign molecules that perturb metabolic or signaling processes, and changes in temperature or pH. The ability of cells and tissu...
  • Chromatin modifying enzymes, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Chromatin modifying enzymes, organism-specific biosystemEukaryotic DNA is associated with histone proteins and organized into a complex nucleoprotein structure called chromatin. This structure decreases the accessibility of DNA but also helps to protect i...
  • Chromatin organization, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Chromatin organization, organism-specific biosystemChromatin organization refers to the composition and conformation of complexes between DNA, protein and RNA. It is determined by processes that result in the specification, formation or maintenance o...
  • Chromosome Maintenance, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Chromosome Maintenance, organism-specific biosystemChromosome maintenance is critical for stable chromosome function in mammalian and other eukaryotic cells. Aspects of telomere maintenance and nucleosome assembly are covered here.
  • Condensation of Prophase Chromosomes, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Condensation of Prophase Chromosomes, organism-specific biosystemIn mitotic prophase, the action of the condensin II complex enables initial chromosome condensation.The condensin II complex subunit NCAPD3 binds monomethylated histone H4 (H4K20me1), thereby associa...
  • DNA Damage/Telomere Stress Induced Senescence, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    DNA Damage/Telomere Stress Induced Senescence, organism-specific biosystemReactive oxygen species (ROS), whose concentration increases in senescent cells due to oncogenic RAS-induced mitochondrial dysfunction (Moiseeva et al. 2009) or due to environmental stress, cause DNA...
  • DNA Repair, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    DNA Repair, organism-specific biosystemDNA repair is a phenomenal multi-enzyme, multi-pathway system required to ensure the integrity of the cellular genome. These cellular mechanisms that must cope with the plethora of DNA base pair ad...
  • DNA damage response, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    DNA damage response, organism-specific biosystemThis is the first pathway out of two pathways which deals with DNA damage response. It has two central gene products (ATM and ATR) which are connected to the sources of DNA damage (in blue). The two ...
  • DNA methylation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    DNA methylation, organism-specific biosystemMethylation of cytosine is catalyzed by a family of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs): DNMT1, DNMT3A, and DNMT3B transfer methyl groups from S-adenosylmethionine to cytosine, producing 5-methylcytosine ...
  • Deposition of new CENPA-containing nucleosomes at the centromere, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Deposition of new CENPA-containing nucleosomes at the centromere, organism-specific biosystemEukaryotic centromeres are marked by a unique form of histone H3, designated CENPA in humans. In human cells newly synthesized CENPA is deposited in nucleosomes at the centromere during late telophas...
  • Disease, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Disease, organism-specific biosystemBiological processes are captured in Reactome by identifying the molecules (DNA, RNA, protein, small molecules) involved in them and describing the details of their interactions. From this molecular ...
  • Double-Strand Break Repair, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Double-Strand Break Repair, organism-specific biosystemNumerous types of DNA damage can occur within a cell due to the endogenous production of oxygen free radicals, normal alkylation reactions, or exposure to exogenous radiations and chemicals. Double-s...
  • Epigenetic regulation of gene expression, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Epigenetic regulation of gene expression, organism-specific biosystemEpigenetic processes regulate gene expression by modulating the frequency, rate, or extent of gene expression in a mitotically or meiotically heritable way that does not entail a change in the DNA se...
  • Gene Expression, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Gene Expression, organism-specific biosystemGene Expression covers the pathways by which genomic DNA is transcribed to yield RNA, the regulation of these transcription processes, and the pathways by which newly-made RNA Transcripts are process...
  • Homologous Recombination Repair, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Homologous Recombination Repair, organism-specific biosystemThe HRR pathway is an "error free" DNA repair mechanism that utilizes information encoded by homologous sequence to repair double-strand breaks (DSBs). HRR acts on DSBs occurring within replicated DN...
  • Homologous recombination repair of replication-independent double-strand breaks, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Homologous recombination repair of replication-independent double-strand breaks, organism-specific biosystemHomologous recombination repair of replication-independent double-strand breaks requires the activation of ATM followed by ATM mediated phosphorylation of DNA repair proteins. DNA repair and signalin...
  • M Phase, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    M Phase, organism-specific biosystemMitosis, or the M phase, involves nuclear division and cytokinesis, where two identical daughter cells are produced. Mitosis involves prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. Fin...
  • MRN complex relocalizes to nuclear foci, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    MRN complex relocalizes to nuclear foci, organism-specific biosystemMRN complexes localize to nuclear foci in response to double-strand breaks and have been implicated in DNA end-processing during homologous recombination repair (Trujillo et al., 1998). The MRN comp...
  • Meiosis, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Meiosis, organism-specific biosystemDuring meiosis the replicated chromosomes of a single diploid cell are segregated into 4 haploid daughter cells by two successive divisions, meiosis I and meiosis II. In meiosis I, the distinguishing...
  • Meiotic recombination, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Meiotic recombination, organism-specific biosystemMeiotic recombination exchanges segments of duplex DNA between chromosomal homologs, generating genetic diversity (reviewed in Handel and Schimenti 2010, Inagaki et al. 2010, Cohen et al. 2006). Ther...
  • Meiotic synapsis, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Meiotic synapsis, organism-specific biosystemMeiotic synapsis is the stable physical pairing of homologous chromosomes that begins in leptonema of prophase I and lasts until anaphase of prophase I. First, short segments of axial elements form a...
  • Mitotic Prophase, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Mitotic Prophase, organism-specific biosystemDuring prophase, the chromatin in the nucleus condenses, and the nucleolus disappears. Centrioles begin moving to the opposite poles or sides of the cell. Some of the fibers that extend from the cen...
  • Negative epigenetic regulation of rRNA expression, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Negative epigenetic regulation of rRNA expression, organism-specific biosystemTranscription of rRNA genes is controlled by epigenetic activation and repression (reviewed in McStay and Grummt 2008, Goodfellow and Zomerdijk 2012, Grummt and Langst 2013). About half of the roughl...
  • NoRC negatively regulates rRNA expression, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    NoRC negatively regulates rRNA expression, organism-specific biosystemOnly about half of the rRNA gene copies in a cell are expressed. The remaining copies are silenced by modifications to histones and DNA (reviewed in Santoro and Grummt 2001, Grummt 2007, Preuss and P...
  • Nucleosome assembly, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Nucleosome assembly, organism-specific biosystemThe formation of centromeric chromatin assembly outside the context of DNA replication involves the assembly of nucleosomes containing the histone H3 variant CenH3 (also called CENP-A).
  • Oxidative Stress Induced Senescence, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Oxidative Stress Induced Senescence, organism-specific biosystemOxidative stress, caused by increased concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cell, can happen as a consequence of mitochondrial dysfunction induced by the oncogenic RAS (Moiseeva et al...
  • PRC2 methylates histones and DNA, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    PRC2 methylates histones and DNA, organism-specific biosystemPolycomb group proteins are responsible for the heritable repression of genes during development (Lee et al. 2006, Ku et al. 2008, reviewed in Simon and Kingston 2009, Margueron and Reinberg 2011, Di...
  • Packaging Of Telomere Ends, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Packaging Of Telomere Ends, organism-specific biosystemMultiple steps, including C-strand resection, telomerase-mediated elongation, and C-strand synthesis are involved in processing and maintaining the telomere. Though this module posits a linear trans...
  • Proteasome Degradation, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Proteasome Degradation, organism-specific biosystem
    Proteasome Degradation
  • RMTs methylate histone arginines, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    RMTs methylate histone arginines, organism-specific biosystemArginine methylation is a common post-translational modification; around 2% of arginine residues are methylated in rat liver nuclei (Boffa et al. 1977). Arginine can be methylated in 3 different ways...
  • RNA Polymerase I Chain Elongation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    RNA Polymerase I Chain Elongation, organism-specific biosystem
    RNA Polymerase I Chain Elongation
  • RNA Polymerase I Promoter Clearance, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    RNA Polymerase I Promoter Clearance, organism-specific biosystemPromoter clearance is one of the rate-limiting steps in Polymerase I transcription. This step is composed of three phases, promoter opening, transcription initiation and promoter escape.
  • RNA Polymerase I Promoter Opening, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    RNA Polymerase I Promoter Opening, organism-specific biosystemThe activity of the upstream binding factor (UBF-1) plays an important role in the regulation of rRNA synthesis. Studies reveal that phosphorylation of UBF-1 is required for its interaction with the ...
  • RNA Polymerase I Transcription, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    RNA Polymerase I Transcription, organism-specific biosystemThe rRNA genes are transcribed by RNA polymerase I, one of three eukaryotic nuclear RNA polymerases. The polymerase is a multisubunit complex, composed of two large subunits (the most conserved porti...
  • RNA Polymerase I, RNA Polymerase III, and Mitochondrial Transcription, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    RNA Polymerase I, RNA Polymerase III, and Mitochondrial Transcription, organism-specific biosystemTranscription by RNA Polymerase I, RNA Polymerase III and transcription from mitochondrial promoters.
  • RNF mutants show enhanced WNT signaling and proliferation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    RNF mutants show enhanced WNT signaling and proliferation, organism-specific biosystemRNF43 and related protein ZNRF3 are E3 ubiquitin ligases that negatively regulate WNT signaling by downregulating FZD receptors at the cell surface (Mukai et al, 2010; Hao et al, 2012). Frameshift l...
  • Recruitment of repair and signaling proteins to double-strand breaks, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Recruitment of repair and signaling proteins to double-strand breaks, organism-specific biosystemFollowing exposure to ionizing radiation, a number of recombination/repair proteins and complexes relocalize to nuclear foci that are believed to correspond to the sites of double-strand breaks. Thes...
  • Regulatory RNA pathways, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Regulatory RNA pathways, organism-specific biosystemIn this module, the biology of various types of regulatory non-coding RNAs are described. Currently, biogenesis and functions of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and microRNAs are annotated.
  • SIRT1 negatively regulates rRNA Expression, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    SIRT1 negatively regulates rRNA Expression, organism-specific biosystemExpression of rRNA genes is coupled to the overall metabolism of the cell by the NAD-dependent histone deacetylase SIRT1, a component of the Energy-dependent Nucleolar Silencing Complex (eNoSC) (Mura...
  • Senescence-Associated Secretory Phenotype (SASP), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Senescence-Associated Secretory Phenotype (SASP), organism-specific biosystemThe culture medium of senescent cells in enriched in secreted proteins when compared with the culture medium of quiescent i.e. presenescent cells and these secreted proteins constitute the so-called ...
  • Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystemSignal transduction is a process in which extracellular signals elicit changes in cell state and activity. Transmembrane receptors sense changes in the cellular environment by binding ligands, such a...
  • Signaling by WNT in cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by WNT in cancer, organism-specific biosystemThe WNT signaling pathway has been linked with cancer ever since the identification of the first WNT as a gene activated by integration of mouse mammary tumor virus proviral DNA in virally-induced br...
  • Signaling by Wnt, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by Wnt, organism-specific biosystemWNT signaling pathways control a wide range of developmental and adult process in metozoans including cell proliferation, cell fate decisions, cell polarity and stem cell maintenance (reviewed in Sai...
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Systemic lupus erythematosus, organism-specific biosystemSystemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a prototypic autoimmune disease characterised by the production of IgG autoantibodies that are specific for self-antigens, such as DNA, nuclear proteins and cert...
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Systemic lupus erythematosus, conserved biosystemSystemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a prototypic autoimmune disease characterised by the production of IgG autoantibodies that are specific for self-antigens, such as DNA, nuclear proteins and cert...
  • TCF dependent signaling in response to WNT, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    TCF dependent signaling in response to WNT, organism-specific biosystem19 WNT ligands and 10 FZD receptors have been identified in human cells; interactions amongst these ligands and receptors vary in a developmental and tissue-specific manner and lead to activation of ...
  • Telomere Maintenance, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Telomere Maintenance, organism-specific biosystemTelomeres are protein-DNA complexes at the ends of linear chromosomes that are important for genome stability. Telomeric DNA in humans, as in many eukaryotic organisms, consists of tandem repeats (B...
  • Transcriptional regulation by small RNAs, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Transcriptional regulation by small RNAs, organism-specific biosystemRecent evidence indicates that small RNAs participate in transcriptional regulation in addition to post-transcriptional silencing. Components of the RNAi machinery (ARGONAUTE1 (AGO1, EIF2C1), AGO2 (E...
  • XAV939 inhibits tankyrase, stabilizing AXIN, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    XAV939 inhibits tankyrase, stabilizing AXIN, organism-specific biosystemXAV939 binds to the catalytic sites of tankyrase 1 and 2 and inhibits the ADP-ribosylation of AXIN1 and 2. Treatment of cells with XAV939 significantly increases the protein, but not the mRNA levels ...
  • formation of the beta-catenin:TCF transactivating complex, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    formation of the beta-catenin:TCF transactivating complex, organism-specific biosystemOnce in the nucleus, beta-catenin is recruited to WNT target genes through interaction with TCF/LEF transcription factors. This family, which consists of TCF7 (also known as TCF1), TCF7L1 (also known...
  • miRNAs involved in DDR, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    miRNAs involved in DDR, organism-specific biosystemMicroRNA clusters involved in de DNA damage response. Genes they regulated and genes that regulate them. All genes presented in this pathway can also be found in the pathway "DNA damage response(Homo...
  • misspliced LRP5 mutants have enhanced beta-catenin-dependent signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    misspliced LRP5 mutants have enhanced beta-catenin-dependent signaling, organism-specific biosystemLRP5 is subject to an in-frame missplicing event in breast and parathyroid cancers that renders the protein insensitive to inhibition by the WNT antagonist DKK1. Expression of the mutant protein res...
Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

Markers

Homology

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
DNA binding NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
damaged DNA binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
enzyme binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
histone binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
protein heterodimerization activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
DNA damage checkpoint IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
DNA repair TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
cellular response to DNA damage stimulus IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
double-strand break repair NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
double-strand break repair TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
double-strand break repair via homologous recombination TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
meiotic cell cycle IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
nucleosome assembly NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of DNA repair NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
response to ionizing radiation NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
spermatogenesis IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
XY body IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
colocalizes_with chromosome, telomeric region IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
condensed nuclear chromosome IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
extracellular vesicular exosome IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
male germ cell nucleus IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
nuclear chromatin IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
nucleoplasm TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
nucleosome IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
nucleus IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
replication fork IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
site of double-strand break IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
Preferred Names
histone H2AX
Names
histone H2AX
H2AX histone
histone H2A.x

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_002105.2NP_002096.1  histone H2AX

    See proteins identical to NP_002096.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Source sequence(s)
    BC004915, BC011694, BC013416, X14850
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS8410.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P16104
    Related
    ENSP00000434024, OTTHUMP00000232149, ENST00000530167, OTTHUMT00000388330
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    PTZ00017
    Location:1131
    PTZ00017; histone H2A; Provisional
    cd00074
    Location:6120
    H2A; Histone 2A; H2A is a subunit of the nucleosome. The nucleosome is an octamer containing two H2A, H2B, H3, and H4 subunits. The H2A subunit performs essential roles in maintaining structural integrity of the nucleosome, chromatin condensation, and binding ...

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 106

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000011.10 Reference GRCh38 Primary Assembly

    Range
    119093874..119095467
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

Alternate CHM1_1.1

Genomic

  1. NC_018922.2 Alternate CHM1_1.1

    Range
    118850886..118852479
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

Alternate HuRef

Genomic

  1. AC_000143.1 Alternate HuRef

    Range
    114904032..114905625
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)