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VEGFA vascular endothelial growth factor A [ Bos taurus (cattle) ]

Gene ID: 281572, updated on 26-May-2016
Gene symbol
VEGFA
Gene description
vascular endothelial growth factor A
See related
Ensembl:ENSBTAG00000005339
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Bos taurus
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Laurasiatheria; Cetartiodactyla; Ruminantia; Pecora; Bovidae; Bovinae; Bos
Also known as
VPF; VEGF; VEGF-A; eVEGF120; eVEGF164
Summary
This gene is a member of the PDGF/VEGF growth factor family. It encodes a heparin-binding protein, which exists as a disulfide-linked homodimer. This growth factor induces proliferation and migration of vascular endothelial cells, and is essential for both physiological and pathological angiogenesis. It is upregulated in many known tumors and its expression is correlated with tumor stage and progression. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. A recent study showed that a C-terminally extended isoform is produced by use of an alternative in-frame translation termination codon via a stop codon readthrough mechanism, and that this isoform is antiangiogenic. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2015]
Annotation information
Annotation category: partial on reference assembly
Orthologs
Location:
chromosome: 23
Exon count:
7
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
105 current Bos_taurus_UMD_3.1.1 (GCF_000003055.6) 23 AC_000180.1 (17255515..17270515)

Chromosome 23 - AC_000180.1Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene mitochondrial ribosomal protein S18A Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC101904647 Neighboring gene vascular endothelial growth factor A-like Neighboring gene chromosome 23 open reading frame, human C6orf223 Neighboring gene t-complex-associated-testis-expressed 1

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

  • AGE-RAGE signaling pathway in diabetic complications, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    AGE-RAGE signaling pathway in diabetic complications, organism-specific biosystemAdvanced glycation end products (AGEs) are a complex group of compounds produced through the non-enzymatic glycation and oxidation of proteins, lipids and nucleic acids, primarily due to aging and un...
  • AGE-RAGE signaling pathway in diabetic complications, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    AGE-RAGE signaling pathway in diabetic complications, conserved biosystemAdvanced glycation end products (AGEs) are a complex group of compounds produced through the non-enzymatic glycation and oxidation of proteins, lipids and nucleic acids, primarily due to aging and un...
  • Bladder cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Bladder cancer, organism-specific biosystemThe urothelium covers the luminal surface of almost the entire urinary tract, extending from the renal pelvis, through the ureter and bladder, to the proximal urethra. The majority of urothelial carc...
  • Bladder cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Bladder cancer, conserved biosystemThe urothelium covers the luminal surface of almost the entire urinary tract, extending from the renal pelvis, through the ureter and bladder, to the proximal urethra. The majority of urothelial carc...
  • Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, organism-specific biosystemCytokines are soluble extracellular proteins or glycoproteins that are crucial intercellular regulators and mobilizers of cells engaged in innate as well as adaptive inflammatory host defenses, cell ...
  • Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, conserved biosystemCytokines are soluble extracellular proteins or glycoproteins that are crucial intercellular regulators and mobilizers of cells engaged in innate as well as adaptive inflammatory host defenses, cell ...
  • Endochondral Ossification, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Endochondral Ossification, organism-specific biosystem
    Endochondral Ossification
  • Focal adhesion, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Focal adhesion, organism-specific biosystemCell-matrix adhesions play essential roles in important biological processes including cell motility, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, regulation of gene expression and cell survival. At the...
  • Focal adhesion, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Focal adhesion, conserved biosystemCell-matrix adhesions play essential roles in important biological processes including cell motility, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, regulation of gene expression and cell survival. At the...
  • HIF-1 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    HIF-1 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemHypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a transcription factor that functions as a master regulator of oxygen homeostasis. It consists of two subunits: an inducibly-expressed HIF-1alpha subunit and a c...
  • Hypertrophy Model, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Hypertrophy Model, organism-specific biosystem
    Hypertrophy Model
  • Id Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Id Signaling Pathway, organism-specific biosystemInhibitor of DNA binding (ID) proteins are members of the helix-loop-helix (HLH) family of proteins which lack a DNA binding domain themselves but bind to other family members inhibiting their DNA bi...
  • MicroRNAs in cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    MicroRNAs in cancer, organism-specific biosystemMicroRNA (miRNA) is a cluster of small non-encoding RNA molecules of 21 - 23 nucleotides in length, which controls gene expression post-transcriptionally either via the degradation of target mRNAs or...
  • MicroRNAs in cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    MicroRNAs in cancer, conserved biosystemMicroRNA (miRNA) is a cluster of small non-encoding RNA molecules of 21 - 23 nucleotides in length, which controls gene expression post-transcriptionally either via the degradation of target mRNAs or...
  • PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe phosphatidylinositol 3' -kinase(PI3K)-Akt signaling pathway is activated by many types of cellular stimuli or toxic insults and regulates fundamental cellular functions such as transcription, tra...
  • PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, conserved biosystemThe phosphatidylinositol 3' -kinase(PI3K)-Akt signaling pathway is activated by many types of cellular stimuli or toxic insults and regulates fundamental cellular functions such as transcription, tra...
  • Pancreatic cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Pancreatic cancer, organism-specific biosystemInfiltrating ductal adenocarcinoma is the most common malignancy of the pancreas. When most investigators use the term 'pancreatic cancer' they are referring to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA)...
  • Pancreatic cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Pancreatic cancer, conserved biosystemInfiltrating ductal adenocarcinoma is the most common malignancy of the pancreas. When most investigators use the term 'pancreatic cancer' they are referring to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA)...
  • Pathways in cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Pathways in cancer, organism-specific biosystem
    Pathways in cancer
  • Proteoglycans in cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Proteoglycans in cancer, organism-specific biosystemMany proteoglycans (PGs) in the tumor microenvironment have been shown to be key macromolecules that contribute to biology of various types of cancer including proliferation, adhesion, angiogenesis a...
  • Proteoglycans in cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Proteoglycans in cancer, conserved biosystemMany proteoglycans (PGs) in the tumor microenvironment have been shown to be key macromolecules that contribute to biology of various types of cancer including proliferation, adhesion, angiogenesis a...
  • Rap1 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Rap1 signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemRap1 is a small GTPase that controls diverse processes, such as cell adhesion, cell-cell junction formation and cell polarity. Like all G proteins, Rap1 cycles between an inactive GDP-bound and an ac...
  • Rap1 signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Rap1 signaling pathway, conserved biosystemRap1 is a small GTPase that controls diverse processes, such as cell adhesion, cell-cell junction formation and cell polarity. Like all G proteins, Rap1 cycles between an inactive GDP-bound and an ac...
  • Ras signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Ras signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe Ras proteins are GTPases that function as molecular switches for signaling pathways regulating cell proliferation, survival, growth, migration, differentiation or cytoskeletal dynamism. Ras prote...
  • Renal cell carcinoma, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Renal cell carcinoma, organism-specific biosystemRenal cell cancer (RCC) accounts for ~3% of human malignancies and its incidence appears to be rising. Although most cases of RCC seem to occur sporadically, an inherited predisposition to renal canc...
  • Renal cell carcinoma, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Renal cell carcinoma, conserved biosystemRenal cell cancer (RCC) accounts for ~3% of human malignancies and its incidence appears to be rising. Although most cases of RCC seem to occur sporadically, an inherited predisposition to renal canc...
  • Rheumatoid arthritis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Rheumatoid arthritis, organism-specific biosystemRheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune joint disease where persistent inflammation affects bone remodeling leading to progressive bone destruction. In RA, abnormal activation of the immune...
  • Rheumatoid arthritis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Rheumatoid arthritis, conserved biosystemRheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune joint disease where persistent inflammation affects bone remodeling leading to progressive bone destruction. In RA, abnormal activation of the immune...
  • VEGF signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    VEGF signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThere is now much evidence that VEGFR-2 is the major mediator of VEGF-driven responses in endothelial cells and it is considered to be a crucial signal transducer in both physiologic and pathologic a...
  • VEGF signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    VEGF signaling pathway, conserved biosystemThere is now much evidence that VEGFR-2 is the major mediator of VEGF-driven responses in endothelial cells and it is considered to be a crucial signal transducer in both physiologic and pathologic a...
  • mTOR signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    mTOR signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem
    mTOR signaling pathway
  • mTOR signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    mTOR signaling pathway, conserved biosystem
    mTOR signaling pathway

Markers

Homology

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
cytokine activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
growth factor activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
heparin binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
protein homodimerization activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
angiogenesis IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cell differentiation IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cellular response to hypoxia IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of angiogenesis ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of cell division IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of endothelial cell migration ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of endothelial cell proliferation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of focal adhesion assembly ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of protein complex assembly ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of protein phosphorylation ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
tube formation ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
extracellular space IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
membrane IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
Preferred Names
vascular endothelial growth factor A
Names
vascular endothelial growth factor 164
vascular permeability factor

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_001316955.1NP_001303884.1  vascular endothelial growth factor A isoform VEGF-Ax precursor

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1) represents the predominant transcript and encodes two isoforms, which result from the use of alternative in-frame translation termination codons. The shorter isoform (VEGF-A, also known as VEGF-A164) results from translation termination at the upstream UGA stop codon (nt 1618-1620), while the longer isoform (VEGF-Ax) results from UGA stop codon readthrough to the downstream UGA termination codon (nt 1684-1686). This RefSeq represents the longer, C-terminally extended isoform, which exhibits antiangiogenic activity. As the upstream UGA stop codon has been shown to be recoded as serine (PMID:24949972), its location in the VEGF-Ax isoform (aa 191) is denoted by an 'S'.
    Source sequence(s)
    DV814183, DV876964, EV647554, HX921266, M32976
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P15691
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    cd00135
    Location:49132
    PDGF; Platelet-derived and vascular endothelial growth factors (PDGF, VEGF) family domain; PDGF is a potent activator for cells of mesenchymal origin; PDGF-A and PDGF-B form AA and BB homodimers and an AB heterodimer; VEGF is a potent mitogen in embryonic and ...
    pfam14554
    Location:136190
    VEGF_C; VEGF heparin-binding domain
  2. NM_001316956.1NP_001303885.1  vascular endothelial growth factor A isoform 4 precursor

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (4) contains an additional in-frame coding exon compared to variant 1, and encodes a longer isoform (4) with an internal 24 aa protein segment missing in isoform VEGF-A.
    Source sequence(s)
    AB450824, DV814183, DV876964, EV647554, HX921266, M32976
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P15691
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    C6KYY4
    Related
    ENSBTAP00000043971, ENSBTAT00000046700
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    cd00135
    Location:49132
    PDGF; Platelet-derived and vascular endothelial growth factors (PDGF, VEGF) family domain; PDGF is a potent activator for cells of mesenchymal origin; PDGF-A and PDGF-B form AA and BB homodimers and an AB heterodimer; VEGF is a potent mitogen in embryonic and ...
    pfam14554
    Location:165214
    VEGF_C; VEGF heparin-binding domain
  3. NM_001316992.1NP_001303921.1  vascular endothelial growth factor A isoform 3 precursor

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (3) uses an alternate acceptor splice site at the 3' terminal exon, which causes a frameshift compared to variant 1. The encoded isoform (3, also known as VEGF-Ab) has a distinct C-terminus compared to isoform VEGF-A.
    Source sequence(s)
    DV814183, DV876964, EU017524, EV647554, HX921266, M32976
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P15691
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    B4XBZ6
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    cd00135
    Location:49132
    PDGF; Platelet-derived and vascular endothelial growth factors (PDGF, VEGF) family domain; PDGF is a potent activator for cells of mesenchymal origin; PDGF-A and PDGF-B form AA and BB homodimers and an AB heterodimer; VEGF is a potent mitogen in embryonic and ...
    pfam14554
    Location:136184
    VEGF_C; VEGF heparin-binding domain
  4. NM_001316993.1NP_001303922.1  vascular endothelial growth factor A isoform 2 precursor

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (2) lacks an in-frame coding exon compared to variant 1, and encodes a shorter isoform (2, also known as VEGF-A120) missing an internal protein segment compared to isoform VEGF-A.
    Source sequence(s)
    AB455252, DV814183, DV876964, EV647554, HX921266, M32976
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P15691
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    C6KZS7
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cd00135
    Location:49132
    PDGF; Platelet-derived and vascular endothelial growth factors (PDGF, VEGF) family domain; PDGF is a potent activator for cells of mesenchymal origin; PDGF-A and PDGF-B form AA and BB homodimers and an AB heterodimer; VEGF is a potent mitogen in embryonic and ...
  5. NM_174216.2NP_776641.1  vascular endothelial growth factor A isoform VEGF-A precursor

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_776641.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1) represents the predominant transcript and encodes two isoforms, which result from the use of alternative in-frame translation termination codons. The shorter isoform (VEGF-A, also known as VEGF-A164) results from translation termination at the upstream UGA stop codon (nt 1618-1620), while the longer isoform (VEGF-Ax) results from UGA stop codon readthrough to the downstream UGA termination codon (nt 1684-1686). This RefSeq represents the shorter isoform, which exhibits proangiogenic activity.
    Source sequence(s)
    DV814183, DV876964, EV647554, HX921266, M32976
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P15691
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    G8Z9U1
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    cd00135
    Location:49132
    PDGF; Platelet-derived and vascular endothelial growth factors (PDGF, VEGF) family domain; PDGF is a potent activator for cells of mesenchymal origin; PDGF-A and PDGF-B form AA and BB homodimers and an AB heterodimer; VEGF is a potent mitogen in embryonic and ...
    pfam14554
    Location:136190
    VEGF_C; VEGF heparin-binding domain

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Bos taurus Annotation Release 105 details...

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference Bos_taurus_UMD_3.1.1 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. AC_000180.1 Reference Bos_taurus_UMD_3.1.1 Primary Assembly

    Range
    17255515..17270515
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

Alternate Btau_5.0.1

Genomic

  1. NC_007324.6 Alternate Btau_5.0.1

    Range
    17292244..17307312
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)