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GAPDH glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 2597, updated on 26-May-2016
Official Symbol
GAPDHprovided by HGNC
Official Full Name
glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenaseprovided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:4141
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000111640 HPRD:00713; MIM:138400; Vega:OTTHUMG00000137379
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
G3PD; GAPD; HEL-S-162eP
Summary
This gene encodes a member of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase protein family. The encoded protein has been identified as a moonlighting protein based on its ability to perform mechanistically distinct functions. The product of this gene catalyzes an important energy-yielding step in carbohydrate metabolism, the reversible oxidative phosphorylation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate in the presence of inorganic phosphate and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). The encoded protein has additionally been identified to have uracil DNA glycosylase activity in the nucleus. Also, this protein contains a peptide that has antimicrobial activity against E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and C. albicans. Studies of a similar protein in mouse have assigned a variety of additional functions including nitrosylation of nuclear proteins, the regulation of mRNA stability, and acting as a transferrin receptor on the cell surface of macrophage. Many pseudogenes similar to this locus are present in the human genome. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2014]
Orthologs
Location:
12p13
Exon count:
10
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
107 current GRCh38.p2 (GCF_000001405.28) 12 NC_000012.12 (6534405..6538375)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 12 NC_000012.11 (6643585..6647537)

Chromosome 12 - NC_000012.12Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene mitochondrial ribosomal protein L51 Neighboring gene non-SMC condensin I complex subunit D2 Neighboring gene small Cajal body-specific RNA 10 Neighboring gene intermediate filament family orphan 1 Neighboring gene NOP2 nucleolar protein

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

Replication interactions

Interaction Pubs
Knockdown of GAPDH by siRNA enhances HIV-1 infectivity in TZM-bl cells PubMed

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 env Tandem affinity purification and mass spectrometry analysis identify glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), HIV-1 Gag, Gag/Pol, gp120, and Nef incorporated into staufen1 RNP complexes isolated from HIV-1-expressing cells PubMed
Gag-Pol gag-pol Immunoprecipitation assay shows that GAPDH directly interacts with HIV-1 Gag and Gag-Pol. Packaging of LysRS and tRNA-Lys3 into virions is negatively regulated by GAPDH, leading to decreased viral infectivity PubMed
gag-pol Tandem affinity purification and mass spectrometry analysis identify glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), HIV-1 Gag, Gag/Pol, gp120, and Nef incorporated into staufen1 RNP complexes isolated from HIV-1-expressing cells PubMed
Nef nef Tandem affinity purification and mass spectrometry analysis identify glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), HIV-1 Gag, Gag/Pol, gp120, and Nef incorporated into staufen1 RNP complexes isolated from HIV-1-expressing cells PubMed
Pr55(Gag) gag Immunoprecipitation assay shows that GAPDH directly interacts with HIV-1 Gag and Gag-Pol. Packaging of LysRS and tRNA-Lys3 into virions is negatively regulated by GAPDH, leading to decreased viral infectivity PubMed
gag Tandem affinity purification and mass spectrometry analysis identify glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), HIV-1 Gag, Gag/Pol, gp120, and Nef incorporated into staufen1 RNP complexes isolated from HIV-1-expressing cells PubMed
Rev rev HIV-1 Rev interacting protein, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), is identified by the in-vitro binding experiments involving cytosolic or nuclear extracts from HeLa cells. The interaction of Rev with GAPDH is increased by RRE PubMed
Tat tat Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is identified to interact with HIV-1 Tat mutant Nullbasic in HeLa cells by LC MS/MS PubMed
Vpr vpr A stable-isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture coupled with mass spectrometry-based proteomics identifies downregulation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) expression by HIV-1 Vpr in Vpr transduced macrophages PubMed
vpr Treatment of human primary astrocytes with HIV-1 Vpr downregulates expression of mRNA GAPDH and GAPDH activity PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

Markers

Homology

Clone Names

  • MGC88685

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
NAD binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
NADP binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (NAD+) (phosphorylating) activity EXP
Inferred from Experiment
more info
PubMed 
glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (NAD+) (phosphorylating) activity ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (NAD+) (phosphorylating) activity NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
identical protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
microtubule binding ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
peptidyl-cysteine S-nitrosylase activity ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
canonical glycolysis TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
cellular response to interferon-gamma IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
gluconeogenesis TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
microtubule cytoskeleton organization ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
negative regulation of translation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of translation IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
neuron apoptotic process ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
peptidyl-cysteine S-trans-nitrosylation ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
protein stabilization ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
regulation of macroautophagy TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
GAIT complex IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cytoplasm IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 
cytoplasm ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
cytosol IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cytosol ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
cytosol TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
extracellular exosome IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
intracellular membrane-bounded organelle IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 
intracellular ribonucleoprotein complex IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
lipid particle IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
membrane IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
microtubule cytoskeleton ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
nuclear membrane IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 
nucleus IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
nucleus ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
perinuclear region of cytoplasm IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
plasma membrane IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
 
vesicle IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
Preferred Names
glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase
Names
aging-associated gene 9 protein
epididymis secretory sperm binding protein Li 162eP
peptidyl-cysteine S-nitrosylase GAPDH
NP_001243728.1
NP_001276674.1
NP_001276675.1
NP_002037.2

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

Genomic

  1. NG_007073.2 RefSeqGene

    Range
    4915..8885
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_001256799.2NP_001243728.1  glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase isoform 2

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001243728.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (2) differs in the 5' UTR and coding region compared to variant 1. These differences cause translation initiation at a downstream AUG and result in an isoform (2) with a shorter N-terminus compared to isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AF261085, BE893087, HY000136
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS58201.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P04406
    Related
    ENSP00000380067, OTTHUMP00000174434, ENST00000396858, OTTHUMT00000268066
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    pfam00044
    Location:1110
    Gp_dh_N; Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, NAD binding domain
    pfam02800
    Location:115272
    Gp_dh_C; Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, C-terminal domain
  2. NM_001289745.1NP_001276674.1  glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase isoform 1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001276674.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (3) differs in the 5' UTR, compared to variant 1. Variants 1, 3, and 4 encode the same isoform (1).
    Source sequence(s)
    BE893087, BM763361, HY046784, M33197
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS8549.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P04406
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    V9HVZ4
    Related
    ENSP00000380070, OTTHUMP00000174431, ENST00000396861, OTTHUMT00000268060
    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    smart00846
    Location:4152
    Gp_dh_N; Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, NAD binding domain
    COG0057
    Location:3335
    GapA; Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase/erythrose-4-phosphate dehydrogenase [Carbohydrate transport and metabolism]
    pfam02800
    Location:157314
    Gp_dh_C; Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, C-terminal domain
  3. NM_001289746.1NP_001276675.1  glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase isoform 1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001276675.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (4) differs in the 5' UTR, compared to variant 1. Variants 1, 3, and 4 encode the same isoform (1).
    Source sequence(s)
    BC023632, BE893087, HY004110, HY022295
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS8549.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P04406
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    V9HVZ4
    Related
    ENSP00000380068, OTTHUMP00000174432, ENST00000396859, OTTHUMT00000268061
    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    smart00846
    Location:4152
    Gp_dh_N; Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, NAD binding domain
    COG0057
    Location:3335
    GapA; Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase/erythrose-4-phosphate dehydrogenase [Carbohydrate transport and metabolism]
    pfam02800
    Location:157314
    Gp_dh_C; Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, C-terminal domain
  4. NM_002046.5NP_002037.2  glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase isoform 1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_002037.2

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1) encodes the longer isoform (1).
    Source sequence(s)
    BC009081, BE893087, HY046784
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS8549.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P04406
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    V9HVZ4
    Related
    ENSP00000229239, OTTHUMP00000174430, ENST00000229239, OTTHUMT00000268059
    Conserved Domains (3) summary
    smart00846
    Location:4152
    Gp_dh_N; Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, NAD binding domain
    COG0057
    Location:3335
    GapA; Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase/erythrose-4-phosphate dehydrogenase [Carbohydrate transport and metabolism]
    pfam02800
    Location:157314
    Gp_dh_C; Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, C-terminal domain

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 107 details...

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p2 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000012.12 Reference GRCh38.p2 Primary Assembly

    Range
    6534405..6538375
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

Alternate CHM1_1.1

Genomic

  1. NC_018923.2 Alternate CHM1_1.1

    Range
    6642578..6646548
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)