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CRAT carnitine O-acetyltransferase [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 1384, updated on 26-May-2016
Official Symbol
CRATprovided by HGNC
Official Full Name
carnitine O-acetyltransferaseprovided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:2342
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000095321 HPRD:08971; MIM:600184; Vega:OTTHUMG00000147343
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
CAT1
Summary
This gene encodes carnitine acetyltransferase (CRAT), which is a key enzyme in the metabolic pathway in mitochondria, peroxisomes and endoplasmic reticulum. CRAT catalyzes the reversible transfer of acyl groups from an acyl-CoA thioester to carnitine and regulates the ratio of acylCoA/CoA in the subcellular compartments. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2012]
Orthologs
Location:
9q34.1
Exon count:
17
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
107 current GRCh38.p2 (GCF_000001405.28) 9 NC_000009.12 (129094794..129110791, complement)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 9 NC_000009.11 (131857073..131873070, complement)

Chromosome 9 - NC_000009.12Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene family with sequence similarity 73 member B Neighboring gene dolichyldiphosphatase 1 Neighboring gene protein phosphatase 2 phosphatase activator Neighboring gene immediate early response 5-like

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

  • Beta-oxidation of pristanoyl-CoA, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Beta-oxidation of pristanoyl-CoA, organism-specific biosystemPristanoyl-CoA, generated in the peroxisome by alpha-oxidation of dietary phytanic acid, is further catabolized by three cycles of peroxisomal beta-oxidation to yield 4,8-dimethylnonanoyl-CoA, acetyl...
  • Beta-oxidation of very long chain fatty acids, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Beta-oxidation of very long chain fatty acids, organism-specific biosystemLinear fatty acids containing more than 18 carbons are broken down by beta-oxidation in peroxisomes to yield acetyl-CoA and medium chain-length fatty acyl CoA's such as octanoyl-CoA (Wanders and Wate...
  • Fatty Acid Beta Oxidation, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Fatty Acid Beta Oxidation, organism-specific biosystemComplete fatty acid beta-oxidation pathway for saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, developed and curated internally by BiGCaT Bioinformatics. This pathway was previously split into three parts p...
  • Metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Metabolism, organism-specific biosystemMetabolic processes in human cells generate energy through the oxidation of molecules consumed in the diet and mediate the synthesis of diverse essential molecules not taken in the diet as well as th...
  • Metabolism of lipids and lipoproteins, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Metabolism of lipids and lipoproteins, organism-specific biosystemLipids are hydrophobic but otherwise chemically diverse molecules that play a wide variety of roles in human biology. They include ketone bodies, fatty acids, triacylglycerols, phospholipids and sphi...
  • Peroxisomal lipid metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Peroxisomal lipid metabolism, organism-specific biosystemIn humans, the catabolism of phytanate, pristanate, and very long chain fatty acids as well as the first four steps of the biosynthesis of plasmalogens are catalyzed by peroxisomal enzymes. Defects i...
  • Peroxisome, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Peroxisome, organism-specific biosystemPeroxisomes are essential organelles that play a key role in redox signalling and lipid homeostasis. They contribute to many crucial metabolic processes such as fatty acid oxidation, biosynthesis of ...
  • Peroxisome, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Peroxisome, conserved biosystemPeroxisomes are essential organelles that play a key role in redox signalling and lipid homeostasis. They contribute to many crucial metabolic processes such as fatty acid oxidation, biosynthesis of ...
  • mitochondrial L-carnitine shuttle, organism-specific biosystem (from BIOCYC)
    mitochondrial L-carnitine shuttle, organism-specific biosystemGeneral Background The : FAO-PWY pathway occurs in the mitochondrial matrix and plays an important role in energy production. During fasting, fatty acids are used for hepatic ketone-body synthesis. ...
  • mitochondrial L-carnitine shuttle, conserved biosystem (from BIOCYC)
    mitochondrial L-carnitine shuttle, conserved biosystemGeneral Background The mitochondrial |FRAME: CARNITINE| shuttle pathway is part of the cellular |FRAME: CARNITINE| system that regulates pools of |FRAME: CO-A| derivatives. This system is comprised...
Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

Markers

Homology

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
carnitine O-acetyltransferase activity IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
carnitine O-acetyltransferase activity TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
receptor binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
carnitine metabolic process, CoA-linked IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
fatty acid beta-oxidation using acyl-CoA oxidase TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
transport IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
endoplasmic reticulum IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
mitochondrial inner membrane IEA
Inferred from Electronic Annotation
more info
 
mitochondrion IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
peroxisomal matrix TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
peroxisome IDA
Inferred from Direct Assay
more info
PubMed 
Preferred Names
carnitine O-acetyltransferase
Names
CAT
carnitine acetylase
carnitine acetyltransferase
NP_000746.2
NP_001244292.1

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_000755.3NP_000746.2  carnitine O-acetyltransferase isoform 1 precursor

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_000746.2

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1) encodes the longer isoform which localizes to the mitochondria.
    Source sequence(s)
    AL158151, BI752361, X78706
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS6919.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P43155
    Related
    ENSP00000315013, OTTHUMP00000161683, ENST00000318080, OTTHUMT00000253700
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    pfam00755
    Location:34615
    Carn_acyltransf; Choline/Carnitine o-acyltransferase
  2. NM_001257363.1NP_001244292.1  carnitine O-acetyltransferase isoform 2

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001244292.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (2) contains an alternate exon compared to variant (1), that causes a frameshift. The resulting isoform (2) is shorter at the N-terminus compared to isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AK313931, AL158151, AL523652, BC000723, BI460020
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P43155
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    pfam00755
    Location:13594
    Carn_acyltransf; Choline/Carnitine o-acyltransferase

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 107 details...

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p2 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000009.12 Reference GRCh38.p2 Primary Assembly

    Range
    129094794..129110791 complement
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. XM_005251708.2XP_005251765.1  

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P43155
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    pfam00755
    Location:13594
    Carn_acyltransf; Choline/Carnitine o-acyltransferase
  2. XM_005251706.2XP_005251763.1  

    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    pfam00755
    Location:35616
    Carn_acyltransf; Choline/Carnitine o-acyltransferase

Alternate CHM1_1.1

Genomic

  1. NC_018920.2 Alternate CHM1_1.1

    Range
    132007896..132023887 complement
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

Suppressed Reference Sequence(s)

The following Reference Sequences have been suppressed. Explain

  1. NM_004003.2: Suppressed sequence

    Description
    NM_004003.2: This RefSeq was permanently suppressed because currently there is insufficient support for the transcript and the protein.
  2. NM_144782.1: Suppressed sequence

    Description
    NM_144782.1: This RefSeq was permanently suppressed because currently there is insufficient support for the transcript and the protein.