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PARP1 poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 142, updated on 24-Aug-2015
Official Symbol
PARP1provided by HGNC
Official Full Name
poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1provided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:270
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000143799; HPRD:01435; MIM:173870; Vega:OTTHUMG00000037556
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
PARP; PPOL; ADPRT; ARTD1; ADPRT1; PARP-1; ADPRT 1; pADPRT-1
Summary
This gene encodes a chromatin-associated enzyme, poly(ADP-ribosyl)transferase, which modifies various nuclear proteins by poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation. The modification is dependent on DNA and is involved in the regulation of various important cellular processes such as differentiation, proliferation, and tumor transformation and also in the regulation of the molecular events involved in the recovery of cell from DNA damage. In addition, this enzyme may be the site of mutation in Fanconi anemia, and may participate in the pathophysiology of type I diabetes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Orthologs
See PARP1 in Epigenomics, MapViewer
Location:
1q41-q42
Exon count:
23
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
107 current GRCh38.p2 (GCF_000001405.28) 1 NC_000001.11 (226360691..226408100, complement)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 1 NC_000001.10 (226548392..226595801, complement)

Chromosome 1 - NC_000001.11Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene signal peptidase complex subunit 3-like Neighboring gene Y box binding protein 1 pseudogene 9 Neighboring gene ribosomal protein S3a pseudogene 7 Neighboring gene CDKN2A interacting protein N-terminal like pseudogene 1

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

Protein interactions

Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 env The mRNA expression levels for alpha-tubulin, TRADD, IFN-gamma R2, GAS1, MADD, NF-kappaB, I-kappa B, 14-3-3 protein, APaf1, PARP, IGF-1 receptor, RB1, Rb2/p130, ARC, and caspase 6 are upregulated in human neuronal cells after treatment with HIV-1 gp120 PubMed
env Contact of CD4+ T cells with HIV-1 infected or HIV-1 gp120-expressing cells induces PARP hydrolysis, which leads to the cleavage of 116 kDa PARP into two fragments PubMed
Nef nef HIV-1 Nef enhances apoptosis in CD4+ T lymphoblastoid cell lines through mechanisms that include the cleavage of the caspase target poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase PubMed
nef Expression of HIV-1 Nef in human brain micro vascular endothelial cells induces the cleavage of PARP protein, which is involved in DNA repair PubMed
Tat tat HIV-1 clade B and C Tat induces cleavage of both PARP and CASP3 in primary glia PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat-induced PARP cleavage during mitotic arrest occurs downstream of Tat-induced cytochrome c release during mitotic arrest in CD4+ T-lymphocytes PubMed
tat CB1 and CB2 endocannabinoid receptors are involved in HIV-1 Tat-induced cleavage of PARP1 and CASP3 in retinal cells PubMed
tat The levels of PARP1 protein are reduced after Caco-2 cells exposure to HIV-1 Tat compared with control PubMed
tat PARP1 negatively regulates HIV-1 transcription by directly competing with Tat-P-TEFb complex for binding to TAR RNA PubMed
tat HIV-1 Tat induces the cleavage of PARP and activation of apoptosis through a p56lck dependent mechanism PubMed
tat Treatment of primary human microvascular endothelial cells of lung origin with HIV-1 Tat caused cleavage of poly(A/DP)-ribose polymerase as a result of caspase activation PubMed
tat The poly(A) site in the HIV-1 5'-LTR is occluded in a Tat-dependent manner, suggesting a role for Tat in regulating this nucleotide signal PubMed
tat Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase modifies HIV-1 Tat with poly(ADP-ribose), suggesting a role for this enzyme in the regulation of HIV-1 gene expression PubMed
tat Purified recombinant HIV-1 Tat protein stimulates poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase in a dose dependent manner PubMed
Vpr vpr Recruitment of PARP-1 by HIV-1 Vpr-glucocorticoid receptor (GR) complex prevents its nuclear localization, which is necessary for Vpr to suppress NF-kappaB PubMed
vpr HIV-1 Vpr induces apoptosis and the cleavage of ADPRT in a manner that is signaled through the DNA damage signaling protein ataxia telangiectasia Rad3-related protein (ATR) PubMed
Vpu vpu HIV-1 Vpu-induced cleavage of PARP is dependent on caspase activity in cells PubMed
integrase gag-pol PARP has been described as a requirement for efficient HIV-1 integration, however a conflicting report indicates it is not essential for efficient lentivirus integration PubMed
retropepsin gag-pol Inhibition of HIV-1 protease by saquinavir and leu3.a blocks PARP cleavage and protects cells from apoptosis and necrosis PubMed
gag-pol Positional proteomics analysis identifies the cleavage of human poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase family, member 1 (PARP1) at amino acid residues 185-186 by the HIV-1 protease PubMed
gag-pol HIV-1 protease directly cleaves and activates procaspase 8 in T cells, which is associated with cleavage of BID, mitochondrial release of cytochrome c, activation of the downstream caspases 9 and 3, and cleavage of DFF and PARP PubMed

Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

  • BER complex, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    BER complex, organism-specific biosystemStructural complex; Genetic information processing; Repair system
  • BER complex, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    BER complex, conserved biosystemStructural complex; Genetic information processing; Repair system
  • Base Excision Repair, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Base Excision Repair, organism-specific biosystemOf the three major pathways involved in the repair of nucleotide damage in DNA, base excision repair (BER) involves the greatest number of individual enzymatic activities. This is the consequence of ...
  • Base excision repair, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Base excision repair, organism-specific biosystemBase excision repair (BER) is the predominant DNA damage repair pathway for the processing of small base lesions, derived from oxidation and alkylation damages. BER is normally defined as DNA repair ...
  • Base excision repair, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Base excision repair, conserved biosystemBase excision repair (BER) is the predominant DNA damage repair pathway for the processing of small base lesions, derived from oxidation and alkylation damages. BER is normally defined as DNA repair ...
  • Caspase cascade in apoptosis, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Caspase cascade in apoptosis, organism-specific biosystem
    Caspase cascade in apoptosis
  • Corticotropin-releasing hormone, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Corticotropin-releasing hormone, organism-specific biosystemCorticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is a neuropeptide secreted abundantly in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, amygdala, cerebral cortex and cerebellum in the central nervous system ...
  • DNA Repair, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    DNA Repair, organism-specific biosystemDNA repair is a phenomenal multi-enzyme, multi-pathway system required to ensure the integrity of the cellular genome. These cellular mechanisms that must cope with the plethora of DNA base pair ad...
  • Downregulation of SMAD2/3:SMAD4 transcriptional activity, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Downregulation of SMAD2/3:SMAD4 transcriptional activity, organism-specific biosystemTranscriptional activity of SMAD2/3:SMAD4 heterotrimer can be inhibited by formation of a complex with SKI or SKIL (SNO), where SKI or SKIL recruit NCOR and possibly other transcriptional repressors ...
  • FAS pathway and Stress induction of HSP regulation, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    FAS pathway and Stress induction of HSP regulation, organism-specific biosystemThis pathway describes the Fas induced apoptosis and interplay with Hsp27 in response to stress. More info: [http://www.biocarta.com/pathfiles/h_hsp27Pathway.asp BioCarta].
  • Gene Expression, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Gene Expression, organism-specific biosystemGene Expression covers the pathways by which genomic DNA is transcribed to yield RNA, the regulation of these transcription processes, and the pathways by which newly-made RNA Transcripts are process...
  • Generic Transcription Pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Generic Transcription Pathway, organism-specific biosystemOVERVIEW OF TRANSCRIPTION REGULATION: Detailed studies of gene transcription regulation in a wide variety of eukaryotic systems has revealed the general principles and mechanisms by which cell- or t...
  • Metabolism of proteins, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Metabolism of proteins, organism-specific biosystemProtein metabolism comprises the pathways of translation, post-translational modification and protein folding.
  • NF-kappa B signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    NF-kappa B signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemNuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B) is the generic name of a family of transcription factors that function as dimers and regulate genes involved in immunity, inflammation and cell survival. There are...
  • Notch-mediated HES/HEY network, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Notch-mediated HES/HEY network, organism-specific biosystem
    Notch-mediated HES/HEY network
  • POLB-Dependent Long Patch Base Excision Repair, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    POLB-Dependent Long Patch Base Excision Repair, organism-specific biosystemDuring POLB-dependent long patch base excision repair (BER), PARP1 and/or PARP2 is recruited to the BER site along with flap endonuclease FEN1. PARP1 and/or PARP2 and FEN1 facilitate POLB-mediated st...
  • Post-translational protein modification, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Post-translational protein modification, organism-specific biosystemAfter translation, many newly formed proteins undergo further covalent modifications that alter their functional properties and that are essentially irreversible under physiological conditions in the...
  • Resolution of AP sites via the multiple-nucleotide patch replacement pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Resolution of AP sites via the multiple-nucleotide patch replacement pathway, organism-specific biosystemWhile the single nucleotide replacement pathway appears to facilitate the repair of most damaged bases, an alternative BER pathway is evoked when the structure of the 5'-terminal sugar phosphate is s...
  • Resolution of Abasic Sites (AP sites), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Resolution of Abasic Sites (AP sites), organism-specific biosystemResolution of AP sites can occur through the single nucleotide replacement pathway or through the multiple nucleotide patch replacement pathway, also known as the long-patch base excision repair (BER...
  • SUMO E3 ligases SUMOylate target proteins, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    SUMO E3 ligases SUMOylate target proteins, organism-specific biosystemSUMO proteins are conjugated to lysine residues of target proteins via an isopeptide bond with the C-terminal glycine of SUMO (reviewed in Zhao 2007, Gareau and Lima 2010, Hannoun et al. 2010, Citro ...
  • SUMOylation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    SUMOylation, organism-specific biosystemSmall Ubiquitin-like MOdifiers (SUMOs) are a family of 3 proteins (SUMO1,2,3) that are reversibly conjugated to lysine residues of target proteins via a glycine-lysine isopeptide bond (reviewed in Ha...
  • SUMOylation of DNA damage response and repair proteins, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    SUMOylation of DNA damage response and repair proteins, organism-specific biosystemSeveral factors that participate in DNA damage response and repair are SUMOylated (reviewed in Dou et al. 2011, Bekker-Jensen and Mailand 2011, Ulrich 2012, Psakhye and Jentsch 2012, Bologna and Ferr...
  • Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystemSignal transduction is a process in which extracellular signals elicit changes in cell state and activity. Transmembrane receptors sense changes in the cellular environment by binding ligands, such a...
  • Signaling by TGF-beta Receptor Complex, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by TGF-beta Receptor Complex, organism-specific biosystemThe TGF-beta/BMP pathway incorporates several signaling pathways that share most, but not all, components of a central signal transduction engine. The general signaling scheme is rather simple: upon ...
  • Transcriptional activity of SMAD2/SMAD3:SMAD4 heterotrimer, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Transcriptional activity of SMAD2/SMAD3:SMAD4 heterotrimer, organism-specific biosystemIn the nucleus, SMAD2/3:SMAD4 heterotrimer complex acts as a transcriptional regulator. The activity of SMAD2/3 complex is regulated both positively and negatively by association with other transcrip...
Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

Markers

Homology

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
DNA binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
NAD binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
NAD+ ADP-ribosyltransferase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
NAD+ ADP-ribosyltransferase activity TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
R-SMAD binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
chromatin binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
enzyme binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
identical protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
poly(A) RNA binding IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
protein N-terminus binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
protein kinase binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
transcription factor binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
zinc ion binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
DNA damage response, detection of DNA damage IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
DNA repair TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
base-excision repair TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
behavioral response to cocaine IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
cellular protein metabolic process TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
cellular response to insulin stimulus IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
cellular response to oxidative stress IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
cellular response to superoxide IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
double-strand break repair IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
gene expression TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
macrophage differentiation TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
mitochondrial DNA metabolic process IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
mitochondrial DNA repair IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
mitochondrion organization IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
positive regulation of SMAD protein import into nucleus IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of cardiac muscle hypertrophy ISS
Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
more info
 
positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
positive regulation of transcription regulatory region DNA binding IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
post-translational protein modification TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
protein ADP-ribosylation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
protein autoprocessing IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
protein modification process IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
protein poly-ADP-ribosylation IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
protein sumoylation TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
regulation of growth rate IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
signal transduction involved in regulation of gene expression IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
telomere maintenance IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
transcription initiation from RNA polymerase II promoter TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
transcription, DNA-templated TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
membrane IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
mitochondrion IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
nuclear envelope IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
nucleolus IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
nucleoplasm TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
nucleus IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
protein complex IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
transcription factor complex IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
Preferred Names
poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase 1
Names
ADP-ribosyltransferase (NAD+; poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase)
ADP-ribosyltransferase NAD(+)
ADP-ribosyltransferase diphtheria toxin-like 1
NAD(+) ADP-ribosyltransferase 1
poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase family, member 1
poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase
poly(ADP-ribose) synthetase
poly(ADP-ribosyl)transferase
poly[ADP-ribose] synthase 1
NP_001609.2

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_001618.3NP_001609.2  poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase 1

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001609.2

    Status: REVIEWED

    Source sequence(s)
    AK225654, BC037545, DB097441, J03473
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS1554.1
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A0A024R3T8
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P09874
    Related
    ENSP00000355759, OTTHUMP00000035663, ENST00000366794, OTTHUMT00000091519
    Conserved Domains (6) summary
    cd08001
    Location:543645
    WGR_PARP1_like; WGR domain of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 and similar proteins
    PLN03123
    Location:61010
    PLN03123; poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase; Provisional
    cd00027
    Location:392461
    BRCT; Breast Cancer Suppressor Protein (BRCA1), carboxy-terminal domain. The BRCT domain is found within many DNA damage repair and cell cycle checkpoint proteins. The unique diversity of this domain superfamily allows BRCT modules to interact forming homo ...
    cd01437
    Location:6621006
    parp_like; Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (parp) catalytic domain catalyses the covalent attachment of ADP-ribose units from NAD+ to itself and to a limited number of other DNA binding proteins, which decreases their affinity for DNA. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase is a ...
    pfam00645
    Location:1290
    zf-PARP; Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and DNA-Ligase Zn-finger region
    pfam08063
    Location:279332
    PADR1; PADR1 (NUC008) domain

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 107

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p2 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000001.11 Reference GRCh38.p2 Primary Assembly

    Range
    226360691..226408100
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

Alternate CHM1_1.1

Genomic

  1. NC_018912.2 Alternate CHM1_1.1

    Range
    227821256..227868667
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)