1.
McGlynn EA, Asch SM, Adams J, et al. The quality of health care delivered to adults in the United States. N Engl J Med. 2003 Jun 26;348(26):2635–45. [PubMed: 12826639]
2.
NCQA. The State of Health Care Quality: 2009. NCQA; 2009.
3.
AHRQ. National Healthcare Disparities Report: Summary. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; Feb, 2004. 2004.
4.
Sequist TD, Adams A, Zhang F, et al. Effect of quality improvement on racial disparities in diabetes care. Arch Intern Med. 2006 Mar 27;166(6):675–81. [PubMed: 16567608]
5.
Institute of Medicine. Crossing the quality chasm: a new health system for the 21st century. Washington, DC: National Academies Press; 2001. [PubMed: 11549951]
6.
Closing the quality gap: revisiting the state of the science: series overview. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; Apr, 2011. [Accessed May 4, 2012]. www​.effectivehealthcare​.ahrq.gov/index.cfm​/search-for-guides-reviews-and-reports​/?pageaction=displayproduct&productid=715.
7.
Akerlof GA. The market for ‘lemons’: quality uncertainty and the market mechanism. QJE. 1970;84(3):488–500.
8.
Stigler GJ. The economics of information. JPE. 1961;69(3):213–25.
9.
Grol R. Beliefs and evidence in changing clinical practice. BMJ. 1997;315(7105):418–21. [PMC free article: PMC2127297] [PubMed: 9277610]
10.
Hibbard JH, Stockard J, Tusler M. Does publicizing hospital performance stimulate quality improvement efforts? Health Aff (Millwood) 2003 Mar–Apr;22(2):84–94. [PubMed: 12674410]
11.
Hibbard JH, Stockard J, Tusler M. Hospital performance reports: impact on quality, market share, and reputation. Evidence from a controlled experiment shows the long-term effects of reporting hospitals’ performance ratings to the public. Health Aff (Millwood) 2005;24(4):1150–60. [PubMed: 16012155]
12.
Mukamel DB, Spector WD, Zinn JS, et al. Nursing homes’ response to the nursing home compare report card. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2007 Jul;62(4):S218–25. [PubMed: 17673535]
13.
Werner RM, Konetzka RT, Stuart EA, et al. Impact of public reporting on quality of postacute care. Health Serv Res. 2009 Aug;44(4):1169–87. [PMC free article: PMC2739023] [PubMed: 19490160]
14.
Jung K, Shea D, Warner C. Agency characteristics and changes in home health quality after home health compare. J Aging Health. 2010;22(4):454–76. [PubMed: 20231725]
15.
Fung CH, Lim Y-W, Mattke S, et al. Systematic review: the evidence that publishing patient care performance data improves quality of care. Ann Intern Med. 2008;148(2):111–23. [PubMed: 18195336]
16.
Hibbard JH, Sofaer S. Best practices in public reporting no1: how to effectively present health care performance data to consumers. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; Jun, 2010.
17.
Sofaer S, Hibbard JH. Best practices in public reporting no2: maximizing consumer understanding of public comparative quality reports: effective use of explanatory information. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; Jun, 2010.
18.
Sofaer S, Hibbard JH. Best practices in public reporting no3: how to maximize public awareness and use of comparative quality reports through effective promotion and dissemination strategies. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; Jun, 2010.
19.
Hibbard J, Greene J, Sofaer S, et al. An experiment shows that a well-designed report on costs and quality can help consumers choose high-value health care. Health Aff (Millwood) 2012;31(3):560–8. [PubMed: 22392666]
20.
Smith M, Wright A, Queram C, et al. Public reporting helped drive quality improvement in outpatient diabetes care among Wisconsin physician groups. Health Aff (Millwood) 2012;31(3):570–7. [PMC free article: PMC3329125] [PubMed: 22392668]
21.
Young G. Multistakeholder regional collaboratives have been key drivers of public reporting, but now face challenges. Health Aff (Millwood) 2012;31(3):578–84. [PubMed: 22392669]
22.
Health 2.0. San Francisco, CA: [Accessed March 1, 2011].
23.
Jin GZ, Sorensen AT. Information and consumer choice: the value of publicized health plan ratings. J Health Econ. 2006 Mar;25(2):248–75. [PubMed: 16107284]
24.
Vaiana ME, McGlynn EA. What cognitive science tells us about the design of reports for consumers. MCRR. 2002;59:3–35. [PubMed: 11877877]
25.
AHRQ. Methods Guide for Effectiveness and Comparative Effectiveness Reviews. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; Feb, 2011. AHRQ Publication No. 10(11)-EHC063-EF. [PubMed: 21959053]
26.
Owens DK, Lohr KN, Atkins D, et al. AHRQ Series Paper 5: Grading the strength of a body of evidence when comparing medical interventions—Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and the Effective Health-Care Program. J Clin Epidemiol. 2010;63(5):513–23. [PubMed: 19595577]
27.
Atkins D, Chang S, Gartlehner G, et al. Assessing applicability when comparing medical interventions: AHRQ and the Effective Health Care Program. J Clin Epidemiol. 2011;64(11):1198–207. [PubMed: 21463926]
28.
Hannan EL, Kumar D, Racz M, et al. New York State’s Cardiac Surgery Reporting System: four years later. Ann Thorac Surg. 1994 Dec;58(6):1852–7. [PubMed: 7979781]
29.
Hannan EL, Kilburn H Jr, Racz M, et al. Improving the outcomes of coronary artery bypass surgery in New York State. JAMA. 1994 Mar 27;1(10):761–6. [PubMed: 8114213]
30.
Cutler DM, Huckman RS, Landrum MB. The role of information in medical markets: an analysis of publicly reported outcomes in cardiac surgery. AER. 2004;94(2):342–46.
31.
Jha AK, Epstein AM. The predictive accuracy of the New York State coronary artery bypass surgery report-card system. Health Aff (Millwood) 2006 May–Jun;25(3):844–55. [PubMed: 16684751]
32.
Peterson ED, DeLong ER, Jollis JG, et al. The effects of New York’s bypass surgery provider profiling on access to care and patient outcomes in the elderly. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1998 Oct;32(4):993–9. [PubMed: 9768723]
33.
Carey JS, Danielsen B, Junod FL, et al. The California Cardiac Surgery and Intervention Project: evolution of a public reporting program. Am Surg. 2006 Oct;72(10):978–83. [PubMed: 17058749]
34.
Bridgewater B, Grayson AD, Brooks N, et al. Has the publication of cardiac surgery outcome data been associated with changes in practice in northwest England: an analysis of 25,730 patients undergoing CABG surgery under 30 surgeons over eight years. Heart. 2007 Jun;93(6):744–8. [PMC free article: PMC1955202] [PubMed: 17237128]
35.
Hannan EL, Sarrazin MSV, Doran DR, et al. Provider Profiling and Quality Improvement Efforts in Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery: The Effect on Short-Term Mortality Among Medicare Beneficiaries. Med Care. 2003;41(10):1164–72. [PubMed: 14515112]
36.
Moscucci M, Eagle KA, Share D, et al. Public reporting and case selection for percutaneous coronary interventions: an analysis from two large multicenter percutaneous coronary intervention databases. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005 Jun;45(11):1759–65. [PubMed: 15936602]
37.
Romano PS, Marcin JP, Dai JJ, et al. Impact of public reporting of coronary artery bypass graft surgery performance data on market share, mortality, and patient selection. Med Care. 2011;49(12):1118–25. [PubMed: 22002641]
38.
Guru V, Fremes SE, Naylor CD, et al. Public versus private institutional performance reporting: what is mandatory for quality improvement? Am Heart J. 2006 Sep;152(3):573–8. [PubMed: 16923433]
39.
Ghali WA, Ash AS, Hall RE, et al. Statewide Quality Improvement Initiatives and Mortality After Cardiac Surgery. JAMA. 1997 Feb 5;277(5):379–82. [PubMed: 9010169]
40.
Rosenthal GE, Quinn L, Harper DL. Declines in hospital mortality associated with a regional initiative to measure hospital performance. Am J Med Qual. 1997 Summer;12(2):103–12. [PubMed: 9161057]
41.
Clough JD, Engler D, Snow R, et al. Lack of relationship between the Cleveland Health Quality Choice project and decreased inpatient mortality in Cleveland. Am J Med Qual. 2002 Mar–Apr;17(2):47–55. [PubMed: 11941994]
42.
Baker DW, Einstadter D, Thomas CL, et al. Mortality trends during a program that publicly reported hospital performance. Med Care. 2002 Oct;40(10):879–90. [PubMed: 12395022]
43.
Baker DW, Einstadter D, Thomas C, et al. The effect of publicly reporting hospital performance on market share and risk-adjusted mortality at high-mortality hospitals. Med Care. 2003 Jun;41(6):729–40. [PubMed: 12773839]
44.
Caron A, Jones P, Neuhauser D, et al. Measuring performance improvement: total organizational commitment or clinical specialization. Qual Manag Health Care. 2004 Oct–Dec;13(4):210–5. [PubMed: 15532514]
45.
Hibbard JH, Stockard J, Tusler M. Hospital performance reports: impact on quality, market share, and reputation. Health Aff (Millwood) 2005 Jul–Aug;24(4):1150–60. [PubMed: 16012155]
46.
Longo DR, Land G, Schramm W, et al. Consumer reports in health care. Do they make a difference in patient care? JAMA. 1997 Nov 19;278(19):1579–84. [PubMed: 9370503]
47.
Shabino C, Richardson DB. In pursuit of excellence: the checkpoint journey. WMJ. 2006 Dec;105(8):34–7. [PubMed: 17256706]
48.
Lipley N. Nursing and Midwifery Council issues guidance to tackle age-old concerns. Nursing Management - UK. 2009;16(2):7.
49.
Hollenbeak CS, Gorton CP, Tabak YP, et al. Reductions in mortality associated with intensive public reporting of hospital outcomes. Am J Med Qual. 2008 Jul–Aug;23(4):279–86. [PubMed: 18658101]
50.
Werner RM, Bradlow ET. Public Reporting On Hospital Process Improvements Is Linked To Better Patient Outcomes. Health Aff (Millwood) 2010 Jul;29(7):1319–24. [PubMed: 20606180]
51.
Elliott MN, Lehrman WG, Goldstein EH, et al. Hospital survey shows improvements in patient experience. Health Aff (Millwood) 2010 Nov;29(11):2061–7. [PubMed: 21041749]
52.
Jang WM, Eun SJ, Sagong P, et al. The change in readmission rate, length of stay and hospital charge after performance reporting of hip hemiarthroplasty. J Prev Med Public Health. 2010;43(6):523–34. [PubMed: 21139413]
53.
Lied TR, Sheingold S. HEDIS performance trends in Medicare managed care. Health Care Financ Rev. 2001 Fall;23(1):149–60. [PMC free article: PMC4194724] [PubMed: 12500369]
54.
Bardenheier B, Kong Y, Shefer A, et al. Managed care organizations’ performance in delivery of childhood immunizations (HEDIS, 1999–2002) Am J Manag Care. 2007;13(4):193–200. [PubMed: 17408339]
55.
Jung K. The impact of information disclosure on quality of care in HMO markets. Int J Qual Health Care. 2010 Dec;22(6):461–8. [PubMed: 20940251]
56.
Bost JE. Managed care organizations publicly reporting three years of HEDIS measures. Manag Care Interface. 2001 Sep;14(9):50–4. [PubMed: 11569305]
57.
Hendriks M, Spreeuwenberg P, Rademakers J, et al. Dutch healthcare reform: did it result in performance improvement of health plans? A comparison of consumer experiences over time. BMC Health Serv Res. 2009 Sept;9:167. [PMC free article: PMC2761896] [PubMed: 19761580]
58.
Werner R, Stuart E, Polsky D. Public reporting drove quality gains at nursing homes. Health Aff (Millwood) 2010 Sep;29(9):1706–13. [PubMed: 20820030]
59.
Zinn J, Spector W, Hsieh L, et al. Do trends in the reporting of quality measures on the nursing home compare web site differ by nursing home characteristics? Gerontologist. 2005 Dec;45(6):720–30. [PubMed: 16326653]
60.
Castle NG, Liu D, Engberg J. The association of Nursing Home Compare quality measures with market competition and occupancy rates. J Healthc Qual. 2008 Mar–Apr;30(2):4–14. [PubMed: 18411887]
61.
Grabowski DC, Town RJ. Does information matter? Competition, quality, and the impact of nursing home report cards. Health Serv Res. 2011;46(6 PART 1):1698–719. [PMC free article: PMC3393022] [PubMed: 21790590]
62.
Gaudet J.Heller School for Social P, Management. Nursing home compare: predictors and consequences of differing organizational response. Massachusetts: Brandeis University, The Heller School for Social Policy and Management; 2011. [Dissertation]
63.
Mukamel DB, Weimer DL, Spector WD, et al. Publication of quality report cards and trends in reported quality measures in nursing homes. Health Serv Res. 2008 Aug;43(4):1244–62. [PMC free article: PMC2517273] [PubMed: 18248401]
64.
Apolito RA, Greenberg MA, Menegus MA, et al. Impact of the New York State Cardiac Surgery and Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Reporting System on the management of patients with acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock. Am Heart J. 2008 Feb;155(2):267–73. [PubMed: 18215596]
65.
Omoigui NA, Miller DP, Brown KJ, et al. Outmigration for coronary bypass surgery in an era of public dissemination of clinical outcomes. Circulation. 1996 Jan;93(1):27–33. [PubMed: 8616936]
66.
Dranove D, Kessler D, McClellan M, et al. Is More Information Better? The Effects of ‘Report Cards’ on Health Care Providers. JPE. 2003;111(3):555–88.
67.
Friedberg MW, Mehrotra A, Linder JA. Reporting hospitals’ antibiotic timing in pneumonia: adverse consequences for patients? Am J Manag Care. 2009 Feb;15(2):137–44. [PMC free article: PMC2746403] [PubMed: 19284811]
68.
Werner RM, Asch DA, Polsky D. Racial profiling: the unintended consequences of coronary artery bypass graft report cards. Circulation. 2005 Mar 15;111(10):1257–63. [PubMed: 15769766]
69.
Glance LG, Dick A, Mukamel DB, et al. Are high-quality cardiac surgeons less likely to operate on high-risk patients compared to low-quality surgeons? Evidence from New York State. Health Serv Res. 2008 Feb;43(1 Pt 1):300–12. [PMC free article: PMC2323133] [PubMed: 18211531]
70.
Habermann EB, Virnig BA, Riley GF, et al. The impact of a change in Medicare reimbursement policy and HEDIS measures on stage at diagnosis among Medicare HMO and fee-for-service female breast cancer patients. Med Care. 2007 Aug;45(8):761–6. [PubMed: 17667310]
71.
Pham HH, Frick KD, Diener-West M, et al. Is health plan employer data and information set performance associated with withdrawal from medicare managed care? Med Care. 2002 Mar;40(3):212–26. [PubMed: 11880794]
72.
Mukamel DB, Ladd H, Weimer DL, et al. Is there evidence of cream skimming among nursing homes following the publication of the Nursing Home Compare report card? Gerontologist. 2009 Dec;49(6):793–802. [PMC free article: PMC2800777] [PubMed: 19491363]
73.
Werner RM, Konetzka RT, Stuart EA, et al. Changes in patient sorting to nursing homes under public reporting: improved patient matching or provider gaming? Health Serv Res. 2011;46(2):555–71. [PMC free article: PMC3064919] [PubMed: 21105869]
74.
Werner RM, Konetzka RT, Kruse GB. Impact of public reporting on unreported quality of care. Health Serv Res. 2009 Apr;44(2 Pt 1):379–98. [PMC free article: PMC2677045] [PubMed: 19178586]
75.
Konetzka RT, Polsky D, Werner R. Shipping out instead of shaping up: rehospitalization from nursing homes as an unintended effect of public reporting. SSRN working paper. 2012. [PubMed: 23333954]
76.
Caron A, Neuhauser D. The Effect of Public Accountability on Hospital Performance: Trends in Rates for Cesarean Sections and Vaginal Births after Cesarean Section in Cleveland, Ohio. Qual Manag Health Care. 1999;7(2):1–10. [PubMed: 10346457]
77.
Jang WM, Eun SJ, Lee CE, et al. Effect of repeated public releases on cesarean section rates. J Prev Med Public Health. 2011;44(1):2–8. [PubMed: 21483217]
78.
Zinn JS, Weimer DL, Spector W, et al. Factors influencing nursing home response to quality measure publication: A resource dependence perspective. Health Care Manage Rev. 2010 Jul–Sep;35(3):256–65. [PubMed: 20551773]
79.
Zinn JS, Spector WD, Weimer DL, et al. Strategic orientation and nursing home response to public reporting of quality measures: an application of the miles and snow typology. Health Serv Res. 2008 Apr;43(2):598–615. [PMC free article: PMC2442378] [PubMed: 18370969]
80.
Mukamel DB, Spector WD, Zinn J, et al. Changes in clinical and hotel expenditures following publication of the nursing home compare report card. Med Care. 2010 Oct;48(10):869–74. [PubMed: 20733531]
81.
Cai S, Temkin-Greener H. Influenza vaccination and its impact on hospitalization events in nursing homes. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2011 Sep;12(7):493–8. [PMC free article: PMC3661218] [PubMed: 21450172]
82.
Foreman S, Kenkel D, Shea D. Cost and quality information and health care market reform. Adv Health Econ Health Serv Res. 1995;15:137–53. [PubMed: 10163094]
83.
Wang J, Hockenberry J, Chou SY, et al. Do bad report cards have consequences? Impacts of publicly reported provider quality information on the CABG market in Pennsylvania. J Health Econ. 2011 Mar;30(2):392–407. [PubMed: 21195494]
84.
Mukamel DB, Mushlin AI. Quality of care information makes a difference: an analysis of market share and price changes after publication of the New York State Cardiac Surgery Mortality Reports. Med Care. 1998 Jul;36(7):945–54. [PubMed: 9674613]
85.
Romano PS, Zhou H. Do well-publicized risk-adjusted outcomes reports affect hospital volume? Med Care. 2004 Apr;42(4):367–77. [PubMed: 15076814]
86.
Dranove D, Sfekas A. Start spreading the news: a structural estimate of the effects of New York hospital report cards. J Health Econ. 2008 Sep;27(5):1201–7. [PubMed: 18420293]
87.
Vladeck BC, Goodwin EJ, Myers LP, et al. Consumers and hospital use: the HCFA“death list” Health Aff (Millwood) 1988 Spring;7(1):122–5. [PubMed: 3360387]
88.
Mennemeyer ST, Morrisey MA, Howard LZ. Death and reputation: how consumers acted upon HCFA mortality information. Inquiry. 1997 Summer;34(2):117–28. [PubMed: 9256817]
89.
Howard DH, Kaplan B. Do report cards influence hospital choice? The case of kidney transplantation. Inquiry. 2006 Summer;43(2):150–9. [PMC free article: PMC2235817] [PubMed: 17004644]
90.
Wübker A, Auerland D, Wübker A. Does better information about hospital quality affect patients’ choice? Empirical findings from Germany. MPRA. 2008
91.
Pope DG. Reacting to rankings: Evidence from “America’s Best Hospitals” J Health Econ. 2009 Dec;28(6):1154–65. [PubMed: 19818518]
92.
Epstein AJ. Effects of report cards on referral patterns to cardiac surgeons. J Health Econ. 2010 Sep;29(5):718–31. [PubMed: 20599284]
93.
Bundorf MK, Chun N, Goda GS, et al. Do markets respond to quality information? The case of fertility clinics. J Health Econ. 2009 May;28(3):718–27. [PubMed: 19328568]
94.
Mukamel DB, Weimer DL, Zwanziger J, et al. Quality report cards, selection of cardiac surgeons, and racial disparities: a study of the publication of the New York State Cardiac Surgery Reports. Inquiry. 2004 Winter;41(4):435–46. [PubMed: 15835601]
95.
Chernew M, Scanlon DP. Health plan report cards and insurance choice. Inquiry. 1998 Spring;35(1):9–22. [PubMed: 9597014]
96.
Scanlon DP, Chernew M. HEDIS measures and managed care enrollment. Med Care Res Rev. 1999;56(Suppl 2):60–84. [PubMed: 10327824]
97.
Abraham JM, Feldman R, Carlin C, et al. The effect of quality information on consumer health plan switching: evidence from the Buyers Health Care Action Group. J Health Econ. 2006 Jul;25(4):762–81. [PubMed: 16704882]
98.
Fowles JB, Kind EA, Braun BL, et al. Consumer Responses to Health Plan Report Cards in Two Markets. Med Care. 2000;38(5):469–81. [PubMed: 10800974]
99.
Knutson DJ, Kind EA, Fowles JB, et al. Impact of report cards on employees: a natural experiment. Health Care Financ Rev. 1998 Fall;20(1):5–27. [PMC free article: PMC4194537] [PubMed: 10387425]
100.
Wedig GJ, Tai-Seale M. The effect of report cards on consumer choice in the health insurance market. J Health Econ. 2002 Nov;21(6):1031–48. [PubMed: 12475124]
101.
Tai-Seale M. Does consumer satisfaction information matter? Evidence on member retention in FEHBP plans. Med Care Res Rev. 2004 Jun;61(2):171–86. [PubMed: 15155050]
102.
Farley DO, Short PF, Elliott MN, et al. Effects of CAHPS health plan performance information on plan choices by New Jersey Medicaid beneficiaries. Health Serv Res. 2002 Aug;37(4):985–1007. [PMC free article: PMC1464003] [PubMed: 12236394]
103.
Farley DO, Elliott MN, Short PF, et al. Effect of CAHPS performance information on health plan choices by Iowa Medicaid beneficiaries. Med Care Res Rev. 2002 Sep;59(3):319–36. [PubMed: 12205831]
104.
McCormack LA, Garfinkel SA, Hibbard JH, et al. Health plan decision making with new medicare information materials. Health Serv Res. 2001 Jul;36(3):531–54. [PMC free article: PMC1089241] [PubMed: 11482588]
105.
Chernew M, Gowrisankaran G, McLaughlin C, et al. Quality and employers’ choice of health plans. J Health Econ. 2004 May;23(3):471–92. [PubMed: 15120466]
106.
Stevenson DG. Is a public reporting approach appropriate for nursing home care? J Health Polit Policy Law. 2006 Aug;31(4):773–810. [PubMed: 16971545]
107.
Werner R, Norton EC, Konetzka R, et al. Do consumers respond to publicly reported quality information? Evidence from nursing homes. J Health Econ. 2012;31(1):50–61. [PubMed: 22307033]
108.
Park J, Konetzka RT, Werner RM. Performing Well on Nursing Home Report Cards: Does It Pay Off? Health Serv Res. 2011;46(2):531–54. [PMC free article: PMC3064918] [PubMed: 21029093]
109.
Park J, Werner RM. Changes in the Relationship between Nursing Home Financial Performance and Quality of Care under Public Reporting. Health Econ. 2011;20(7):783–801. [PubMed: 20578255]
110.
Ranganathan M, Hibbard J, Rodday AM, et al. Motivating public use of physician-level performance data: an experiment on the effects of message and mode. Med Care Res Rev. 2009 Feb;66(1):68–81. [PubMed: 18923193]
111.
Evans JH, Yuhchang H, Nagarajan N, et al. Involuntary Benchmarking and Quality Improvement: The Effect of Mandated Public Disclosure on Hospitals. JAAF. 1997 Summer97;12(3):315–46.
112.
Dafny L, Dranove D. Do report cards tell consumers anything they don’t know already? The case of Medicare HMOs Rand. J Econ. 2008 Autumn;39(3):790–821. [PubMed: 19013864]
113.
Beaulieu ND. Quality information and consumer health plan choices. J Health Econ. 2002 Jan;21(1):43–63. [PubMed: 11845925]
114.
Liu H, Phelps CE, Veazie PJ, et al. Managed care quality of care and plan choice in New York SCHIP. Health Serv Res. 2009 Jun;44(3):843–61. [PMC free article: PMC2699911] [PubMed: 19208091]
115.
Castle NG, Engberg J, Liu D. Have Nursing Home Compare quality measure scores changed over time in response to competition? Qual Saf Health Care. 2007 Jun;16(3):185–91. [PMC free article: PMC2465007] [PubMed: 17545344]
116.
Tu JV, Donovan LR, Lee DS, et al. Effectiveness of public report cards for improving the quality of cardiac care: the EFFECT study: a randomized trial. JAMA. 2009 Dec 2;302(21):2330–7. [PubMed: 19923205]
117.
Hartz AJ, Pulido JS, Kuhn EM. Are the best coronary artery bypass surgeons identified by physician surveys? Am J Public Health. 1997;87(10):1645–8. [PMC free article: PMC1381127] [PubMed: 9357346]
118.
Putnam W, Bower KN, Cox J, et al. Quality indicators for cardiac care: national standards in a community context. J Health Serv Res Policy. 2006 Jan;11(1):5–12. [PubMed: 16378527]
119.
Richard SA, Rawal S, Martin DK. Patients’ views about cardiac report cards: a qualitative study. Can J Cardiol. 2005 Sep;21(11):943–7. [PubMed: 16239978]
120.
Bensimon CM, Nohara N, Martin DK. Stakeholders’ views about cardiac report cards: a qualitative study. Can J Cardiol. 2004 Mar 15;20(4):433–8. [PubMed: 15057320]
121.
Tu JV, Cameron C. Impact of an acute myocardial infarction report card in Ontario, Canada. Int J Qual Health Care. 2003 Apr;15(2):131–7. [PubMed: 12705706]
122.
Ginsburg LS. Factors that influence line managers’ perceptions of hospital performance data. Health Serv Res. 2003 Feb;38(1 Pt 1):261–86. [PMC free article: PMC1360884] [PubMed: 12650391]
123.
Fasolo B, Reutskaja E, Dixon A, et al. Helping patients choose: how to improve the design of comparative scorecards of hospital quality. Patient Educ Couns. 2010 Mar;78(3):344–9. [PubMed: 20171822]
124.
Reeves R, Seccombe I. Do patient surveys work? The influence of a national survey programme on local quality-improvement initiatives. Qual Saf Health Care. 2008 Dec;17(6):437–41. [PMC free article: PMC2602592] [PubMed: 19064659]
125.
Magee H, Davis LJ, Coulter A. Public views on healthcare performance indicators and patient choice. J R Soc Med. 2003 Jul;96(7):338–42. [PMC free article: PMC539537] [PubMed: 12835446]
126.
Mannion R, Davies H, Marshall M. Impact of star performance ratings in English acute hospital trusts. J Health Serv Res Policy. 2005 Jan;10(1):18–24. [PubMed: 15667700]
127.
Moser A, Korstjens I, van der Weijden T, et al. Themes affecting health-care consumers’ choice of a hospital for elective surgery when receiving web-based comparative consumer information. Patient Educ Couns. 2010 Mar;78(3):365–71. [PubMed: 20006460]
128.
de Groot IB, Otten W, Smeets HJ, et al. Is the impact of hospital performance data greater in patients who have compared hospitals? BMC Health Serv Res. 2011;11 [PMC free article: PMC3203258] [PubMed: 21906293]
129.
Dijs-Elsinga J, Otten W, Versluijs MM, et al. Choosing a hospital for surgery: the importance of information on quality of care. Med Decis Making. 2010 Sep–Oct;30(5):544–55. [PubMed: 20110514]
130.
Kang HY, Kim SJ, Cho W, et al. Consumer use of publicly released hospital performance information: assessment of the National Hospital Evaluation Program in Korea. Health Policy. 2009 Feb;89(2):174–83. [PubMed: 18619703]
131.
Khang YH, Yun SC, Jo MW, et al. Public release of institutional Cesarean section rates in South Korea: which women were aware of the information? Health Policy. 2008 Apr;86(1):10–6. [PubMed: 17964680]
132.
Mannion R, Goddard M. Public disclosure of comparative clinical performance data: lessons from the Scottish experience. J Eval Clin Pract. 2003 May;9(2):277–86. [PubMed: 12787191]
133.
Geraedts M, Schwartze D, Molzahn T. Hospital quality reports in Germany: patient and physician opinion of the reported quality indicators. BMC Health Serv Res. 2007;7:157. [PMC free article: PMC2048956] [PubMed: 17903244]
134.
Merle V, Germain JM, Tavolacci MP, et al. Influence of infection control report cards on patients’ choice of hospital: pilot survey. J Hosp Infect. 2009 Mar;71(3):263–8. [PubMed: 19147258]
135.
Aryankhesal A, Sheldon T. Effect of the Iranian hospital grading system on patients’ and general practitioners’ behaviour: an examination of awareness, belief and choice. Health Serv Manage Res. 2010 Aug;23(3):139–44. [PubMed: 20702891]
136.
Laschober M, Maxfield M, Felt-Lisk S, et al. Hospital response to public reporting of quality indicators. Health Care Financ Rev. 2007 Spring;28(3):61–76. [PMC free article: PMC4194994] [PubMed: 17645156]
137.
Chassin MR. Achieving and sustaining improved quality: lessons from New York State and cardiac surgery. Health Aff (Millwood) 2002 Jul–Aug;21(4):40–51. [PubMed: 12117152]
138.
Romano PS, Rainwater JA, Antonius D. Grading the graders: how hospitals in California and New York perceive and interpret their report cards. Med Care. 1999 Mar;37(3):295–305. [PubMed: 10098573]
139.
Hannan EL, Stone CC, Biddle TL, et al. Public release of cardiac surgery outcomes data in New York: what do New York state cardiologists think of it? Am Heart J. 1997 Dec;134(6):1120–8. [PubMed: 9424074]
140.
Luce JM, Thiel GD, Holland MR, et al. Use of risk-adjusted outcome data for quality improvement by public hospitals. West J Med. 1996 May;164(5):410–4. [PMC free article: PMC1303538] [PubMed: 8686297]
141.
Schneider EC, Epstein AM. Influence of cardiac-surgery performance reports on referral practices and access to care. A survey of cardiovascular specialists. N Engl J Med. 1996 Jul;335(4):251–6. [PubMed: 8657242]
142.
Berwick DM, Wald DL. Hospital leaders’ opinions of the HCFA mortality data. JAMA. 1990 Jan 12;263(2):247–9. [PubMed: 2403602]
143.
Bentley JM, Nash DB. How Pennsylvania hospitals have responded to publicly released reports on coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Jt Comm J Qual Improv. 1998 Jan;24(1):40–9. [PubMed: 9494873]
144.
Laschober MA. Hospital compare highlights potential challenges in public reporting for hospitals. Princeton, N.J: Mathematica Policy Research, Inc; 2006.
145.
Guru V, Naylor CD, Fremes SE, et al. Publicly reported provider outcomes: the concerns of cardiac surgeons in a single-payer system. Can J Cardiol. 2009 Jan;25(1):33–8. [PMC free article: PMC2691878] [PubMed: 19148340]
146.
Longo DR, Everet KD. Health care consumer reports: an evaluation of consumer perspectives. J Health Care Finance. 2003 Fall;30(1):65–71. [PubMed: 12967245]
147.
Rainwater JA, Romano PS. What data do California HMOs use to select hospitals for contracting? Am J Manag Care. 2003 Aug;9(8):553–61. [PubMed: 12921233]
148.
Schneider EC, Epstein AM. Use of public performance reports: a survey of patients undergoing cardiac surgery. JAMA. 1998 May 27;279(20):1638–42. [PubMed: 9613914]
149.
Gross PA, Schaffer WA. Consumer awareness of hospital mortality data. J Health Care Mark. 1989 Dec;9(4):52–5. [PubMed: 10304175]
150.
Mazor KM, Dodd KS, Kunches L. Communicating hospital infection data to the public: a study of consumer responses and preferences. Am J Med Qual. 2009 Mar–Apr;24(2):108–15. [PubMed: 19237552]
151.
Schwartz LM, Woloshin S, Birkmeyer JD. How do elderly patients decide where to go for major surgery? Telephone interview survey. BMJ. 2005 Oct 8;331(7520):821. [PMC free article: PMC1246083] [PubMed: 16192286]
152.
Mazor KM, Dodd KS. A qualitative study of consumers’ views on public reporting of health care-associated infections. Am J Med Qual. 2009 Sep–Oct;24(5):412–8. [PubMed: 19525369]
153.
Barr JK, Giannotti TE, Sofaer S, et al. Using public reports of patient satisfaction for hospital quality improvement. Health Serv Res. 2006 Jun;41(3 Pt 1):663–82. [PMC free article: PMC1713194] [PubMed: 16704506]
154.
Mehrotra A, Bodenheimer T, Dudley RA. Employers’ efforts to measure and improve hospital quality: determinants of success. Health Aff (Millwood) 2003 Mar–Apr;22(2):60–71. [PubMed: 12674408]
155.
Rosenthal GE, Hammar PJ, Way LE, et al. Using hospital performance data in quality improvement: the Cleveland Health Quality Choice experience. Jt Comm J Qual Improv. 1998 Jul;24(7):347–60. [PubMed: 9689568]
156.
Rainwater JA, Romano PS, Antonius DM. The California Hospital Outcomes Project: how useful is California’s report card for quality improvement? Jt Comm J Qual Improv. 1998 Jan;24(1):31–9. [PubMed: 9494872]
157.
Pham HH, Coughlan J, O’Malley AS. The impact of quality-reporting programs on hospital operations. Health Aff (Millwood) 2006 Sep–Oct;25(5):1412–22. [PubMed: 16966741]
158.
Sofaer S, Crofton C, Goldstein E, et al. What do consumers want to know about the quality of care in hospitals? Health Serv Res. 2005 Dec;40(6 Pt 2):2018–36. [PMC free article: PMC1361244] [PubMed: 16316436]
159.
Hibbard JH, Peters E, Dixon A, et al. Consumer competencies and the use of comparative quality information: it isn’t just about literacy. Med Care Res Rev. 2007 Aug;64(4):379–94. [PubMed: 17684108]
160.
Peters E, Dieckmann N, Dixon A, et al. Less is more in presenting quality information to consumers. Med Care Res Rev. 2007 Apr;64(2):169–90. [PubMed: 17406019]
161.
Mukamel DB, Weimer DL, Zwanziger J, et al. Quality of cardiac surgeons and managed care contracting practices. Health Serv Res. 2002 Oct;37(5):1129–44. [PMC free article: PMC1464035] [PubMed: 12479489]
162.
Mukamel DB, Mushlin AI, Weimer D, et al. Do quality report cards play a role in HMOs’ contracting practices? Evidence from New York State. Health Serv Res. 2000 Apr;35(1 Pt 2):319–32. [PMC free article: PMC1089104] [PubMed: 10778818]
163.
Cheng SH, Song HY. Physician performance information and consumer choice: a survey of subjects with the freedom to choose between doctors. Qual Saf Health Care. 2004 Apr;13(2):98–101. [PMC free article: PMC1743817] [PubMed: 15069215]
164.
Chen TT, Chung KP, Huang HC, et al. Using discrete choice experiment to elicit doctors’ preferences for the report card design of diabetes care in Taiwan - a pilot study. J Eval Clin Pract. 2010 Feb;16(1):14–20. [PubMed: 20367811]
165.
Marshall MN, Hiscock J, Sibbald B. Attitudes to the public release of comparative information on the quality of general practice care: qualitative study. BMJ. 2002 Nov 30;325(7375):1278. [PMC free article: PMC136927] [PubMed: 12458248]
166.
Marshall M, Noble J, Davies H, et al. Development of an information source for patients and the public about general practice services: an action research study. Health Expect. 2006 Sep;9(3):265–74. [PubMed: 16911141]
167.
Maytham G, Kessaris N. A change in opinion on surgeon’s performance indicators. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2011;12(4):586–9. [PubMed: 21228042]
168.
Pettijohn TL, Lawrence ME. The impact of outcomes data reporting on access to health care of high-risk patients to interventional cardiologists in the United States. J Invasive Cardiol. 1999 Mar;11(3):111–5. [PubMed: 10745496]
169.
Burack JH, Impellizzeri P, Homel P, et al. Public reporting of surgical mortality: a survey of New York State cardiothoracic surgeons. Ann Thorac Surg. 1999 Oct;68(4):1195–200. discussion 201–2. [PubMed: 10543479]
170.
Narins CR, Dozier AM, Ling FS, et al. The influence of public reporting of outcome data on medical decision making by physicians. Arch Intern Med. 2005 Jan 10;165(1):83–7. [PubMed: 15642879]
171.
Casalino LP, Alexander GC, Jin L, et al. General Internists’ Views On Pay-For-Performance And Public Reporting Of Quality Scores: A National Survey. Health Aff (Millwood) 2007 March 1;26(2):492–9. 2007. [PubMed: 17339678]
172.
Fanjiang G, von Glahn T, Chang H, et al. Providing patients web-based data to inform physician choice: if you build it, will they come? J Gen Intern Med. 2007 Oct;22(10):1463–6. [PMC free article: PMC2305859] [PubMed: 17653810]
173.
Abraham J, Sick B, Anderson J, et al. Selecting a provider: what factors influence patients’ decision making? J Healthc Manag. 2011 Mar–Apr;56(2):99–114. discussion -5. [PubMed: 21495529]
174.
Barr JK, Bernard SL, Sofaer S, et al. Physicians’ views on public reporting of hospital quality data. Med Care Res Rev. 2008 Dec;65(6):655–73. [PubMed: 18596176]
175.
Friedberg MW, SteelFisher GK, Karp M, et al. Physician Groups’ Use of Data from Patient Experience Surveys. J Gen Intern Med. 2011 May;26(5):498–504. [PMC free article: PMC3077475] [PubMed: 21161419]
176.
Stein BD, Kogan JN, Essock S, et al. Views of mental health care consumers on public reporting of information on provider performance. Psychiatr Serv. 2009 May;60(5):689–92. [PubMed: 19411360]
177.
Fung CH, Elliott MN, Hays RD, et al. Patients’ preferences for technical versus interpersonal quality when selecting a primary care physician. Health Serv Res. 2005 Aug;40(4):957–77. [PMC free article: PMC1361181] [PubMed: 16033487]
178.
Donelan K, Rogers RS, Eisenhauer A, et al. Consumer comprehension of surgeon performance data for coronary bypass procedures. Ann Thorac Surg. 2011;91(5):1400–5. discussion 5–6. [PubMed: 21524448]
179.
Schultz J, Thiede Call K, Feldman R, et al. Do employees use report cards to assess health care provider systems? Health Serv Res. 2001 Jul;36(3):509–30. [PMC free article: PMC1089240] [PubMed: 11482587]
180.
Stanfill PH, Weber DG, Wayne C. Clinical patient information capture: the Columbia/HCA cancer care database experience. J Oncol Manag. 1998;7(9305645, cz6):17–21. [PubMed: 10179008]
181.
Scanlo DP, Chernew M, McLaughlin C, et al. The impact of health plan report cards on managed care enrollment. J Health Econ. 2002 Jan;21(1):19–41. [PubMed: 11845924]
182.
Dresner Y, Frank E, Baevsky T, et al. Screening practices of Israeli doctors’ and their patients. Prev Med. 2010;50(5–6):300–3. [PubMed: 20167233]
183.
Fox MH, Moore J, Zimmerman M, et al. The effectiveness of CAHPS among women enrolling in Medicaid managed care. J Ambul Care Manage. 2001 Oct;24(4):76–91. [PubMed: 11680241]
184.
Landercasper J, Linebarger JH, Ellis RL, et al. A quality review of the timeliness of breast cancer diagnosis and treatment in an integrated breast center. J Am Coll Surg. 2010;210(4):449–55. [PubMed: 20347737]
185.
Guadagnoli E, Epstein AM, Zaslavsky A, et al. Providing consumers with information about the quality of health plans: the Consumer Assessment of Health Plans demonstration in Washington State. Jt Comm J Qual Improv. 2000 Jul;26(7):410–20. [PubMed: 10897458]
186.
Marquis MS, Long SH. Prevalence of selected employer health insurance purchasing strategies in 1997. Health Aff (Millwood) 2001 Jul–Aug;20(4):220–30. [PubMed: 11463079]
187.
Farley Short P, McCormack L, Hibbard J, et al. Similarities and differences in choosing health plans. Med Care. 2002 Apr;40(4):289–302. [PubMed: 12021685]
188.
Rosenthal MB, Landon BE, Normand SL, et al. Employers’ use of value-based purchasing strategies. JAMA. 2007 Nov 21;298(19):2281–8. [PubMed: 18029832]
189.
Sarfaty M, Myers RE. The effect of HEDIS measurement of colorectal cancer screening on insurance plans in Pennsylvania. Am J Manag Care. 2008 May;14(5):277–82. [PubMed: 18471032]
190.
Gabel JR. When employers choose health plans: do NCQA accreditation and HEDIS data count? Commonwealth Fund. 1998
191.
Gibbs DA, Sangl JA, Burrus B. Consumer perspectives on information needs for health plan choice. Health Care Financ Rev. 1996 Fall;18(1):55–73. [PMC free article: PMC4193629] [PubMed: 10165037]
192.
Harris-Kojetin LD, McCormack LA, Jael EM, et al. Beneficiaries’ perceptions of new Medicare health plan choice print materials. Health Care Financ Rev. 2001 Fall;23(1):21–35. [PMC free article: PMC4194729] [PubMed: 12500360]
193.
Smith F, Gerteis M, Downey N, et al. The effects of disseminating performance data to health plans: results of qualitative research with the Medicare Managed Care plans. Health Serv Res. 2001 Jul;36(3):643–63. [PMC free article: PMC1089246] [PubMed: 11482593]
194.
Goldstein E, Fyock J. Reporting of CAHPS quality information to medicare beneficiaries. Health Serv Res. 2001;36(3):477–88. [PMC free article: PMC1089238] [PubMed: 11482585]
195.
O’Day B, Palsbo SE, Dhont K, et al. Health plan selection criteria by people with impaired mobility. Med Care. 2002 Sep;40(9):732–42. [PubMed: 12218764]
196.
Palsbo SE, Kroll T. Meeting information needs to facilitate decision making: report cards for people with disabilities. Health Expect. 2007 Sep;10(3):278–85. [PubMed: 17678516]
197.
Braun BL, Kind EA, Fowles JB, et al. Consumer response to a report card comparing healthcare systems. Am J Manag Care. 2002 Jun;8(6):522–8. [PubMed: 12068959]
198.
Jewett JJ, Hibbard JH. Comprehension of quality care indicators: differences among privately insured, publicly insured, and uninsured. Health Care Financ Rev. 1996 Fall;18(1):75–94. [PMC free article: PMC4193616] [PubMed: 10165038]
199.
Hibbard JH, Jewett JJ. What type of quality information do consumers want in a health care report card? Med Care Res Rev. 1996 Mar;53(1):28–47. [PubMed: 10156433]
200.
Hibbard JH, Jewett JJ. Will quality report cards help consumers? Health Aff (Millwood) 1997 May–Jun;16(3):218–28. [PubMed: 9141339]
201.
Harris-Kojetin LD, McCormack LA, Jael EF, et al. Creating more effective health plan quality reports for consumers: lessons from a synthesis of qualitative testing. Health Serv Res. 2001 Jul;36(3):447–76. [PMC free article: PMC1089237] [PubMed: 11482584]
202.
Rainwater JA. Evaluation of California’s Quality of Care Report Card. 2005.
203.
Scanlon DP, Darby C, Rolph E, et al. The role of performance measures for improving quality in managed care organizations. Health Serv Res. 2001 Jul;36(3):619–41. [PMC free article: PMC1089245] [PubMed: 11482592]
204.
Teleki SS, Kanouse DE, Elliott MN, et al. Understanding the reporting practices of CAHPS sponsors. Health Care Financ Rev. 2007;28(3):17–30. [PMC free article: PMC4194987] [PubMed: 17645153]
205.
Damman OC, Hendriks M, Rademakers J, et al. How do healthcare consumers process and evaluate comparative healthcare information? A qualitative study using cognitive interviews. BMC Public Health. 2009;9:423. [PMC free article: PMC2785792] [PubMed: 19930564]
206.
Hibbard JH, Jewett JJ, Legnini MW, et al. Choosing a health plan: do large employers use the data? Health Aff (Millwood) 1997 November 1;16(6):172–80. 1997. [PubMed: 9444825]
207.
Spranca M, Kanouse DE, Elliott M, et al. Do consumer reports of health plan quality affect health plan selection? Health Serv Res. 2000 Dec;35(5 Pt 1):933–47. [PMC free article: PMC1089177] [PubMed: 11130805]
208.
Hibbard JH, Harris-Kojetin L, Mullin P, et al. Increasing the impact of health plan report cards by addressing consumers’ concerns. Health Aff (Millwood) 2000 Sep–Oct;19(5):138–43. [PubMed: 10992661]
209.
Hibbard JH, Peters E, Slovic P, et al. Making health care quality reports easier to use. Jt Comm J Qual Improv. 2001 Nov;27(11):591–604. [PubMed: 11708039]
210.
Uhrig JD, Short PF. Testing the effect of quality reports on the health plan choices of Medicare beneficiaries. Inquiry. 2002 Winter;39(4):355–71. [PubMed: 12638711]
211.
Harris KM. Can high quality overcome consumer resistance to restricted provider access? Evidence from a health plan choice experiment. Health Serv Res. 2002 Jun;37(3):551–71. [PMC free article: PMC1434651] [PubMed: 12132595]
212.
Hibbard JH, Berkman N, McCormack LA, et al. The impact of a CAHPS report on employee knowledge, beliefs, and decisions. Med Care Res Rev. 2002 Mar;59(1):104–16. [PubMed: 11877876]
213.
Uhrig JD, Harris-Kojetin L, Bann C, et al. Do content and format affect older consumers’ use of comparative information in a Medicare health plan choice? Results from a controlled experiment. Med Care Res Rev. 2006 Dec;63(6):701–18. [PubMed: 17099122]
214.
Spranca MD, Elliott MN, Shaw R, et al. Disenrollment information and Medicare plan choice: is more information better? Health Care Financ Rev. 2007 Spring;28(3):47–59. [PMC free article: PMC4194995] [PubMed: 17645155]
215.
Peters E, Dieckmann NF, Vastfjall D, et al. Bringing meaning to numbers: the impact of evaluative categories on decisions. J Exp Psychol Appl. 2009 Sep;15(3):213–27. [PubMed: 19751072]
216.
Hibbard JH, Sofaer S, Jewett JJ. Condition-specific performance information: assessing salience, comprehension, and approaches for communicating quality. Health Care Financing Review. 1996;18(1):95–109. [PMC free article: PMC4193618] [PubMed: 10165040]
217.
Hibbard JH, Slovic P, Peters E, et al. Is the informed-choice policy approach appropriate for Medicare beneficiaries? Health Aff (Millwood) 2001 May–Jun;20(3):199–203. [PubMed: 11585167]
218.
Hibbard JH, Slovic P, Peters E, et al. Strategies for Reporting Health Plan Performance Information to Consumers: Evidence from Controlled Studies. Health Serv Res. 2002;37(2):291–313. [PMC free article: PMC1430368] [PubMed: 12035995]
219.
Veroff DR, Gallagher PM, Wilson V, et al. Effective reports for health care quality data: lessons from a CAHPS demonstration in Washington State. Int J Qual Health Care. 1998 Dec;10(6):555–60. [PubMed: 9928595]
220.
Sibbald B, Addington-Hall J, Brenneman D, et al. The role of counsellors in general practice. A qualitative study. Occas Pap R Coll Gen Pract. 1996;(74):1–19. [PMC free article: PMC2560396] [PubMed: 9080766]
221.
Marshall MN, Shekelle PG, Leatherman S, et al. The public release of performance data: what do we expect to gain? A review of the evidence. JAMA. 2000;283(14):1866–74. [PubMed: 10770149]
222.
Ketelaar NA, Faber MJ, Flottorp S, et al. Public release of performance data in changing the behaviour of healthcare consumers, professionals or organisations. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2011;(11) [PMC free article: PMC4204393] [PubMed: 22071813]
223.
Amin AN, Deitelzweig SB. Optimizing the prevention of venous thromboembolism: recent quality initiatives and strategies to drive improvement. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf. 2009;35(11):558–64. [PubMed: 19947332]
224.
Castle NG, Sonon K, Antonova J. The impact of special focus facility nursing homes on market quality. Gerontologist. 2010 Aug;50(4):519–30. [PubMed: 20154307]
225.
Liu D, Castle NG. Have facilities changed their nursing home compare quality measure scores over time? Long-Term Care Interface. 2005;6(11):21–4.
226.
Eisen SV, Bottonari KA, Glickman ME, et al. The incremental value of self-reported mental health measures in predicting functional outcomes of veterans. J Behav Health Serv Res. 2011;38(2):170–90. [PubMed: 21191819]
227.
Appelbaum PS, Gold A. Psychiatrists’ relationships with industry: the principal-agent problem. Harv Rev Psychiatry. 2010 Oct;18(5):255–65. [PubMed: 20825263]
228.
Castle NG. Nursing home administrators’ opinions of the nursing home compare web site. Gerontologist. 2005 Jun;45(3):299–308. [PubMed: 15933270]
229.
Castle NG. The Nursing Home Compare report card: consumers’ use and understanding. J Aging Soc Policy. 2009 Apr–Jun;21(2):187–208. [PubMed: 19333842]
230.
Castle NG. Consumers’ use of internet-based nursing home report cards. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf. 2009 Jun;35(6):316–23. [PubMed: 19565691]
231.
Van Nie NC, Hollands LJ, Hamers JP. Reporting quality of nursing home care by an internet report card. Patient Educ Couns. 2010 Mar;78(3):337–43. [PubMed: 20189748]
232.
Gerteis M, Gerteis JS, Newman D, et al. Testing consumers’ comprehension of quality measures using alternative reporting formats. Health Care Financ Rev. 2007 Spring;28(3):31–45. [PMC free article: PMC4194990] [PubMed: 17645154]
233.
Christianson JB, Volmar KM, Alexander J, et al. A report card on provider report cards: current status of the health care transparency movement. Journal of General Internal Medicine. 2010 Nov;25(11):1235–41. [PMC free article: PMC2947645] [PubMed: 20625849]
234.
Candy B, King M, Jones L, et al. Using qualitative synthesis to explore heterogeneity of complex interventions. BioMed Central Medical Research Methodology. 2011;11(1):124. [PMC free article: PMC3178541] [PubMed: 21871083]