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CSF2 colony stimulating factor 2 (granulocyte-macrophage) [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 1437, updated on 4-May-2015
Official Symbol
CSF2provided by HGNC
Official Full Name
colony stimulating factor 2 (granulocyte-macrophage)provided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:2434
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000164400; HPRD:00734; MIM:138960; Vega:OTTHUMG00000059637
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
GMCSF
Summary
The protein encoded by this gene is a cytokine that controls the production, differentiation, and function of granulocytes and macrophages. The active form of the protein is found extracellularly as a homodimer. This gene has been localized to a cluster of related genes at chromosome region 5q31, which is known to be associated with interstitial deletions in the 5q- syndrome and acute myelogenous leukemia. Other genes in the cluster include those encoding interleukins 4, 5, and 13. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Orthologs
See CSF2 in MapViewer
Location:
5q31.1
Exon count:
4
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
107 current GRCh38.p2 (GCF_000001405.28) 5 NC_000005.10 (132073792..132076170)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 5 NC_000005.9 (131409485..131411863)

Chromosome 5 - NC_000005.10Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 6 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC101927693 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105379174 Neighboring gene interleukin 3 Neighboring gene P4HA2 antisense RNA 1 Neighboring gene prolyl 4-hydroxylase, alpha polypeptide II Neighboring gene microRNA 6830

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

NHGRI GWAS Catalog

Description
Genetics of rheumatoid arthritis contributes to biology and drug discovery.
NHGRI GWA Catalog
Host-microbe interactions have shaped the genetic architecture of inflammatory bowel disease.
NHGRI GWA Catalog
Meta-analysis identifies nine new loci associated with rheumatoid arthritis in the Japanese population.
NHGRI GWA Catalog

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 env HIV-1 gp120 upregulates the expression of colony stimulating factor 2 (CSF2) in human B cells PubMed
env HIV-1 gp120 stimulates monocytes to release TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, and granulocyte-macrophage-CSF, and this effect can be blocked with soluble CD4 PubMed
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp160, precursor env The aberrant activation of AP-1 by HIV-1 gp160 in CD4+ T cells is hypothesized to upregulate cytokines containing AP-1 sites (e.g. IL-3 and colony stimulating factor) and lead to T cell unresponsiveness by inhibiting interleukin-2 secretion PubMed
Envelope transmembrane glycoprotein gp41 env A synthetic peptide corresponding to the immunosuppressive domain (amino acids 574-592) of HIV-1 gp41 inhibits activation of PBMCs and upregulates the expression of GM-CSF in peptide-treated PBMCs PubMed
Nef nef HIV-1 Nef-stimulated CD8+ T cells upregulate mRNAs expression for IFN-gamma, MIP-1alpha, MIP-1alphaP, MIP-1beta, TNFRSF9, XCL1, and GM-CSF compared to unstimulated cells PubMed
nef IL-12 and GM-CSF increase the magnitude of the specific immune response with higher breadth by targeting HIV-1 Nef peptides (amino acids 9-23, 11-26, 140-155, 179-193, and 181-195) PubMed
Pr55(Gag) gag HIV-1 Gag virus-like particles expressed by recombinant baculoviruses activate human PBMC to release GM-CSF and MIP-1alpha in a dose-and time-dependent manner PubMed
Tat tat HIV-1 Tat upregulates GM-CSF production in uninfected mononuclear cells and synergizes with PMA+PHA to induce GM-CSF in Raji B-cells and Jurkat T-cells PubMed
Vif vif HIV-1 Vif upregulates the expression of colony stimulating factor 2 (CSF2) in Vif-expression T cells PubMed
capsid gag Levels of p24 are significantly higher in cell cultures from HIV-1-exposed infants compared to healthy controls after immune activation by IL-2 or GM-CSF PubMed
gag HIV-1 CA-stimulated CD8+ T cells upregulate mRNAs expression for IFN-gamma, MIP-1alpha, MIP-1alphaP, MIP-1beta, TNFRSF9, XCL1, and GM-CSF compared to unstimulated cells PubMed
reverse transcriptase gag-pol Human GM-CSF-induced HIV-1 RT activity is suppressed by WR-151327 in a dose-dependent manner PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

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  • Glucocorticoid receptor regulatory network, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
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  • HTLV-I infection, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
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  • Hematopoietic cell lineage, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
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  • Hematopoietic cell lineage, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
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  • Hemostasis, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • Immune System, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
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  • Jak-STAT signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
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  • Rheumatoid arthritis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
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  • T cell receptor signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
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  • Transcriptional misregulation in cancer, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
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  • Transcriptional misregulation in cancer, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
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Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

Markers

Homology

Clone Names

  • MGC131935, MGC138897

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
cytokine activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
growth factor activity IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
extracellular region TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
extracellular space IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
Preferred Names
granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor
Names
granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor
CSF
granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor
molgramostin
sargramostim

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

Genomic

  1. NG_033024.1 RefSeqGene

    Range
    5001..7379
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_000758.3NP_000749.2  granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor precursor

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_000749.2

    Status: REVIEWED

    Source sequence(s)
    BC108724, M11220
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS4150.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P04141
    Related
    ENSP00000296871, OTTHUMP00000065962, ENST00000296871, OTTHUMT00000132636
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    cd00040
    Location:18138
    CSF2; Granulocyte Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF) is a member of the large family of polypeptide growth factors called cytokines. It stimulates a wide variety of hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cell types via binding to members of the cytokine ...

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 107

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p2 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000005.10 Reference GRCh38.p2 Primary Assembly

    Range
    132073792..132076170
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

Alternate CHM1_1.1

Genomic

  1. NC_018916.2 Alternate CHM1_1.1

    Range
    130842312..130844690
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)