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TUBB tubulin beta class I [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 203068, updated on 26-May-2016
Official Symbol
TUBBprovided by HGNC
Official Full Name
tubulin beta class Iprovided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:20778
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000196230 MIM:191130; Vega:OTTHUMG00000031059
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
M40; TUBB1; TUBB5; CDCBM6; CSCSC1; OK/SW-cl.56
Summary
This gene encodes a beta tubulin protein. This protein forms a dimer with alpha tubulin and acts as a structural component of microtubules. Mutations in this gene cause cortical dysplasia, complex, with other brain malformations 6. Alternative splicing results in multiple splice variants. There are multiple pseudogenes for this gene on chromosomes 1, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 13. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2014]
Orthologs
Location:
6p21.33
Exon count:
5
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
107 current GRCh38.p2 (GCF_000001405.28) 6 NC_000006.12 (30720201..30725426)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 6 NC_000006.11 (30688012..30693199)

Chromosome 6 - NC_000006.12Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene ribosomal protein L7 pseudogene 4 Neighboring gene mediator of DNA damage checkpoint 1 Neighboring gene flotillin 1 Neighboring gene immediate early response 3 Neighboring gene HLA complex group 20 (non-protein coding)

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp160, precursor env Treatment of cells with actin-depolymerizing agents or tubulin polymerization inhibitors largely reduces the percentage of cells with capped HIV-1 Gag and Env, indicating an intact actin and tubulin cytoskeleton is required for efficient assembly of HIV-1 PubMed
Pr55(Gag) gag Treatment of cells with actin-depolymerizing agents or tubulin polymerization inhibitors largely reduces the percentage of cells with capped HIV-1 Gag and Env, indicating an intact actin and tubulin cytoskeleton is required for efficient assembly of HIV-1 PubMed
Rev rev HIV-1 Rev interacting protein, tubulin beta class I, is identified by the in-vitro binding experiments involving cytosolic or nuclear extracts from HeLa cells PubMed
Tat tat HIV-1 Tat K29A, K50R, and K51R lysine mutations downregulate the proportion of soluble tubulin in cells, while the majority of other lysine mutations upregulate the percentage of soluble tubulin compared with the wild-type PubMed
tat In Jurkat cells expressing HIV-1 Tat, decreased expression levels are found for basic cytoskeletal proteins such as actin, beta-tubulin, annexin, cofilin, gelsolin, and Rac/Rho-GDI complex PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

  • AURKA Activation by TPX2, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    AURKA Activation by TPX2, organism-specific biosystemTPX2 binds to aurora kinase A (AURKA) at centrosomes and promotes its activation by facilitating AURKA active conformation and autophosphorylation of the AURKA threonine residue T288 (Bayliss et al. ...
  • Anchoring of the basal body to the plasma membrane, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Anchoring of the basal body to the plasma membrane, organism-specific biosystemThe primary cilium is a microtubule-based organelle that is present on differentiated cells of nearly all eukaryotes. Cilium biogenesis is initiated by the docking of basal bodies, a centriole-derive...
  • Assembly of the primary cilium, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Assembly of the primary cilium, organism-specific biosystemThe primary cilium is one of two main types of cilia present on the surface of many eukaryotic cells (reviewed in Flieghauf et al, 2007). Unlike the motile cilia, which are generally present in large...
  • Cell Cycle, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Cell Cycle, organism-specific biosystem
    Cell Cycle
  • Cell Cycle, Mitotic, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Cell Cycle, Mitotic, organism-specific biosystemThe replication of the genome and the subsequent segregation of chromosomes into daughter cells are controlled by a series of events collectively known as the cell cycle. DNA replication is carried o...
  • Centrosome maturation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Centrosome maturation, organism-specific biosystemThe centrosome is the primary microtubule organizing center (MTOC) in vertebrate cells and plays an important role in orchestrating the formation of the mitotic spindle. Centrosome maturation is an ...
  • G2/M Transition, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    G2/M Transition, organism-specific biosystemCyclin A can also form complexes with Cdc2 (Cdk1). Together with three B-type cyclins, Cdc2 (Cdk1) regulates the transition from G2 into mitosis. These complexes are activated by dephosphorylation of...
  • Gap junction, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Gap junction, organism-specific biosystemGap junctions contain intercellular channels that allow direct communication between the cytosolic compartments of adjacent cells. Each gap junction channel is formed by docking of two 'hemichannels'...
  • Gap junction, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Gap junction, conserved biosystemGap junctions contain intercellular channels that allow direct communication between the cytosolic compartments of adjacent cells. Each gap junction channel is formed by docking of two 'hemichannels'...
  • Loss of Nlp from mitotic centrosomes, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Loss of Nlp from mitotic centrosomes, organism-specific biosystemDuring interphase, Nlp interacts with gamma-tubulin ring complexes (gamma-TuRC), and is thought to contribute to the organization of interphase microtubules (Casenghi et al.,2003). Plk1 is activated...
  • Loss of proteins required for interphase microtubule organizationfrom the centrosome, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Loss of proteins required for interphase microtubule organizationfrom the centrosome, organism-specific biosystemIn addition to recruiting proteins and complexes necessary for increased microtubule nucleation, centrosomal maturation involves the loss of proteins involved in interphase microtubule organization ...
  • Mitotic G2-G2/M phases, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Mitotic G2-G2/M phases, organism-specific biosystem
    Mitotic G2-G2/M phases
  • Organelle biogenesis and maintenance, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Organelle biogenesis and maintenance, organism-specific biosystemThis module describes the biogenesis of organelles. Organelles are subcellular structures of distinctive morphology and function. The organelles of human cells include: mitochondria, endoplasmic reti...
  • Parkin-Ubiquitin Proteasomal System pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Parkin-Ubiquitin Proteasomal System pathway, organism-specific biosystemThis pathway describes the Parkin-Ubiquitin proteasome degradation system.
  • Pathogenic Escherichia coli infection, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Pathogenic Escherichia coli infection, organism-specific biosystemEnteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) are closely related pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli. The hallmark of EPEC/EHEC infections [DS:H00278 H00277] is induction o...
  • Pathogenic Escherichia coli infection, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Pathogenic Escherichia coli infection, organism-specific biosystemSources: [http://www.genome.jp/kegg/pathway/hsa/hsa05130.html KEGG]
  • Pathogenic Escherichia coli infection, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Pathogenic Escherichia coli infection, conserved biosystemEnteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) are closely related pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli. The hallmark of EPEC/EHEC infections [DS:H00278 H00277] is induction o...
  • Phagosome, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Phagosome, organism-specific biosystemPhagocytosis is the process of taking in relatively large particles by a cell, and is a central mechanism in the tissue remodeling, inflammation, and defense against infectious agents. A phagosome is...
  • Phagosome, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Phagosome, conserved biosystemPhagocytosis is the process of taking in relatively large particles by a cell, and is a central mechanism in the tissue remodeling, inflammation, and defense against infectious agents. A phagosome is...
  • Recruitment of mitotic centrosome proteins and complexes, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Recruitment of mitotic centrosome proteins and complexes, organism-specific biosystemThe mitotic spindle becomes established once centrosomes have migrated to opposite poles and the nuclear envelope has broken down. During this stage, interphase centrosomes mature into mitotic centro...
  • Regulation of PLK1 Activity at G2/M Transition, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Regulation of PLK1 Activity at G2/M Transition, organism-specific biosystemThe kinase activity of PLK1 is required for cell cycle progression as PLK1 phosphorylates and regulates a number of cellular proteins during mitosis. Centrosomic AURKA (Aurora A kinase), catalyticall...
Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

Markers

Homology

Clone Names

  • MGC16435, MGC117247

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
GTP binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
GTPase activating protein binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
GTPase activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
MHC class I protein binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
protein complex binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
protein domain specific binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
structural constituent of cytoskeleton IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
structural molecule activity TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
ubiquitin protein ligase binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
G2/M transition of mitotic cell cycle TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
cell division TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
cellular process IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cytoskeleton-dependent intracellular transport TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
microtubule-based process TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
movement of cell or subcellular component TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
spindle assembly IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
cell body IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein granule IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cytoskeleton TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
extracellular exosome IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
extracellular region TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
microtubule IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
microtubule TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
nuclear envelope lumen IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
nucleus IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
protein complex IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
Preferred Names
tubulin beta chain
Names
beta Ib tubulin
tubulin beta-1 chain
tubulin beta-5 chain
tubulin, beta class I
tubulin, beta polypeptide

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

Genomic

  1. NG_034142.1 RefSeqGene

    Range
    5001..10226
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_001293212.1NP_001280141.1  tubulin beta chain isoform a

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1) represents the longest transcript and encodes the longest isoform (a).
    Source sequence(s)
    AK302314, BC013374, BQ019614, DC353572
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P07437
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    B4DY90
    Related
    ENSP00000379672, OTTHUMP00000164860, ENST00000396389, OTTHUMT00000257566
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    PLN00220
    Location:39449
    PLN00220; tubulin beta chain; Provisional
    cd02187
    Location:39446
    beta_tubulin; The beta-tubulin family
  2. NM_001293213.1NP_001280142.1  tubulin beta chain isoform c

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001280142.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (3) has multiple differences, compared to variant 1. It initiates translation at an alternate start codon and lacks an in-frame portion of the 3' coding region. The encoded isoform (c) has a distinct N-terminus and is shorter than isoform a.
    Source sequence(s)
    AK297489, BC013374, BQ019614, BU557299, DC366174
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P07437
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    B4DMJ5
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    PTZ00010
    Location:1227
    PTZ00010; tubulin beta chain; Provisional
    cl10017
    Location:2224
    Tubulin_FtsZ_Cetz-like; Tubulin protein family of FtsZ and CetZ-like
  3. NM_001293214.1NP_001280143.1  tubulin beta chain isoform d

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001280143.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (4) differs in the 5' UTR, lacks a portion of the 5' coding region, and initiates translation at an alternate start codon, compared to variant 1. The encoded isoform (d) has a distinct N-terminus and is shorter than isoform a.
    Source sequence(s)
    BC013374, BQ019614, BU557299, DC366174, DC389555
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P07437
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    PLN00220
    Location:1385
    PLN00220; tubulin beta chain; Provisional
    cd02187
    Location:2382
    beta_tubulin; The beta-tubulin family
  4. NM_001293215.1NP_001280144.1  tubulin beta chain isoform e

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001280144.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (5) lacks a portion of the 5' coding region and initiates translation at a downstream in-frame start codon, compared to variant 1. The encoded isoform (e) has a shorter N-terminus than isoform a. Variants 5 and 6 encode the same isoform (e).
    Source sequence(s)
    AK298889, BC013374, BQ019614, DC353572
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS78124.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P07437
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    B4DQN9, Q5ST81
    Related
    ENSP00000365578, OTTHUMP00000029070, ENST00000330914, OTTHUMT00000076075
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    PLN00220
    Location:1357
    PLN00220; tubulin beta chain; Provisional
    cd02187
    Location:1354
    beta_tubulin; The beta-tubulin family
  5. NM_001293216.1NP_001280145.1  tubulin beta chain isoform e

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001280145.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (6) lacks a portion of the 5' coding region and initiates translation at a downstream in-frame start codon, compared to variant 1. The encoded isoform (e) has a shorter N-terminus than isoform a. Variants 5 and 6 encode the same isoform (e).
    Source sequence(s)
    AL662797, BC013374, BQ019614, DC353572, DC405540
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS78124.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P07437
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    Q5ST81
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    PLN00220
    Location:1357
    PLN00220; tubulin beta chain; Provisional
    cd02187
    Location:1354
    beta_tubulin; The beta-tubulin family
  6. NM_178014.3NP_821133.1  tubulin beta chain isoform b

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_821133.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (2) differs in the 5' UTR, lacks a portion of the 5' coding region, and initiates translation at an alternate start codon, compared to variant 1. The encoded isoform (b) has a distinct N-terminus and is shorter than isoform a.
    Source sequence(s)
    BC013374, BQ019614, BU557299, DC366174
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS4687.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P07437
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    Q5SU16
    Related
    ENSP00000339001, OTTHUMP00000029069, ENST00000327892, OTTHUMT00000076074
    Conserved Domains (2) summary
    PLN00220
    Location:1429
    PLN00220; tubulin beta chain; Provisional
    cd02187
    Location:2426
    beta_tubulin; The beta-tubulin family

RNA

  1. NR_120608.1 RNA Sequence

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (7) has multiple differences at the 5' and 3' ends, compared to variant 1. This variant is represented as non-coding because the predicted protein does not meet RefSeq quality criteria.
    Source sequence(s)
    BC013374, BE245819, BQ019614, BU557299, DC366174

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 107 details...

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p2 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000006.12 Reference GRCh38.p2 Primary Assembly

    Range
    30720201..30725426
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

Reference GRCh38.p2 ALT_REF_LOCI_1

Genomic

  1. NT_167244.2 Reference GRCh38.p2 ALT_REF_LOCI_1

    Range
    2049704..2054929
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

Reference GRCh38.p2 ALT_REF_LOCI_2

Genomic

  1. NT_113891.3 Reference GRCh38.p2 ALT_REF_LOCI_2

    Range
    2199940..2205165
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

Reference GRCh38.p2 ALT_REF_LOCI_3

Genomic

  1. NT_167245.2 Reference GRCh38.p2 ALT_REF_LOCI_3

    Range
    1976051..1981276
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

Reference GRCh38.p2 ALT_REF_LOCI_4

Genomic

  1. NT_167246.2 Reference GRCh38.p2 ALT_REF_LOCI_4

    Range
    2030452..2035677
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

Reference GRCh38.p2 ALT_REF_LOCI_5

Genomic

  1. NT_167247.2 Reference GRCh38.p2 ALT_REF_LOCI_5

    Range
    2064276..2069501
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

Reference GRCh38.p2 ALT_REF_LOCI_6

Genomic

  1. NT_167248.2 Reference GRCh38.p2 ALT_REF_LOCI_6

    Range
    1975313..1980539
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

Reference GRCh38.p2 ALT_REF_LOCI_7

Genomic

  1. NT_167249.2 Reference GRCh38.p2 ALT_REF_LOCI_7

    Range
    2020987..2026212
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

Alternate CHM1_1.1

Genomic

  1. NC_018917.2 Alternate CHM1_1.1

    Range
    30690107..30695334
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)