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Greenhalgh J, Bagust A, Boland A, et al. Clopidogrel and Modified-Release Dipyridamole for the Prevention of Occlusive Vascular Events (Review of Technology Appraisal No. 90): A Systematic Review and Economic Analysis. Southampton (UK): NIHR Evaluation, Trials and Studies Coordinating Centre (UK); 2011 Sep. (Health Technology Assessment, No. 15.31.)

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Clopidogrel and Modified-Release Dipyridamole for the Prevention of Occlusive Vascular Events (Review of Technology Appraisal No. 90): A Systematic Review and Economic Analysis.

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Appendix 5Excluded publications with rationale

Published paperReason for exclusion
1Bezerra DC, Bogousslavsky J. Antiplatelets in stroke prevention: the MATCH trial. Some answers, many questions and countless perspectives. Cerebrovasc Dis 2005;20(Suppl. 2):109–18.Review
2Anand S, Yusuf S, Montague P, Chin SL. The effects of oral anticoagulants in patients with peripheral arterial disease: Rationale, design, and baseline characteristics of the Warfarin and Antiplatelet Vascular Evaluation (WAVE) trial, including a meta-analysis of trials. Am Heart J 2006;151:1–9.Not relevant intervention
3Anand S, Yusuf S, Xie C, Pogue J, Eikelboom J, Budaj A, et al. Oral anticoagulant and antiplatelet therapy and peripheral arterial disease. N Engl J Med 2007;357:217–27.Not relevant intervention
4Bakhru MR, Bhatt DL. Interpreting the CHARISMA study. What is the role of dual antiplatelet therapy with clopidogrel and aspirin? Cleveland Clinic J Med 2008;75:289–95.Review
5Bhatt DL, Flather MD, Hacke W, Berger PB, Black HR, Boden WE, et al. Patients with prior myocardial infarction, stroke, or symptomatic peripheral arterial disease in the CHARISMA Trial. J Am Coll Cardiol 2007;49:1982–8.Not relevant intervention
6Bhatt DL, Fox KA, Hacke W, Berger PB, Black HR, Boden WE, et al. A global view of atherothrombosis: Baseline characteristics in the clopidogrel for high atherothrombotic risk and ischemic stabilization, management, and avoidance (CHARISMA) trial. Am Heart J 2005;150(3).Not relevant intervention
7Bhatt DL, Fox KA, Hacke W, Berger PB, Black HR, Boden WE, et al. Clopidogrel and aspirin versus aspirin alone for the prevention of atherothrombotic events. N Engl J Med 2006;354:1744–6.Not relevant intervention
8Bhatt DL, Topol EJ. Clopidogrel added to aspirin versus aspirin alone in secondary prevention and high-risk primary prevention: rationale and design of the Clopidogrel for High Atherothrombotic Risk and Ischemic Stabilization, Management, and Avoidance (CHARISMA) trial. Am Heart J 2004;148:263–8.Not relevant intervention
9Biller J. Antiplatelet therapy in ischemic stroke: variability in clinical trials and its impact on choosing the appropriate therapy. J Neurol Sci 2009;15;284:1–9.Not RCT or SR
10Bjorklund L, Wallander MA, Johansson S, Lesen E. Aspirin in cardiology: benefits and risks. Int J Clin Pract 2009;6:468–77.Not RCT or SR
11Bowry ADK, Brookhart MA, Choudhry NK. Meta-analysis of the efficacy and safety of clopidogrel plus aspirin as compared to antiplatelet monotherapy for the prevention of vascular events. Am J Cardiol 2008;101:960–6.Not relevant patient group
12Brown J, Lethaby A, Maxwell H, Wawrzyniak AJ, Prins MH. Antiplatelet agents for preventing thrombosis after peripheral arterial bypass surgery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2008;4:CD000535.Not patient population
13Cacoub PP, Bhatt DL, Steg PG, Topol EJ, Creager MA. Patients with peripheral arterial disease in the CHARISMA trial. European Heart J 2009;30:192–201.Not relevant intervention
14Calvet D, Touze E, Mas JL. Adding aspirin to clopidogrel in secondary prevention of ischemic stroke: no significant benefits: results of the MATCH study. Presse Med 2006;35:679–82.Not relevant intervention
15Cassar K, Ford I, Greaves M, Bachoo P, Brittenden J. Randomized clinical trial of the antiplatelet effects of aspirinclopidogrel combination versus aspirin alone after lower limb angioplasty. Br J Surg 2005;92:159–65.Not relevant intervention
16Chairangsarit P, Sithinamsuwan P, Niyasom S, Udommongkol C, Nidhinandana S, Suwantamee J. Comparison between aspirin combined with dipyridamole versus aspirin alone within 48 hours after ischemic stroke event for prevention of recurrent stroke and improvement of neurological function: a preliminary study. J Med Assoc Thai 2005;88(Suppl. 3):148–54.Not relevant patient group
17Chaturvedi S. Acetylsalicylic acid + extended-release dipyridamole combination therapy for secondary stroke prevention. Clin Ther 2008;30:1196–205.Review
18Culebras A, Borja J, Garcia-Rafanell J. Triflusal versus aspirin for the prevention of stroke. Prog Neurother Neuropsychopharmacol 2008;3:13–33.Not relevant intervention
19de Borst GJ, Hilgevoord AA, de Vries JP, van der Mee M, Moll FL, van de Pavoordt HD, et al. Influence of antiplatelet therapy on cerebral micro-emboli after carotid endarterectomy using postoperative transcranial Doppler monitoring. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2007;34:135–42.Not relevant patient group
20Diener HC, Bogousslavsky J, Brass LM, Cimminiello C, Csiba L, Kaste M, et al. Aspirin and clopidogrel compared with clopidogrel alone after recent ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack in high-risk patients (MATCH): randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2004;364:331–7.Not relevant intervention
21Diener HC, Bogousslavsky J, Brass LM, Cimminiello C, Csiba L, Kaste M, et al. Management of atherothrombosis with clopidogrel in high-risk patients with recent transient ischaemic attack or ischaemic stroke (MATCH): study design and baseline data. Cerebrovasc Dis 2004;17:253–61.Not relevant intervention
22Diener HC, editor. Management of atherothrombosis with clopidogrel in high-risk patients with recent transient ischaemic attack or ischaemic stroke (MATCH): rationale and study design. Fifth World Stroke Congress, Vancouver, BC, 23–6 June 2004.Not relevant intervention
23Diener HC. Management of atherosclerosis with clopidogrel in high-risk patients with recent transient ischaemic attack or ischemic stroke (MATCH): study results. Stroke 2004.Not relevant intervention
24Donnelly R. Antiplatelet therapy and prevention of ischaemic events: CAPRIE. Br J Diabetes and Vascular Disease. 2005 Br J Diab Vasc Dis 5:203–6.Not RCT or SR
25Eikelboom JW, Hankey GJ, Thom J, Claxton A, Yi Q, Gilmore G, et al. Enhanced antiplatelet effect of clopidogrel in patients whose platelets are least inhibited by aspirin: a randomized crossover trial. J Thrombo Haemost 2005;3:2649–55.Not relevant intervention
26Einhaupl K. ESPRIT study design and outcomes: a critical appraisal. Curr Med Res Opin 2007;23:271–3.Review
27England T, Bath P. Safety and tolerability of clopidogrel when added to aspirin and dipyridamole in high risk patients with recent ischaemic stroke: a randomised controlled trial. Third UK Stroke Forum Conference, Harrogate, 2–4 December 2008.Not relevant intervention
28England TJ, Bath PM. Triple antiplatelets for reducing dependency after ischaemic stroke (TARDIS). Safety and tolerability of clopidogrel when added to aspirin and dipyridamole in high risk patients with recent ischaemic stroke: a randomized controlled trial. International Stroke Conference, San Diego, CA, 17–20 February 2009.Not relevant intervention
29Fox KA, Mehta SR, Peters R, Zhao F, Lakkis N, Gersh BJ, et al. Benefits and risks of the combination of clopidogrel and aspirin in patients undergoing surgical revascularization for non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome: the Clopidogrel in Unstable angina to prevent Recurrent ischemic Events (CURE) Trial. Circulation 2004Not relevant patient group
30Gorelick PB, Richardson D, Kelly M, Ruland S, Hung E, Harris Y, et al. Aspirin and ticlopidine for prevention of recurrent stroke in black patients: a randomized trial. JAMA 2003;289:2947–57.Not relevant intervention
31Greisenegger S, Tentschert S, Weber M, Ferrari J, Lang W, Lalouschek W. Prior therapy with antiplatelet agents is not associated with outcome in patients with acute ischemic stroke/TIA. J Neurol 2006;253:648–52.Review
32Halkes PHA, van Gijn J, Kappelle LJ, Koudstaal PJ, Algra A. Risk indicators for development of headache during dipyridamole treatment after cerebral ischaemia of arterial origin. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2009;80:437–9.Review
33Hart RG, Bhatt DL, Hacke W, Fox KA, Hankey GJ, Berger PB, et al. Clopidogrel and aspirin versus aspirin alone for the prevention of stroke in patients with a history of atrial fibrillation: subgroup analysis of the CHARISMA randomized trial. Cerebrovasc Dis 2008;25:344–7.Not relevant intervention
34Hills NK, Johnston SC. Trends in usage of alternative antiplatelet therapy after stroke and transient ischemic attack. Stroke 2008;39:1228–32.Registry
35Hradec J, Spinar J. [CHARISMA. The clopidogrel for high atherothrombotic risk and ischemic stabilization, management, and avoidance trial]. Cor et Vasa 2006;5:202–6.Not relevant intervention
36Huang YI, Cheng Y, Wu J, Li YS, Xu E, Hong Z, et al. Cilostazol as an alternative to aspirin after ischaemic stroke: a randomised, double-blind, pilot study. Lancet Neurol 2008;7:494–9.Not relevant intervention
37Ito E, Takahashi A, Kuzuhara S, Uchiyama S, Nakajima M, Riku S, et al. Ticlopidine alone versus ticlopidine plus aspirin for preventing recurrent stroke. Intern Med 2003;42:793–9.Not relevant intervention
38Karha J, Bhatt DL, Wolski K, Fox KA, Montalescot G, Topol EJ, editors. The use of COX–2 inhibitors and the risk of myocardial infarction in the clopidogrel for high atherothrombotic risk and ischemic stabilization, management, and avoidance (CHARISMA) trial. 79th Annual Scientific Session of the American Heart Association, Chicago, IL, 12–15 November 2006.Not RCT
39Kennedy J, Hill MD, Ryckborst KJ, Eliasziw M, Demchuk AM, Buchan AM. Fast assessment of stroke and transient ischaemic attack to prevent early recurrence (FASTER): a randomised controlled pilot trial. Lancet Neurol 2007;6:961–9.Not relevant intervention
40Mahmood A, Sintler M, Edwards AT, Smith SRG, Simms MH, Vohra RK. The efficacy of aspirin in patients undergoing infra-inguinal bypass and indentification of high-risk patients. Int Angiol 2003;22:302–7.Not RCT
41Mak KH, Bhatt DL, Shao M, Haffner SM, Hamm CW, Hankey GJ, et al. The influence of body mass index on mortality and bleeding among patients with or at high-risk of atherothrombotic disease. Eur Heart J 2009;30:857–65.Not relevant intervention
42Mak KH, Bhatt DL, Shao M, Hankey GJ, Easton JD, Fox KAA, et al. Ethnic variation in adverse cardiovascular outcomes and bleeding complications in the Clopidogrel for High Atherothrombotic Risk and Ischemic Stabilization, Management, and Avoidance (CHARISMA) study. Am Heart J 2009;157:658–65.Not relevant intervention
43Markus H. Antiplatelet therapy vs anticoagulation in cervical artery dissection; Rationale and design of the Cervical Artery Dissection in Stroke Study (CADISS). Int J Stroke 2007;2:292–6.Not a relevant population
44Markus HS, Droste DW, Kaps M, Larrue V, Lees KR, Siebler M, et al. Dual antiplatelet therapy with clopidogrel and aspirin in symptomatic carotid stenosis evaluated using Doppler embolic signal detection: the Clopidogrel and Aspirin for Reduction of Emboli in Symptomatic Carotid Stenosis (CARESS) trial. Circulation 2005;111:2233–40.Not relevant intervention
45Matias-Guiu J, Ferro JM, Alvarez-Sabin J, Torres F, Jimenez MD, Lago A, et al. Comparison of triflusal and aspirin for prevention of vascular events in patients after cerebral infarction the TACIP study: a randomized, double-blind, multicenter trial. Stroke 2003;34:840–7.Not relevant intervention
46McKevitt FM, Randall MS, Cleveland TJ, Gaines PA, Tan KT, Venables GS. The benefits of combined antiplatelet treatment in carotid artery stenting. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2005;29:522–7.Not relevant intervention
47Secondary stroke prevention set to benefit from PRoFESS trial: extended-release dipyridamole plus aspirin (Asasantin Retard) and clopidogrel share very similar benefit–risk ratio in vascular prevention. Cardiovasc J Africa 2008;19:165.Comment on PRoFESS
48Serebruany VL, Malinin AI, Pokov AN, Hanley DF. Randomized single-blind 30-days trial of the antiplatelet profiles after extended-released dipyridamole and low dose aspirin versus clopidogrel with or without aspirin in diabetic patients after TIA. Cerebrovasc Dis 2008; 25 (Suppl. 2):159.Not relevant intervention
49Serebruany VL, Malinin AI, Ziai W, Pokov AN, Bhatt DL, Alberts MJ, et al. Effects of clopidogrel and aspirin in combination versus aspirin alone on platelet activation and major receptor expression in patients after recent ischemic stroke: for the Plavix Use for Treatment of Stroke (PLUTO–Stroke) trial. Stroke 2005;36:2289–92.Not relevant intervention
50Sprigg N, Gray LJ, England T, Willmot MR, Zhao L, Sare GM, et al. A randomised controlled trial of triple antiplatelet therapy (aspirin, clopidogrel and dipyridamole) in the secondary prevention of stroke: safety, tolerability and feasibility. PLoS ONE 2008;3:e2852.Not relevant intervention
51Squizzato A, Keller T, Middeldorp S. Clopidogrel plus aspirin versus aspirin alone for preventing cardiovascular disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007;1:CD005158.Not relevant intervention
52Thijs V, Lemmens R, Fieuws S. Network meta-analysis: simultaneous meta-analysis of common antiplatelet regimens after transient ischaemic attack or stroke. Eur Heart J 2008;29:1086–92.Not relevant intervention
53Uchiyama S, Fukuuchi Y, Yamaguchi T. The safety and efficacy of clopidogrel versus ticlopidine in Japanese stroke patients: Combined results of two Phase III, multicenter, randomized clinical trials. J Neurol 2009;256:888–97.Not relevant intervention
54Wang TH, Bhatt DL, Fox KAA, Steinhubl SR, Brennan DM, Hacke W, et al. An analysis of mortality rates with dual-antiplatelet therapy in the primary prevention population of the CHARISMA trial. Eur Heart J 2007;28:2200–7.Not relevant intervention
55Dieker HJ, French JK, Joziasse IC, Brouwer MA, Elliott J, West TM, et al. Antiplatelet therapy and progression of coronary artery disease: a placebo-controlled trial with angiographic and clinical follow-up after myocardial infarction. Am Heart J 2007;153:1–8.Not relevant intervention
56Serebruany VL, Malinin AI, Pokov AN, Hanley DF. Antiplatelet profiles of the fixed-dose combination of extended-release dipyridamole and low-dose aspirin compared with clopidogrel with or without aspirin in patients with type 2 diabetes and a history of transient ischemic attack: A randomized, single-blind, 30-day trial. Clin Ther 2008;30:249–59.Not relevant outcomes
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