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CGA glycoprotein hormones, alpha polypeptide [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

Gene ID: 1081, updated on 26-May-2016
Official Symbol
CGAprovided by HGNC
Official Full Name
glycoprotein hormones, alpha polypeptideprovided by HGNC
Primary source
HGNC:HGNC:1885
See related
Ensembl:ENSG00000135346 HPRD:00342; MIM:118850; Vega:OTTHUMG00000015161
Gene type
protein coding
RefSeq status
REVIEWED
Organism
Homo sapiens
Lineage
Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
Also known as
HCG; LHA; FSHA; GPHa; TSHA; GPHA1; CG-ALPHA
Summary
The four human glycoprotein hormones chorionic gonadotropin (CG), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) are dimers consisting of alpha and beta subunits that are associated noncovalently. The alpha subunits of these hormones are identical, however, their beta chains are unique and confer biological specificity. The protein encoded by this gene is the alpha subunit and belongs to the glycoprotein hormones alpha chain family. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2011]
Orthologs
Location:
6q14.3
Exon count:
5
Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
107 current GRCh38.p2 (GCF_000001405.28) 6 NC_000006.12 (87085498..87095147, complement)
105 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 6 NC_000006.11 (87795216..87804865, complement)

Chromosome 6 - NC_000006.12Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC643962 Neighboring gene 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1E Neighboring gene ribosomal protein L7 pseudogene 29 Neighboring gene classical arabinogalactan protein 9-like Neighboring gene reticulocalbin 1 pseudogene 1 Neighboring gene zinc finger protein 292

GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhat's a GeneRIF?

  • Amine-derived hormones, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Amine-derived hormones, organism-specific biosystemCatecholamines and thyroxine are synthesized from tyrosine, and serotonin and melatonin from tryptophan.
  • Androgen biosynthesis, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Androgen biosynthesis, organism-specific biosystemAndrogens are the determining factors for male development and behaviour in vertebrates (Miller 2002).
  • Asparagine N-linked glycosylation, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Asparagine N-linked glycosylation, organism-specific biosystemN-linked glycosylation is the most important form of post-translational modification for proteins synthesized and folded in the Endoplasmic Reticulum (Stanley et al. 2009). An early study in 1999 rev...
  • Autoimmune thyroid disease, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Autoimmune thyroid disease, organism-specific biosystemThe classification of autoimmune throid disease (AITD) includes Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) or chronic autoimmune thyroiditis and its variants, Graves' disease (GD) and autoimmune atrophic thyroidi...
  • Autoimmune thyroid disease, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Autoimmune thyroid disease, conserved biosystemThe classification of autoimmune throid disease (AITD) includes Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) or chronic autoimmune thyroiditis and its variants, Graves' disease (GD) and autoimmune atrophic thyroidi...
  • Class A/1 (Rhodopsin-like receptors), organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Class A/1 (Rhodopsin-like receptors), organism-specific biosystemRhodopsin-like receptors (class A/1) are the largest group of GPCRs and are the best studied group from a functional and structural point of view. They show great diversity at the sequence level and ...
  • FSH signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    FSH signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemThe Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) is an anterior pituitary gonadotropin belonging to the family of glycoprotein hormones that includes thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), Leutinizing Hormone (LH)...
  • G alpha (s) signalling events, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    G alpha (s) signalling events, organism-specific biosystemThe general function of the G alpha (s) subunit (Gs) is to activate adenylate cyclase, which in turn produces cAMP, leading to the activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinases (often referred to col...
  • GPCR downstream signaling, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    GPCR downstream signaling, organism-specific biosystemG protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are classically defined as the receptor, G-protein and downstream effectors, the alpha subunit of the G-protein being the primary signaling molecule. However, it h...
  • GPCR ligand binding, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    GPCR ligand binding, organism-specific biosystemThere are more than 800 G-protein coupled receptor (GPCRs) in the human genome, making it the largest receptor superfamily. GPCRs are also the largest class of drug targets, involved in virtually all...
  • Glucocorticoid receptor regulatory network, organism-specific biosystem (from Pathway Interaction Database)
    Glucocorticoid receptor regulatory network, organism-specific biosystem
    Glucocorticoid receptor regulatory network
  • Glycoprotein hormones, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Glycoprotein hormones, organism-specific biosystemMore complex protein hormones have carbohydrate side chains and are called glycoprotein hormones. Hormones in this class are Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH; follitropin), Luteinizing hormone (LH),...
  • GnRH signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    GnRH signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemGonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion from the hypothalamus acts upon its receptor in the anterior pituitary to regulate the production and release of the gonadotropins, LH and FSH. The GnR...
  • GnRH signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    GnRH signaling pathway, conserved biosystemGonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion from the hypothalamus acts upon its receptor in the anterior pituitary to regulate the production and release of the gonadotropins, LH and FSH. The GnR...
  • Hormone ligand-binding receptors, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Hormone ligand-binding receptors, organism-specific biosystemThe class A (rhodopsin-like) GPCRs that bind to hormone ligands are annotated here. The hormones follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and hu...
  • Metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Metabolism, organism-specific biosystemMetabolic processes in human cells generate energy through the oxidation of molecules consumed in the diet and mediate the synthesis of diverse essential molecules not taken in the diet as well as th...
  • Metabolism of amino acids and derivatives, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Metabolism of amino acids and derivatives, organism-specific biosystemThis group of reactions is responsible for: 1) the breakdown of amino acids; 2) the synthesis of urea from ammonia and amino groups generated by amino acid breakdown; 3) the synthesis of the ten amin...
  • Metabolism of lipids and lipoproteins, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Metabolism of lipids and lipoproteins, organism-specific biosystemLipids are hydrophobic but otherwise chemically diverse molecules that play a wide variety of roles in human biology. They include ketone bodies, fatty acids, triacylglycerols, phospholipids and sphi...
  • Metabolism of proteins, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Metabolism of proteins, organism-specific biosystemProtein metabolism comprises the pathways of translation, post-translational modification and protein folding.
  • Metabolism of steroid hormones, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Metabolism of steroid hormones, organism-specific biosystemSteroid hormones are synthesized primarily in the adrenal gland and gonads. They regulate energy metabolism and stress responses (glucocorticoids), salt balance (mineralocorticoids), and sexual devel...
  • Mineralocorticoid biosynthesis, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Mineralocorticoid biosynthesis, organism-specific biosystemAldosterone, the major human mineralocorticoid, is synthesized in the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex from pregnenolone. Pregnenolone is converted to progesterone in two reactions, both cataly...
  • N-glycan antennae elongation in the medial/trans-Golgi, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    N-glycan antennae elongation in the medial/trans-Golgi, organism-specific biosystemIn the latter compartments of the distal Golgi the N-Glycan is further modified, leading to the wide range of N-Glycans observed in multicellular organisms. The first step of N-Glycan elongation in t...
  • Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, organism-specific biosystem
    Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction
  • Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, conserved biosystem
    Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction
  • Ovarian steroidogenesis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Ovarian steroidogenesis, organism-specific biosystemThe ovarian steroids, 17-beta estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4), are critical for normal uterine function, establishment and maintenance of pregnancy, and mammary gland development. Furthermore, t...
  • Ovarian steroidogenesis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Ovarian steroidogenesis, conserved biosystemThe ovarian steroids, 17-beta estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4), are critical for normal uterine function, establishment and maintenance of pregnancy, and mammary gland development. Furthermore, t...
  • Peptide hormone biosynthesis, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Peptide hormone biosynthesis, organism-specific biosystemPeptide hormones are peptides that are secreted directly into the blood stream (endocrine hormones). They are synthesized as precursors that require proteolytic processing (not discussed here) to gen...
  • Peptide hormone metabolism, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Peptide hormone metabolism, organism-specific biosystemPeptide hormones are cleaved from larger precursors in the secretory system (endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, secretory granules) of the cell. After secretion peptide hormones are modified and...
  • Post-translational protein modification, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Post-translational protein modification, organism-specific biosystemAfter translation, many newly formed proteins undergo further covalent modifications that alter their functional properties and that are essentially irreversible under physiological conditions in the...
  • Prolactin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Prolactin signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemProlactin (PRL) is a polypeptide hormone known to be involved in a wide range of biological functions including osmoregulation, lactation, reproduction, growth and development, endocrinology and meta...
  • Prolactin signaling pathway, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Prolactin signaling pathway, conserved biosystemProlactin (PRL) is a polypeptide hormone known to be involved in a wide range of biological functions including osmoregulation, lactation, reproduction, growth and development, endocrinology and meta...
  • Reactions specific to the complex N-glycan synthesis pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Reactions specific to the complex N-glycan synthesis pathway, organism-specific biosystemIf MAN2 acts before MGAT3, the pathway progresses to complex N-glycans, because MAN2 is not able to operate on bisected oligosaccharides (11421343, page 5). The expression of MAN2 over MGAT3 in a tis...
  • Regulation of lipolysis in adipocytes, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Regulation of lipolysis in adipocytes, organism-specific biosystemLipolysis in adipocytes, the hydrolysis of triacylglycerol (TAG) to release fatty acids (FAs) and glycerol for use by other organs as energy substrates, is a unique function of white adipose tissue. ...
  • Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signal Transduction, organism-specific biosystemSignal transduction is a process in which extracellular signals elicit changes in cell state and activity. Transmembrane receptors sense changes in the cellular environment by binding ligands, such a...
  • Signaling by GPCR, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Signaling by GPCR, organism-specific biosystemG protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs; 7TM receptors; seven transmembrane domain receptors; heptahelical receptors; G protein-linked receptors [GPLR]) are the largest family of transmembrane receptors i...
  • TSH signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    TSH signaling pathway, organism-specific biosystemHuman thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) is a glycoprotein secreted by the anterior part of the pituitary gland (1). TSH plays an important physiological role in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pit...
  • Thyroid hormone synthesis, organism-specific biosystem (from KEGG)
    Thyroid hormone synthesis, organism-specific biosystemThyroid hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) are essential for normal development, growth and metabolic homeostasis in all vertebrates, and synthesized in the thyroid gland. The function...
  • Thyroid hormone synthesis, conserved biosystem (from KEGG)
    Thyroid hormone synthesis, conserved biosystemThyroid hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) are essential for normal development, growth and metabolic homeostasis in all vertebrates, and synthesized in the thyroid gland. The function...
  • Thyroxine (Thyroid Hormone) Production, organism-specific biosystem (from WikiPathways)
    Thyroxine (Thyroid Hormone) Production, organism-specific biosystemThyroxine hormone is produced in the thyroid gland from tyrosine and iodine. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) is produced by the hypothalamus. It stimulates the production of thyroid-stimulating h...
  • Thyroxine biosynthesis, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Thyroxine biosynthesis, organism-specific biosystemThyroxine (3,5,3',5'-tetraiodothyronine, T4) promotes normal growth and development. It also regulates heat and energy production. T4 is released from the thyroid gland, the largest endocrine organ i...
  • Transport to the Golgi and subsequent modification, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME)
    Transport to the Golgi and subsequent modification, organism-specific biosystemAt least two mechanisms of transport of proteins from the ER to the Golgi have been described. One is a general flow requiring no export signals (Wieland et al, 1987; Martinez-Menarguez et al, 1999)....
Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

Markers

Homology

Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

Function Evidence Code Pubs
hormone activity IMP
Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
more info
PubMed 
protein binding IPI
Inferred from Physical Interaction
more info
PubMed 
Process Evidence Code Pubs
cell-cell signaling TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
peptide hormone processing TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
positive regulation of cell migration NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of cell proliferation NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter NAS
Non-traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
signal transduction TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
PubMed 
Component Evidence Code Pubs
Golgi lumen TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
extracellular region TAS
Traceable Author Statement
more info
 
Preferred Names
glycoprotein hormones alpha chain
Names
FSH-alpha
LSH-alpha
TSH-alpha
anterior pituitary glycoprotein hormones common subunit alpha
choriogonadotropin alpha chain
chorionic gonadotrophin subunit alpha
chorionic gonadotropin, alpha polypeptide
follicle-stimulating hormone alpha chain
follicle-stimulating hormone alpha subunit
follitropin alpha chain
luteinizing hormone alpha chain
lutropin alpha chain
thyroid-stimulating hormone alpha chain
thyrotropin alpha chain

RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

mRNA and Protein(s)

  1. NM_000735.3NP_000726.1  glycoprotein hormones alpha chain isoform 2 precursor

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_000726.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (2) lacks an alternate in-frame exon compared to variant 1. The resulting isoform (2) has the same N- and C-termini but is shorter compared to isoform 1.
    Source sequence(s)
    AI200485, BC055080, BG619154
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS5007.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P01215
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    Q6I9S8
    Related
    ENSP00000486024, OTTHUMP00000016825, ENST00000627148, OTTHUMT00000041425
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    pfam00236
    Location:28116
    Hormone_6; Glycoprotein hormone
  2. NM_001252383.1NP_001239312.1  glycoprotein hormones alpha chain isoform 1 precursor

    See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001239312.1

    Status: REVIEWED

    Description
    Transcript Variant: This variant (1) represents the longer transcript and encodes the longer isoform (1).
    Source sequence(s)
    AI200485, BC055080, BG571584, BG619154
    Consensus CDS
    CCDS75492.1
    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    P01215
    UniProtKB/TrEMBL
    A0A087WYZ4
    Related
    ENSP00000482232, OTTHUMP00000278446, ENST00000610310, OTTHUMT00000481575
    Conserved Domains (1) summary
    pfam00236
    Location:61147
    Hormone_6; Glycoprotein hormone

RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: Homo sapiens Annotation Release 107 details...

The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

Reference GRCh38.p2 Primary Assembly

Genomic

  1. NC_000006.12 Reference GRCh38.p2 Primary Assembly

    Range
    87085498..87095147 complement
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

Alternate CHM1_1.1

Genomic

  1. NC_018917.2 Alternate CHM1_1.1

    Range
    87892792..87902440 complement
    Download
    GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)