Appendix CForum Member and Speaker Biographies

FORUM MEMBERS

JOSHUA LEDERBERG, Ph.D. (Chair), is professor emeritus of molecular genetics and informatics and Sackler Foundation Scholar at the Rockefeller University, New York, New York. His lifelong research, for which he received the Nobel Prize in 1958, has been in genetic structure and function in microorganisms. He has a keen interest in international health and was co-chair of a previous Institute of Medicine Committee on Emerging Microbial Threats to Health (1990–1992) and currently is co-chair of the Committee on Emerging Microbial Threats to Health in the 21st Century. He has been a member of the National Academy of Sciences since 1957 and is a charter member of the Institute of Medicine.

VINCENT AHONKHAI, M.D., is vice president and director at SmithKline Beecham Pharmaceuticals and is responsible for Clinical R&D and Medical Affairs in Anti-Infectives and Biologicals, North America. He has held this position since 1995, overseeing a product portfolio that includes antibiotics, antivirals, and vaccines. After completing medical school and internships in Nigeria, Dr. Ahonkhai obtained additional training in pediatric residency, followed by a fellowship in infectious diseases in adults and pediatrics at the State University of New York–Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, N.Y., from 1975 to 1980. He then joined the faculty as assistant professor, Department of Pediatrics. In 1982, Dr. Ahonkhai started his pharmaceutical industry career as associate director of infectious diseases at Merck, where he rose to director level. Subsequently, he moved to the Robert Wood Johnson Pharmaceutical Research Institute, where he served first as head of infectious diseases and later as executive director of dermatology and wound healing. Dr. Ahonkhai is board certified in pediatrics and is a long-standing member and fellow of several professional organizations, including the American Medical Association, National Medical Association, American Society for Microbiology, Infectious Diseases Society of America (fellow), Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society, and American Academy of Pharmaceutical Physicians (vice president, Membership Development Committee, and board member).

STEVEN J. BRICKNER, Ph.D., is research advisor for antibacterials chemistry at Pfizer Global Research and Development. He received his Ph.D. in organic chemistry from Cornell University and was an NIH postdoctoral research fellow at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Dr. Brickner is a medicinal chemist with nearly 20 years of research experience in the pharmaceutical industry, all focused on the discovery and development of novel antibacterial agents. He is an inventor/co-inventor on 21 U.S. patents and has published numerous scientific papers, primarily in the area of the oxazolidinones. Prior to joining Pfizer in 1996, he led a team at Pharmacia and Upjohn that discovered and developed linezolid, the first member of a new class of antibiotics to be approved in the last 35 years.

GAIL H. CASSELL, Ph.D., is vice president of infectious diseases research, drug discovery research, and clinical investigation at Eli Lilly & Company. Previously, she was the Charles H. McCauley professor and (since 1987) chair of the Department of Microbiology, University of Alabama, Schools of Medicine and Dentistry, Birmingham, a department which, under her leadership, has ranked first in research funding from the National Institutes of Health since 1989. She is a member of the Director's Advisory Committee of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Dr. Cassell is past president of the American Society for Microbiology (ASM) and is serving her third three-year term as chairman of the Public and Scientific Affairs Board of ASM. She is a former member of the National Institutes of Health Director's Advisory Committee and a former member of the Advisory Council of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. She has also served as an advisor on infectious diseases and indirect costs of research to the White House Office on Science and Technology and was previously chair of the Board of Scientific Counselors of the National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Dr. Cassell served eight years on the Bacteriology-Mycology-II Study Section and served as its chair for three years. She serves on the editorial boards of several prestigious scientific journals and has authored over 275 articles and book chapters. She has been intimately involved in the establishment of science policy and legislation related to biomedical research and public health. Dr. Cassell has received several national and international awards and an honorary degree for her research on infectious diseases.

GARY CHRISTOPHERSON is senior advisor for force health protection at the U.S. Department of Defense, Reserve Affairs. Previously, as principal deputy assistant secretary of defense for health affairs, he managed policy, the Defense Health Program budget, and performance for the Military Health System, including the $16 billion TRICARE health care system and force health protection. In that role he also launched the Department of State's infectious disease surveillance and response system and served as co-chair on the White House's infectious disease surveillance and response subcommittee. He has also been a key figure in the department's force health protection initiative against anthrax. In early 1998 he also served as the acting assistant secretary of defense for health affairs. Joining the Department of Defense in 1994, he has served as health affairs acting principal deputy assistant secretary and senior advisor where he provided advice on a wide range of health issues and managed the relationships with the White House and other federal agencies. Previously, he served 2 years (1992–1994) with the Office of Presidential Personnel at the White House and the Presidential Transition Office. As associate director, he managed the President's appointments to the Departments of Health and Human Services and Defense as well as 10 other departments. Prior to that, he served in a number of senior health positions with the Congress and with public and private health agencies.

GORDON DEFRIESE, Ph.D., is professor of social medicine and professor of medicine (in the Division of General Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology) at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill School of Medicine. In addition, he holds appointments as professor of epidemiology and health policy and administration in the UNC-CH School of Public Health and as professor of dental ecology in the UNC-CH School of Dentistry. From 1986–2000, he served as co-director of the Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholars Program, co-sponsored by the UNC-CH School of Medicine and the Cecil G. Sheps Center for Health Services Research. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Kentucky College of Medicine. Some of his research interests are in the areas of health promotion and disease prevention, medical sociology, primary health care, rural health care, cost–benefit analyses, and cost effectiveness. He is a past president of the Association for Health Services Research and a fellow of the New York Academy of Medicine. He is founder of the Partnership for Prevention, a coalition of private-sector business and industry organizations, voluntary health organizations, and state and federal public health agencies based in Washington, D.C. that have joined together to work toward the elevation of disease prevention among the nation's health policy priorities. He is an at-large member of the National Board of Medical Examiners. Since 1994 he has served as President and CEO of the North Carolina Institute of Medicine. He is Editor-in-Chief and Publisher of the North Carolina Medical Journal.

CEDRIC E. DUMONT, M.D., is medical director for the Office of Medical Services (MED) at the U.S. Department of State. Dr. Dumont graduated from Columbia University with a B.A. in 1975 and obtained his medical degree from Tufts University School of Medicine in 1980. Dr. Dumont is a board-certified internist with subspecialty training in infectious diseases. He completed his internal medicine residency in 1983 and infectious diseases fellowship in 1988 at Georgetown University Hospital in Washington, D.C. Dr. Dumont has been a medical practitioner for over 19 years, 2 of which included service in the Peace Corps. Since joining the Department of State in 1990, he has had substantial experience overseas in Dakar, Bamako, Kinshasa, and Brazzaville. For the past 3 years, as the medical director for the Department of State, Dr. Dumont has promoted the health of all U.S. government employees serving overseas by encouraging their participation in a comprehensive health maintenance program and by facilitating their access to high-quality medical care. Dr. Dumont is a very strong supporter of the professional development and advancement of MED's highly qualified professional staff. In addition, he has supported and encouraged the use of an electronic medical record, which will be able to monitor the health of all its beneficiaries, not only during a specific assignment but also throughout their careers in the Foreign Service.

JESSE L. GOODMAN, M.D., M.P.H., was professor of medicine and chief of infectious diseases at the University of Minnesota and is now serving as deputy director for the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, where he is active in a broad range of scientific, public health, and policy issues. After joining the FDA commissioner's office, he has worked closely with several centers and helped coordinate FDA's response to the antimicrobial resistance problem. He was co-chair of a recently formed federal interagency task force which developed the national Public Health Action Plan on antimicrobial resistance. He graduated from Harvard College and attended the Albert Einstein College of Medicine followed by training in internal medicine, hematology, oncology, and infectious diseases at the University of Pennsylvania and University of California, Los Angeles, where he was also chief medical resident. He received his master's of public health from the University of Minnesota. He has been active in community public health activities, including creating an environmental health partnership in St. Paul, Minnesota. In recent years, his laboratory's research has focused on the molecular pathogenesis of tickborne diseases. His laboratory isolated the etiological intracellular agent of the emerging tickborne infection, human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, and identified its leukocyte receptor. He has also been an active clinician and teacher and has directed or participated in major multicenter clinical studies. He is a Fellow of the Infectious Diseases Society of America and, among several honors, has been elected to the American Society for Clinical Investigation.

RENU GUPTA, M.D., is vice president and head of U.S. clinical research and development at Novartis Pharmaceuticals. Previously, she was vice president of medical, safety, and therapeutics at Covance. Dr. Gupta is a board certified pediatrician, with subspeciality training in infectious diseases from Children's Hospital of Philadelphia and the University of Pennsylvania. She was also a postdoctoral research fellow in microbiology at the University of Pennsylvania and the Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology, where she conducted research on the pathogenesis of infectious diseases. Dr. Gupta received her M.B.,Ch.B with distinction from the University of Zambia, where she examined the problem of poor compliance in the treatment of tuberculosis in rural and urban Africa. She is currently active in a number of professional societies, including the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the American Society of Microbiology. She is a frequent presenter at the Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy and other major congresses and has been published in leading infectious diseases periodicals. From 1989 to mid-1998, Dr. Gupta was with Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, where she directed clinical research as well as strategic planning for the Infectious Diseases and Immunology Divisions. For the past several years, her work has focused on a better understanding of the problem of emerging infections. This has led to her pioneering efforts in establishing the Global Antimicrobial Surveillance Program, SENTRY, a private-academic-public sector partnership. Dr. Gupta chaired the steering committee for the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program. She remains active in women and children's health issues, and is currently furthering education and outreach initiatives. More recently Dr. Gupta has been instrumental in the formation of the Harvard-Pharma Management Board, of which she is a member, to further the educational goals of the Scholars in Clinical Science Program at the Harvard Medical School.

MARGARET A. HAMBURG, M.D., is vice president for biological programs, Nuclear Threat Initiative, Washington, D.C. The NTI is a new organization whose mission is to strengthen global security by reducing the risk of use of nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction and preventing their spread. Dr. Hamburg is in charge of the biological program area. Before taking on her current position, she was assistant secretary for planning and evaluation at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, serving as a principal policy adviser to the Secretary of Health and Human Services with responsibilities including policy formulation and analysis, the development and review of regulations and/or legislation, budget analysis, strategic planning, and the conduct and coordination of policy research and program evaluation. Prior to this, she served for almost 6 years as the commissioner of health for New York City. As chief health officer in the nation's largest city, Dr. Hamburg's many accomplishments included the design and implementation of an internationally recognized tuberculosis control program that produced dramatic declines in tuberculosis cases, the development of initiatives that raised childhood immunization rates to record levels, and the creation of the first public health bioterrorism preparedness program in the nation. She completed her internship and residency in internal medicine at the New York Hospital/Cornell University Medical Center and is certified by the American Board of Internal Medicine. Dr. Hamburg is a graduate of Harvard College and Harvard Medical School. She currently serves on the Harvard University Board of Overseers. She has been elected to membership in the Institute of Medicine, the New York Academy of Medicine, and the Council on Foreign Relations and is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

CAROLE A. HEILMAN, Ph.D., is director of the Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (DMID) of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID). Dr. Heilman received her bachelor's degree in biology from Boston University in 1972 and earned her master's degree and doctorate in microbiology from Rutgers University in 1976 and 1979. Dr. Heilman began her career at the National Institutes of Health as a postdoctoral research associate with the National Cancer Institute, where she carried out research on the regulation of gene expression during cancer development. In 1986 she came to NIAID as the influenza and viral respiratory diseases program officer in DMID, and in 1988 she was appointed chief of the respiratory diseases branch, where she coordinated the development of acellular pertussis vaccines. She joined the Division of AIDS as deputy director in 1997 and was responsible for developing the Innovation Grant Program for approaches in HIV vaccine research. She is the recipient of several notable awards for outstanding achievement. Throughout her extramural career Dr. Heilman has contributed articles on vaccine design and development to many scientific journals and has served as a consultant to the World Bank and the World Health Organization. She is also a member of several professional societies, including the Infectious Diseases Society of America, the American Society for Microbiology, and the American Society of Virology.

JAMES M. HUGHES, M.D., received his B.A. in 1966 and M.D. in 1971 from Stanford University. He completed a residency in internal medicine at the University of Washington and a fellowship in infectious diseases at the University of Virginia. He is board-certified in internal medicine, infectious diseases, and preventive medicine. He first joined the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as an Epidemic Intelligence Service officer in 1973. During his CDC career, he has worked primarily in the areas of foodborne disease and infection control in health care settings. He became director of the National Center for Infectious Diseases in 1992. The center is currently working to address domestic and global challenges posed by emerging infectious diseases and the threat of bioterrorism. He is a fellow of the American College of Physicians, the Infectious Diseases Society of America, and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He is an assistant surgeon general in the U.S. Public Health Service.

SAMUEL L. KATZ, M.D., is Wilburt C. Davison professor and chairman emeritus of pediatrics at Duke University Medical Center. He has concentrated his research on infectious diseases, focusing primarily on vaccine research, development and policy. Dr. Katz has served on a number of scientific advisory committees and is the recipient of many prestigious awards and honorary fellowships in international organizations. He earned his M.D. at Harvard Medical School and completed his residency training at Boston hospitals. He became a staff member at Children's Hospital, working with Nobel Laureate John Enders, during which time they developed the attenuated measles virus vaccine now used throughout the world. He has chaired the Committee on Infectious Diseases of the American Academy of Pediatrics (the Redbook Committee), the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Vaccine Priorities Study of the Institute of Medicine (IOM), and several World Health Organization (WHO) and Children's Vaccine Initiative panels on vaccines. He is a member of many scientific advisory committees including those of the National Institutes of Health, IOM, and WHO. Dr. Katz's published studies include abundant original scientific articles, chapters in textbooks, and many abstracts, editorials, and reviews. He is the co-editor of a textbook on pediatric infectious diseases and has given many named lectures in the United States and abroad. Currently he co-chairs the Indo-US Vaccine Action Program as well as the National Network for Immunization Information (NNii).

MARCELLE LAYTON, M.D., is the assistant commissioner for the Bureau of Communicable Diseases at the New York City Department of Health. The bureau is responsible for the surveillance and control of 51 infectious diseases and conditions reportable under the New York City Health Code. Current areas of concern include antibiotic resistance; foodborne, waterborne, and tickborne diseases; hepatitis C; and biological disaster planning for the potential threats of bioterrorism and pandemic influenza. Dr. Layton received her medical degree from Duke University. She completed an internal medicine residency at the University Health Science Center in Syracuse, New York, and an infectious disease fellowship at Yale University. In addition, Dr. Layton spent two years with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as a fellow in the Epidemic Intelligence Service, where she was assigned to the New York City Department of Health. In the past, she has volunteered or worked with the Indian Health Service, the Alaskan Native Health Service, and clinics in northwestern Thailand and central Nepal.

CARLOS LOPEZ, Ph.D., is a research fellow with Research Acquisitions, Eli Lilly Research Laboratories. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Minnesota in 1970. Dr. Lopez was awarded the NTRDA postdoctoral fellowship. After his fellowship he was appointed assistant professor of pathology at the University of Minnesota, where he did his research on cytomegalovirus infections in renal transplant recipients and the consequences of those infections. He was next appointed assistant member and head of the Laboratory of Herpesvirus Infections at the Sloan Kettering Institute for Cancer Research, where his research focused on herpes virus infections and the resistance mechanisms involved. Dr. Lopez's laboratory contributed to the immunological analysis of the earliest AIDS patients at the beginning of the AIDS epidemic in New York. He is co-author of one of the seminal publications on this disease as well as many scientific papers and is co-editor of six books. Dr. Lopez has been a consultant to numerous agencies and organizations, including the National Institutes of Health, the Department of Veterans Affairs, and the American Cancer Society.

STEPHEN S. MORSE, Ph.D., is director of the Center for Public Health Preparedness at the Mailman School of Public Health of Columbia University and a faculty member in the Epidemiology Department. Dr. Morse recently returned to Columbia from 4 years in government service as program manager at the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), where he co-directed the Pathogen Countermeasures program and subsequently directed the Advanced Diagnostics program. Before coming to Columbia, he was assistant professor of virology at the Rockefeller University in New York, where he remains an adjunct faculty member. Dr. Morse is the editor of two books, Emerging Viruses (Oxford University Press, 1993; paperback, 1996) (selected by “American Scientist” for its list of “100 Top Science Books of the 20th Century”), and The Evolutionary Biology of Viruses (Raven Press, 1994). He currently serves as a Section Editor of the CDC journal “Emerging Infectious Diseases” and was formerly an Editor-in-Chief of the Pasteur Institute's journal “Research in Virology”. Dr. Morse was chair and principal organizer of the 1989 NIAID/ NIH Conference on Emerging Viruses (for which he originated the term and concept of emerging viruses/infections); served as a member of the Institute of Medicine-National Academy of Sciences' Committee on Emerging Microbial Threats to Health (and chaired its Task Force on Viruses), and was a contributor to its report, Emerging Infections (1992); was a member of the IOM's Committee on Xenograft Transplantation; currently serves on the Steering Committee of the IOM's Forum on Emerging Infections, and has served as an adviser to WHO (World Health Organization), PAHO (Pan American Health Organization), FDA, the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), and other agencies. He is a fellow of the New York Academy of Sciences and a past chair of its Microbiology Section. He was the founding chair of ProMED (the nonprofit international Program to Monitor Emerging Diseases) and was one of the originators of ProMED-mail, an international network inaugurated by ProMED in 1994 for outbreak reporting and disease monitoring using the Internet. Dr. Morse received his Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin-Madison.

MICHAEL T. OSTERHOLM, Ph.D., M.P.H., is director of the Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy at the University of Minnesota where he is also professor at the School of Public Health. Previously, Dr. Osterholm was the state epidemiologist and chief of the Acute Disease Epidemiology Section for the Minnesota Department of Health. He has received numerous research awards from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). He served as principal investigator for the CDC-sponsored Emerging Infections Program in Minnesota. He has published more than 240 articles and abstracts on various emerging infectious disease problems and is the author of the best selling book, Living Terrors: What America Needs to Know to Survive the Coming Bioterrorist Catastrophe. He is past president of the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists. He currently serves on the National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Medicine (IOM) Forum on Emerging Infections. He has also served on the IOM Committee, Food Safety, Production to Consumption, the IOM Committee on the Department of Defense Persian Gulf Syndrome Comprehensive Clinical Evaluation Program and as a reviewer for the IOM report on chemical and biological terrorism.

MARC RUBIN, M.D., joined Glaxo, Inc. in 1990 as director of anti-infectives. From 1991 to 1995 he was director of infectious diseases and clinical research, and from 1995 to 1997 was international director and vice president of infectious diseases and rheumatology. In 1997 he became vice president of U.S. clinical research and in 1998 vice president of infectious diseases and hepatitis. He received his B.A. in biology from Cornell University and his medical degree from Cornell University Medical School. Dr. Rubin completed his internship and residency at the Johns Hopkins Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine, and his fellowship and postdoctoral work at the National Cancer Institute. He is board certified in internal medicine, oncology, and infectious diseases.

DAVID M. SHLAES, M.D., Ph.D., is vice president and therapeutic area co-leader for infectious diseases at Wyeth. Before joining Wyeth, Dr. Shlaes was professor of medicine at the Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine and chief of the Infectious Diseases Section and the Clinical Microbiology Unit at the Veterans Affairs Medical Center in Cleveland, Ohio. His major research interest has been the mechanisms and epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria where he has published widely. He has recently become more involved in the area of public policy as it relates to the discovery and development of antibiotics. He has served on the Institute of Medicine's Forum on Emerging Infections since 1996.

JANET SHOEMAKER is director of the American Society for Microbiology's (ASM) Public Affairs Office, a position she has held since 1989. She is responsible for managing the legislative and regulatory affairs of this 42,000-member organization, the largest single biological science society in the world. She has served as principal investigator for a project funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) to collect and disseminate data on the job market for recent doctorates in microbiology and has played a key role in ASM projects, including production of the ASM Employment Outlook in the Microbiological Sciences and The Impact of Managed Care and Health System Change on Clinical Microbiology. Previously, she held positions as assistant director of public affairs for ASM; as ASM coordinator of the U.S./U.S.S.R. Exchange Program in Microbiology, a program sponsored and coordinated by the National Science Foundation and the U.S. Department of State; and as a freelance editor and writer. She received her baccalaureate, cum laude, from the University of Massachusetts and is a graduate of George Washington University's programs in public policy and editing and publications. She has served as commissioner to the Commission on Professionals in Science and Technology and as the ASM representative to the ad hoc Group for Medical Research Funding and is a member of Women in Government Relations, the American Society of Association Executives, and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. She has co-authored published articles on research funding, biotechnology, biological weapons control, and public policy issues related to microbiology.

P. FREDERICK SPARLING, M.D., is J. Herbert Bate professor emeritus of medicine, microbiology and immunology at the University of North Carolina (UNC) at Chapel Hill and is director of the North Carolina Sexually Transmitted Infections Research Center. Previously, he served as chair of the Department of Medicine and chair of the Department of Microbiology and Immunology at UNC. He was president of the Infectious Disease Society of America in 1996–1997. He was also a member of the Institute of Medicine's Committee on Microbial Threats to Health (1991–1992). Dr. Sparling's laboratory research is in the molecular biology of bacterial outer-membrane proteins involved in pathogenesis, with a major emphasis on gonococci and meningococci. His current studies focus on the biochemistry and genetics of iron-scavenging mechanisms used by gonococci and meningococci and the structure and function of the gonococcal porin proteins. He is pursuing the goal of a vaccine for gonorrhea.

KAYE WACHSMUTH, Ph.D., serves as deputy administrator of the Office of Public Health and Science in the USDA's Food Safety and Inspection Service. Before joining the USDA, she was the deputy director for programs at the Food and Drug Administration's Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. Dr. Wachsmuth was with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta from 1972 to 1994, where she was deputy director of the Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases from 1991 to 1994 and chief of the Enteric Diseases Laboratory Section from 1985 to 1991. While at CDC she developed programs and conducted studies in the areas of molecular epidemiology and bacterial pathogenesis. She also worked extensively in Southeast Asia and South America to establish laboratory-based diarrheal disease surveillance programs. In addition to her positions at the FDA and CDC, Dr. Wachsmuth chairs the National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods and the Codex Committee for Food Hygiene and is a member of the World Health Organization's (WHO) Expert Advisory Panel on Food Safety. She has been director of WHO's International Collaborating Center for Shigella. Through adjunct faculty appointments at the University of North Carolina School of Public Health, Emory University, and Georgia State University, Dr. Wachsmuth was doctoral research adviser to students in the microbial sciences. She also mentored postdoctoral students through the National Research Council, WHO and Fogarty and Fulbright fellowship programs. At CDC in the early 1990s, she directed the summer research program for students enrolled in the University of Tuskegee Veterinary School and Morehouse University Medical School. Dr. Wachsmuth received her B.S. from Stetson University, Deland, Florida, and her Ph.D. in microbiology from the University of Tennessee. She is a fellow of the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the American Academy of Microbiology. She has received awards for benchmark epidemiological investigations of Legionnaire's disease, cholera in Latin America, drug-resistant tuberculosis, hantavirus in the western United States, and diphtheria in the former Soviet Union. The author of more than 160 scientific papers, she is on the editorial board of scientific journals and is editor of a book on cholera.

C. DOUGLAS WEBB, Jr., Ph.D., received his bachelor's degree in biology from Emory University and his master's and doctoral degrees in microbiology from the University of Georgia. He served in the Public Health Service at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as both a research microbiologist and supervisory microbiologist. After the CDC, Dr. Webb went to Pfizer Pharmaceuticals and was involved in the development of ampicillin-sulbactam, carbenicillin, cefoperazone, fluconazole, azithromycin, and trovafloxacin. Dr. Webb is senior medical director of Infectious Diseases in U.S. Medicines at Bristol-Myers Squibb, working on the strategy and development for the antiinfective portfolio.

CATHERINE E. WOTEKI, Ph.D., is undersecretary for food safety for the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Before receiving Senate confirmation to her present position on July 31, 1997, she served as acting undersecretary for research, education, and economics. From 1994 to 1995, she was deputy to the associate director of science of the Office of Science and Technology Policy. From 1990 to 1994, she was director of the Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences. A biology and chemistry major at Mary Washington College, she pursued graduate studies in human nutrition at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University and received a Ph.D. in human nutrition. She is a registered dietitian. For 2 years she performed clinical research in the Department of Medicine, University of Texas Medical School at San Antonio. She was appointed assistant professor in the Department of Nutrition and Food Science at Drexel University in Philadelphia in 1975. In July 1977 she joined the congressional Office of Technology Assessment as nutrition project director. From 1980 to 1983 she worked for the U.S. Department of Agriculture in two capacities: as leader of the Food and Diet Appraisal Research Group in the Consumer Nutrition Center and as acting associate administrator of the Human Nutrition Information Service. Dr. Woteki was deputy director of the Division of Health Examination Statistics, National Center for Health Statistics, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, from 1983 to 1990. Dr. Woteki has published 48 articles and numerous technical reports and books on food and nutrition policy and nutrition monitoring. She is the co-editor of Eat for Life: The Food and Nutrition Board's Guide to Reducing Your Risk of Chronic Disease. Dr. Woteki is a member of the Institute of Medicine.

SPEAKERS

DAVID C. BOWEN, Ph.D., is currently a congressional fellow sponsored by the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He is serving his fellowship in the office of Senator Edward Kennedy on the minority staff of the Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor and Pensions. In this position Dr. Bowen has focused on some of the emerging threats to health in the new century, such as bioterrorism, antibiotic-resistant pathogens, and infectious disease. His portfolio also includes issues relating to biotechnology and biomedical research, including stem cells, genetic discrimination, and medical records privacy. Prior to joining the Kennedy staff, Dr. Bowen received his undergraduate education at Brown University and then earned a Ph.D. in neurobiology at the University of California, San Francisco. He subsequently had a postdoctoral appointment at Regeneron Pharmaceuticals before joining NeuralStem, a start-up biotechnology company, as a senior staff scientist. At the conclusion of his fellowship, Dr. Bowen plans to continue working in the science and health policy field in Washington.

FRED BROWN, Ph.D., is a visiting scientist at the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Plum Island Animal Disease Center, Greenport, New York. He was a member of the Spongiform Encephalopathy Advisory Committee, which gave advice to the British government on the outbreak of mad cow disease.

LISA CHAKRABARTI, Ph.D., is an investigator at the Pasteur Institute in Paris. She received her Ph.D. in microbiology from the Paris 7 University in 1991 and completed her postdoctoral training in the laboratory of Luc Montagnier. She joined the Pasteur Institute in 1993 and has served as chargé de recherches since 1996. She recently spent 4 years as a visiting scientist at the Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center of New York (1997–2001). Dr. Chakrabarti's research focuses on identifying pathogenic determinants of simian immunodeficiency viruses. During her stay at ADARC, she had the opportunity to work with the group of Pr. Preston Marx on nonpathogenic SIV infections in the sooty mangabey. Pr. Chakrabarti also worked with Pr. Cecilia Cheng-Mayer and benefited from the experience of her group in the study of pathogenic SHIV infections.

LOUISA E. CHAPMAN, M.D., M.S.P.H., attended Macalester College, St. Paul, Minnesota, on a National Merit Scholarship and earned a B.A. in biology and philosophy. She subsequently earned an M.S.P.H. in parasitology and laboratory practice from the School of Public Health and an M.D. from the School of Medicine of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Dr. Chapman completed residency training in internal medicine at the University of Minnesota and fellowship training in infectious diseases at Boston University and is board certified in both specialties. She was commissioned as an officer in the U.S. Public Health Service when she came to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as an epidemic intelligence officer in 1988 and currently holds the rank of commander. Since 1988 Dr. Chapman has worked in public health research and practice, specializing in the epidemiology of viral diseases with a focus on zoonoses. She is an author on more than 70 publications. While Dr. Chapman has worked with a variety of viruses, her most extensive experience has been with non-HIV retroviruses, influenza, Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1, and viral hemorrhagic fever agents. Since 1994 she has led CDC efforts addressing infectious disease issues associated with xenotransplantation and is the CDC ex officio representative to the Secretary's Advisory Committee on Xenotransplantation. Dr. Chapman has served as a reviewer or consultant for the National Research Council's Institute of Laboratory Animal Research, the Department of Defense's Biomedical Technology Area Review and Assessment Panel, the World Health Organization, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, the Institute of Medicine, the Hastings Center, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, and others.

LISA CONTI, D.V.M., M.P.H., Diplomate A.C.V.P., received her undergraduate degree in chemistry at the University of Miami, her doctor of veterinary medicine at the University of Florida in 1988, and her master's of public health from the University of South Florida in 1993. She earned specialty board certification from the American College of Veterinary Preventive Medicine in 1994. Dr. Conti currently serves as the Florida State public health veterinarian. She has been with the Florida State Health Office since 1988, during which time she also taught anatomy and physiology at Tallahassee Community College and epidemiology at Florida State University. She was recently the program administrator for the HIV/AIDS Surveillance Section in the Bureau of HIV/AIDS. She has authored or coauthored numerous journal articles on HIV/AIDS surveillance, public health, and zoonoses. Dr. Conti has been an active member of her local, state, and national veterinary medical and public health associations for many years. She has been a representative of the Florida Veterinary Medical Association Executive Board since 1994 and established and has chaired the Public Health Committee since 1995. She was a founding member of the Florida Rabies Control and Prevention Advisory Committee. In 1997, Dr. Conti was elected to the American Veterinary Medical Association Council on Public Relations representing public health.

PETER COWEN, D.V.M., Ph.D., obtained a B.A. in sociology from Beloit College in 1971. He spent 5 years in Ibadan, Nigeria, earning his doctor of veterinary medicine degree in 1979. A master of preventive veterinary medicine (M.P.V.M.) degree from the University of California-Davis followed in 1980. He then worked under the supervision of Calvin W. Schwabe meriting a Ph.D. degree from UC-Davis in 1985. He accepted a position at North Carolina State University in 1985 and is currently associate professor of epidemiology and public health with the Department of Farm Animal Health and Resource Management, College of Veterinary Medicine. Dr. Cowen spent a year on leave during 1998–1999 at the U.S. Department of Agriculture in the Epidemiology and Risk Assessment Division, Office of Public Health and Science, Food Safety Inspection Service, working with Kaye Wachsmuth. Since 1996, Dr. Cowen has been a moderator for ProMED-mail, the largest independent global electronic reporting system and forum on emerging diseases. His other disciplinary interests and publications include the design of surveillance systems, medical geography, food safety, risk assessment and international aspects of the delivery of veterinary services.

RANDALL L. CROM, D.V.M., is currently a staff veterinarian assigned to the Emergency Programs staff in Veterinary Services (VS) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS). Since February 2000 he has worked as coordinator of West Nile virus issues for APHIS-VS. From 1997 to 1999, Dr. Crom was seconded by APHIS to the Communicable Diseases Cluster of the World Health Organization in Geneva, Switzerland. While there he worked on emerging zoonotic disease issues ranging from antimicrobial resistance related to use in food-producing animals to an outbreak of avian influenza in birds and humans in Hong Kong. Since joining APHIS-VS in 1984, he has worked in field programs in Puerto Rico to eradicate brucellosis, tuberculosis, and cattle ticks and as an epidemiologist with the Center for Emerging Issues of the Centers for Epidemiology and Animal Health in Fort Collins, Colorado. Dr. Crom received training and experience in epidemiology as an Epidemic Intelligence Service officer for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 1986 to 1988. He received his doctor of veterinary medicine degree in 1980 from the College of Veterinary Medicine at Iowa State University.

PAUL W. EWALD, Ph.D., is professor of biology at Amherst College. Dr. Ewald earned his B.Sc. from the University of California, Irvine, in biological sciences and his Ph.D. in zoology from the University of Washington, specializing in ecology and evolution. A major focus of his research takes a comparative approach to the evolution of virulence, with a focus on human diseases and the evolutionary effects of various public health interventions.

DANA A. FOCKS, Ph.D., is senior scientist at the Center for Medical, Agricultural, and Veterinary Entomology at the Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture.

DAVID R. FRANZ, D.V.M., Ph.D., is vice president of the Chemical and Biological Defense Division, Southern Research Institute. He served in the U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command for 23 of his 27 years on active duty. Dr. Franz has served as both deputy commander and then commander of the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases and as deputy commander of the U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command. Dr. Franz served as chief inspector on three United Nations Special Commission biological warfare inspection missions to Iraq and as technical adviser on long-term monitoring. He also served as a member of the first two U.S.–U.K. teams that visited Russia in support of the Trilateral Joint Statement on Biological Weapons and as a member of the Trilateral Experts' Committee for biological weapons negotiations. He was technical editor for the Textbook of Military Medicine on Chemical and Biological Defense released in 1997. Dr. Franz holds a D.V.M. from Kansas State University and a Ph.D. in physiology from Baylor College of Medicine.

MILTON FRIEND, Ph.D., was nominated by Secretary of the Interior Bruce Babbitt to be the executive director of the Salton Sea Science Subcommittee. Dr. Friend retains an affiliation with the U.S. Geological Survey where he is the originator and the first and immediate past director of its National Wildlife Health Center. Prior to that position, he was the section chief for pesticide-wildlife ecology at the Denver Wildlife Research Center of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. In addition to his government service, Dr. Friend is an adjunct professor in the Department of Animal and Biomedical Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison. Dr. Friend is the recipient of numerous awards for outstanding research, meritorious service, and professional accomplishment. He is the author of over 100 publications. He earned his B.S. in wildlife conservation with a minor in forestry from the University of Maine; an M.S. in wildlife management, minor in epidemiology from the University of Massachusetts; and a Ph.D. in veterinary science and wildlife ecology, with an epidemiology minor, from the University of Wisconsin-Madison.

MARY J. R. GILCHRIST, Ph.D., was named the director of the University Hygienic Laboratory on July 1, 1995. She holds a bachelor's degree in microbiology from the University of Iowa and M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in microbiology from the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign. She is a diplomat of the American Board of Medical Microbiology. After a fellowship in clinical and public health microbiology at the Mayo Clinic, Dr. Gilchrist served in the state public health laboratories of Minnesota and Iowa and at two hospitals in Ohio. She was director of clinical microbiology at the Children's Hospital Medical Center and at the Veterans Affairs Medical Center in Cincinnati and associate professor at the University of Cincinnati. In 1991, after the Persian Gulf War, she was nominated as Federal Employee of the Year for her contributions to the bioterrorism response and planning for the Department of Veterans Affairs. In 1994, Dr. Gilchrist was named the Eagleson Institute Lecturer of the American Biological Safety Association. Dr. Gilchrist served for 9 years on the Public and Scientific Affairs Board of the American Society for Microbiology. She is on the Board of Directors of the Association of Public Health Laboratories and chairs its Committee on Emerging Infectious Diseases. She served on the Hospital Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee at CDC until this year when she was appointed to the NCID Board of Scientific Counselors. Dr. Gilchrist is very active in the public health response to bioterrorism at the local, state, and national levels and has several committee appointments related to bioterrorism.

W. IAN LIPKIN, M.D., is director of the Emerging Diseases Laboratory and professor in the Departments of Neurology, Anatomy and Neurobiology, and Microbiology and Molecular Genetics at the University of California, Irvine. Dr. Lipkin was the first to identify an infectious agent by subtractive cloning (Borna disease virus in 1990). He also led the team that used unique molecular methods to identify the West Nile virus as the cause of the encephalitis outbreak in New York state in the fall of 1999. His laboratory investigates the role of infectious agents and immune responses in the pathogenesis of acute and chronic central nervous system diseases through molecular epidemiology and animal modeling. Dr. Lipkin received a B.A. from Sarah Lawrence College in 1974 and an M.D. from Rush Medical College in 1978. His postgraduate training included a residency in internal medicine at the University of Washington (1979–1981), a residency in neurology at the University of California, San Francisco (1981–1984); and a fellowship in neurovirology and molecular neurobiology at the Scripps Research Institute (1984–1990). He was a 1991 Pew Scholar.

TRACEY S. McNAMARA, D.V.M., Diplomate A.C.V.P., is head of the Department of Pathology at the Wildlife Conservation Society (WSC). After graduating from the New York State College of Veterinary Medicine at Cornell University, she completed a joint residency program in comparative veterinary anatomic pathology at the Animal Medical Center and WSC. She remained at the zoo, where she now holds the Schiff Family Distinguished Scientist in Wild Animal Pathology endowed chair. She is a member of the American College of Veterinary Pathology and vice president of the Charles Louis Davis, D.V.M., Foundation for the Advancement of Veterinary and Comparative Pathology in addition to being the head of its zoo and wildlife pathology program. Dr. McNamara also holds the title of visiting assistant professor of pathology at Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University.

ROBERTA A. MORALES, D.V.M., Ph.D., is a senior research scientist with the Research Triangle Institute's (RTI) Center for Regulatory Economics and Policy Research in North Carolina. Dr. Morales received a doctor of veterinary medicine degree from the University of the Philippines in 1980, a master's degree in preventive veterinary medicine from the University of California, Davis in 1982, and a Ph.D. in economics from North Carolina State University in 1995. Her areas of expertise are in epidemiology, risk assessment, and economics of food safety and animal health. She is a member of the National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods and has served on the U.S. Delegation for the Codex Alimentarius Commission Committee for Food Hygiene. Dr. Morales is an adjunct assistant professor at North Carolina State University's College of Veterinary Medicine. Prior to joining RTI, she was assistant professor of food safety at the Virginia–Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine where she co-directed the Epidemiology Residency Program. She has also worked with the USDA's Food Safety and Inspection Service on an Interagency Personnel Agreement with North Carolina State University, as an agricultural economist with the USDA Economic Research Service, and as a consultant for industry and academia. Dr. Morales has authored seven book chapters on food safety and has published in peer-reviewed journals, including the Journal of Food Protection, Risk Analysis, International Journal of Food Microbiology, Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, and Preventive Veterinary Medicine.

FREDERICK A. MURPHY, D.V.M., Ph.D., is professor of virology at the School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis. He received a B.S. and a D.V.M. from Cornell University and a Ph.D. from the University of California, Davis. Previously, he served as director of the Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases and later as director of the National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control, in Atlanta. From 1991 to 1996 he served as dean of the School of Veterinary Medicine at UC Davis. His honors include membership in the Institute of Medicine, the Presidential Rank Award, membership in the Deutsche Akademie der Naturforscher Leopoldina (German Academy of Natural Sciences) and the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, the K.F. Meyer Gold Headed Cane, an honorary doctor of medicine and surgery from the University of Turku in Finland, and an honorary doctor of science from the University of Guleph, Ontario, Canada.

C. J. PETERS, M.D., is a professor in the Department of Microbiology and Immunology and Pathology at the University of Texas Medical Branch in Galveston. Dr. Peters was recently named director of the Center for Biodefense at UTMB, which will serve as a catalyst for research and development efforts on effective medical countermeasures against bioterrorism and biological warfare. He had been chief of special pathogens at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta. Formerly chief of the Disease Assessment Division at USAMRIID, he has worked in the field of infectious diseases for three decades with the CDC, the U.S. Army, and the U.S. Public Health Service. He was head of the unit that contained the outbreak of Ebola in Reston, Virginia. He was also called in to contain an outbreak of deadly hemorrhagic fever in Bolivia. He received his M.D. from Johns Hopkins University and has more than 275 publications virology and viral immunology. Dr. Peters is currently a member of the National Research Council's Committee on Occupational Health and Safety in the Care of Nonhuman Primates and the Institute of Medicine's Committee on Emerging Microbial Threats to Health in the 21st Century.

JOHN T. ROEHRIG, Ph.D., is currently chief of the Arbovirus Diseases Branch at the National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Dr. Roehrig is a director of the WHO Collaborating Center for Arboviruses for the Western Hemisphere and a member of the WHO Steering Committee on Dengue and Japanese Encephalitis Vaccines. He is a faculty affiliate in the Department of Microbiology at Colorado State University. His prior positions include chief of the Immunochemistry Section, Molecular Biology Branch, and chief and supervisory microbiologist, Immunochemistry Branch, all at CDC. Dr. Roehrig received his bachelor's degree in microbiology from the University of Illinois-Urbana and then earned a doctoral degree in microbiology from the University of Missouri-Columbia. He was a postdoctoral fellow (Milton J. Schlesinger) in the Department of Microbiology and Immunology at the Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, Missouri. He is a member of several infectious disease societies and his editorial activities include reviewing for more than 12 infectious disease journals. He is the author or co-author of 83 scientific publications. Dr. Roehrig's scientific interests include the immunology of vectorborne viral diseases, protein biochemistry, vectorborne viral encephalitides, yellow fever, dengue fever, and rubella.

ALAN L. SCHMALJOHN, Ph.D., is chief, Department of Viral Pathogenesis and Immunology, in the Virology Division of the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID) in Frederick, MD. His current efforts center on discovery and nonclinical testing of viral vaccines for exotic and hazardous viruses. His interests and published works span several virus genera (filoviruses, orthopoxviruses, alphaviruses, hantaviruses, bunyaviruses, arenaviruses); immunologic niches (cytotoxic T lymphocytes, humoral immunity, including monoclonal antibodies, peptides, antiidiotypes); virologic topics (isolation and characterization of new viruses, receptors, antibody escape mutants, epitope mapping, reassortants, envelope structure/function); and vaccine strategies (alphavirus replicons, DNA vaccines, baculovirus recombinants, vaccinia virus recombinants, classical live or killed vaccines). Seminal scientific contributions have included a candidate vaccine for Marburg virus, isolation of an American hantavirus later to be called Sin Nombre virus, and establishment of the importance of nonneutralizing antibodies in resistance to viral infections. Dr. Schmaljohn received his Ph.D. in microbiology from Colorado State University, Fort Collins, followed by postdoctoral training at the Johns Hopkins University and the University of Maryland Medical Center. After 3 years as faculty in the Microbiology Department at UMAB, Dr. Schmaljohn took a civilian position at USAMRIID in late 1986.

ROBERT E. SHOPE, M.D., is professor of pathology in the WHO Center for Tropical Diseases at the University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston. The center serves as the repository for a major collection of arboviruses and rodent-associated viruses. Dr. Shope is a virologist/epidemiologist and former director of the Yale Arbovirus Research Unit. He was a member of the teams that investigated outbreaks of Rift Valley fever, Lassa fever, Venezuelan hemorrhagic fever, and other often fatal hemorrhagic diseases caused by zoonotic viruses. He also has expertise in the diagnosis and rapid identification of human-pathogenic viruses carried by arthropods and rodents, and in 1992 he co-chaired the Institute of Medicine's study on emerging infections.

ALFRED D. STEINBERG, M.D., graduated Phi Beta Kappa from Princeton University and cum laude from Harvard Medical School. He took an intership and residency in internal medicine in New York and a fellowship in immunology-rheumatology at the National Institutes of Health. He remained at NIH as a senior investigator and then chief of the Cellular Immunology Section, NIAMS. An author of more than 450 papers, he has published extensively in immunology and molecular genetics. He has also studied endogenous retroviruses. Dr. Steinberg currently works at Mitretek, a nonprofit think tank, and serves as a consultant to several government agencies in the areas of immunology, molecular genetics, and medical microbiology.

STEPHEN F. SUNDLOF, D.V.M., Ph.D., is Director of the Center for Veterinary Medicine, Food and Drug Administration. He received both his doctorate in veterinary medicine and Ph.D. in toxicology from the University of Illinois and is a diplomat of the American Board of Veterinary Toxicology. He served on the faculty of the University of Florida, College of Veterinary Medicine, from 1980 through 1994 where he held the rank of professor. Dr. Sundlof has published numerous articles in scientific journals on drug residues and food safety. He has presented more than 100 invited lectures at national and international meetings. He presently serves as chairman of the WHO/FAAAO Codex Alimentarius Committee on Residues of Veterinary Drugs in Foods and is past president of the American Academy of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

ROBERT B. TESH, M.D., is a physician with training in pediatrics and epidemiology. He spent 12 years on the staff of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and 15 years on the faculty of Yale University School of Medicine. Since 1995, he has been professor of pathology and professor of microbiology and immunology at the University of Texas Medical Branch. He has lived and worked in a number of countries in tropical America and is the author of more than 200 publications, primarily on the epidemiology of vector- and rodentborne zoonotic diseases.

ROBERT G. WEBSTER, Ph.D., received his B.Sc. and M.Sc. in microbiology from the Otago University in New Zealand. In 1962 he earned his Ph.D. from the Australian National University and spent the next two years as a Fulbright Scholar in the Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Since 1968, Dr. Webster has been in the Department of Virology and Molecular Biology at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee. In 1988 he was appointed to the Rose Marie Thomas Chair in the above department. In 1989 Dr. Webster was admitted to the highly prestigious Royal Society of London in recognition for his contribution to influenza virus research. In 1998 he was appointed to the National Academy of Sciences. In addition to his position at St. Jude, Dr. Webster is director of the U.S. Collaborating Center of the World Health Organization dealing with the ecology of animal influenza viruses. Dr. Webster's interests include the structure and function of influenza virus proteins and the development of new vaccines and antivirals and the importance of influenza viruses in wild birds as a major reservoir of influenza viruses and their role in the evolution of new pandemic strains for humans and lower animals. His curriculum vitae contains over 385 original articles and reviews on influenza viruses and related topics.