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Hockenhull JC, Whittington R, Leitner M, et al. A Systematic Review of Prevention and Intervention Strategies for Populations at High Risk of Engaging in Violent Behaviour: Update 2002–8. Southampton (UK): NIHR Evaluation, Trials and Studies Coordinating Centre (UK); 2012 Feb. (Health Technology Assessment, No. 16.3.)

Cover of A Systematic Review of Prevention and Intervention Strategies for Populations at High Risk of Engaging in Violent Behaviour: Update 2002–8

A Systematic Review of Prevention and Intervention Strategies for Populations at High Risk of Engaging in Violent Behaviour: Update 2002–8.

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Appendix 3Selection of data for meta-analyses

TABLE 56All reported RCT comparators and outcomes and those selected for MAs

Study IDLineComparatorsOutcomeMetric
Alexander 2004112ILorazepam vs haloperidol + promethazineIn physical restraints at 60 minutesOR
IILorazepam vs haloperidol + promethazineIn physical restraints at 15 minutesOR
IIILorazepam vs haloperidol + promethazineIn physical restraints at 30 minutesOR
IVLorazepam vs haloperidol + promethazineIn physical restraints at 120 minutesOR
VaLorazepam vs haloperidol + promethazineIn physical restraints at 240 minutesOR
Arango 2006113IOral zuclopenthixol vs depot zuclopenthixolNo. of months from baseline to first violent episode (M-OAS)OR
IIOral zuclopenthixol vs depot zuclopenthixolSeverity of violence (using M-OAS)OR
IIIOral zuclopenthixol vs depot zuclopenthixolViolence during follow-up: yes/no (using M-OAS)OR
IVOral zuclopenthixol vs depot zuclopenthixolViolence frequency (M-OAS)OR
Brodaty 2003139Risperidone vs placeboCohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory – aggressive behaviour subscaleNSD
Brown University 200689IAripiprazole vs placeboSTAXI – anger inOR
IIAripiprazole vs placeboSTAXI – anger controlOR
IIIAripiprazole vs placeboSCL-90-R aggressiveness/hostility subscaleOR
IVAripiprazole vs placeboSTAXI – state angerOR
VAripiprazole vs placeboSTAXI – anger outOR
VIAripiprazole vs placeboSTAXI – trait angerOR
Cavanaugh 200781IDialectical psychoeducational workshop vs anger management workshopSTAXI – state anger feelingsOR
IIDialectical psychoeducational workshop vs anger management workshopSTAXI – state anger verbalOR
IIIDialectical psychoeducational workshop vs anger management workshopSTAXI – state anger physicalOR
IVDialectical psychoeducational workshop vs anger management workshopSTAXI – trait anger temperamentOR
VDialectical psychoeducational workshop vs anger management workshopSTAXI – trait anger reactionsOR
VIDialectical psychoeducational workshop vs anger management workshopSTAXI – anger expressions outOR
VIIDialectical psychoeducational workshop vs anger management workshopSTAXI – anger expressions inOR
VIIIDialectical psychoeducational workshop vs anger management workshopSTAXI – anger control outOR
IXDialectical psychoeducational workshop vs anger management workshopSTAXI – anger control inOR
XDialectical psychoeducational workshop vs anger management workshopRisk of Eruptive Violence ScaleOR
Chan 200698Fluoxetine or nortriptyline vs placeboPresent State Examination irritabilityOR
Citrome 2004107ICombination therapy: (olanzapine or risperidone + divalproex sodium) vs monotherapy: (olanzapine or risperidone) + placeboPANSS hostility: change to day 7OR
IICombination therapy: (olanzapine or risperidone + divalproex sodium vs monotherapy: (olanzapine or risperidone + placeboPANSS hostility: change to day 3:OR
IIICombination therapy: (olanzapine or risperidone) + divalproex sodium vs monotherapy: (olanzapine or risperidone + placeboPANSS hostility: change to day 5:OR
IVCombination therapy: (olanzapine or risperidone) + divalproex sodium vs monotherapy: (olanzapine or risperidone) + placeboPANSS hostility: change to day 14OR
VCombination therapy: (olanzapine or risperidone) + divalproex sodium vs monotherapy: (olanzapine or risperidone) + placeboPANSS hostility: change to day 10OR
VICombination therapy: (olanzapine or risperidone) + divalproex sodium vs monotherapy: (olanzapine or risperidone) + placeboPANSS Hostility: change to day 21OR
VIIMonotherapy: (olanzapine or risperidone) + placebo vs combination therapy: (olanzapine or risperidone) + divalproex sodiumPANSS Hostility: change to day 28OR
Clarkin 200768DBT vs transference focused psychotherapyNSD
Cooper 200690IaViolence Intervention Program vs standard medical treatmentConvicted for violent crimeOR
IIViolence Intervention Program vs standard medical treatmentEver arrested violent crimeOR
Duggan 2007114IHealthy Families Alaska Program – positive parenting, etc. vs TAUCTS – extreme physical punishmentOR
IIHealthy Families Alaska Program – positive parenting, etc. vs TAUCTS – corporal/verbal punishmentOR
IIIHealthy Families Alaska Program – positive parenting, etc. vs TAUCTS – hit with objectOR
IVHealthy Families Alaska Program – positive parenting, etc. vs TAUCTS – severe assaultOR
VHealthy Families Alaska Program – positive parenting, etc. vs TAUCTS – common corporal punishmentOR
VIHealthy Families Alaska Program – positive parenting, etc. vs TAUCTS – mild physical assaultOR
VIIHealthy Families Alaska Program – positive parenting, etc. vs TAUCT – psychological aggressionOR
Easton 2005110CBT substance abuse program vs twelve-step facilitationCTS – physicalOR
Easton 2007111ISubstance Abuse Domestic Violence Group vs twelve-step facilitationCTS – physical violence frequency at 12 weeksOR
IISubstance Abuse Domestic Violence Group vs twelve-step facilitationCTS – physical violence % at 12 weeksOR
IIISubstance Abuse Domestic Violence Group vs twelve-step facilitation groupCTS – physical violence frequency at 6 monthsOR
Frankenburg 2002106IDivalproex vs placeboSCL-90 anger/hostility subscaleOR
IIDivalproex vs placeboM-OASOR
Galovski 200269Cognitive behavioural psychological intervention vs self-monitoring of symptoms onlyNSD
Gottfredson 200292Baltimore Drug Treatment Court vs TAU% with violent or sex charge at 1 yearOR
Hollander 200391Divalproex vs placeboM-OAS (median)OR
Houston 200670NSD
Huf 200372Midazolam vs haloperidol + promethazine% not needing restraints at 120 minutesRR
Midazolam vs haloperidol + promethazine% no further aggression at 24 hoursRR
Huf 200773Haloperidol vs haloperidol plus promethazineNo other episodes of aggression at 24 hoursRR
Haloperidol vs haloperidol plus promethazineRestraints not needed at 120 minutesRR
Krakowski 200682IClozapine vs haloperidolM-OAS physical aggressionOR
IIClozapine vs olanzapineM-OAS physical aggressionOR
IIIOlanzapine vs haloperidolM-OAS physical aggressionOR
IVClozapine vs haloperidolM-OAS verbal aggressionOR
VClozapine vs olanzapineM-OAS verbal aggressionOR
VIOlanzapine vs haloperidolM-OAS verbal aggressionOR
Labriola 200894IBatterer programme vs no TAUAny rearrest for domestic violence at 1-year post-sentenceOR
IIBatterer programme vs no TAUAny rearrest for domestic violence at 18-months post-sentenceOR
IIIBatterer programme vs no TAUAny rearrest for domestic violence at 1-year post-monitoringOR
IVBatterer programme vs no TAUVictim report of any type of new abuseOR
VBatterer programme vs no TAUVictim report new physical abuseOR
VIBatterer programme vs no TAUVictim report new threatsOR
VIIBatterer programme vs no TAUVictim report other abuseOR
VIIIMonthly monitoring vs graduated monitoringAny rearrest for domestic violence at 1-year post-sentenceOR
IXMonthly monitoring vs graduated monitoringAny rearrest for domestic violence at 18-months post-sentenceOR
XMonthly monitoring vs graduated monitoringAny rearrest for domestic violence at 1-year post-monitoringOR
XIMonthly monitoring vs graduated monitoringVictim report of any type of new abuseOR
XIIMonthly monitoring vs graduated monitoringVictim report new physical abuseOR
XIIIMonthly monitoring vs graduated monitoringVictim report new threatsOR
XIVMonthly monitoring vs graduated monitoringVictim report other abuseOR
Lanza 200286ICBT group vs psychodynamic group psychotherapyMonthly STAXI trait anger changeOR
IICBT group vs psychodynamic group psychotherapyOASOR
IIICBT group vs psychodynamic group psychotherapyWeekly STAXI anger control changeOR
IVCBT group vs psychodynamic group psychotherapyWeekly STAXI state anger changeOR
Lasley 200383Intensive bail supervision vs regular bail supervisionRepeat DV offendingOR
Levesque 2005200IComputerised stage-matched intervention for DV offenders adjunctive to traditional batterer programme vs traditional batterer programmeBeat up partnerNSD
IIComputerised stage-matched intervention for DV offenders adjunctive to traditional batterer programme vs traditional batterer programmeSlappedNSD
IIIComputerised stage-matched intervention for DV offenders adjunctive to traditional batterer programme vs traditional batterer programmePhysical aggressionNSD
IVComputerised stage-matched intervention for DV offenders adjunctive to traditional batterer programme vs traditional batterer programmePsychological aggressionNSD
Liau 2004115Psychoeducational component of the EQUIP program vs EQUIP without psychoeducational componentSelf-reported aggressionOR
Linehan 2008116IDBT plus olanzapine vs DBT plus placeboOAS – irritabilityOR
IIDBT plus olanzapine vs DBT plus placeboOAS – physical aggressionOR
IIIDBT plus olanzapine vs DBT plus placeboOAS – verbal aggressionOR
Loew 2006117Topiramate vs placeboSCL-90 hostility subscaleOR
MacKenzie 200795Boot camp vs prisonSTAXIOR
Marques 200574IRelapse prevention vs volunteer controlSexual reoffenceNSD
IIRelapse prevention vs non-volunteer controlSexual reoffenceNSD
IIIRelapse prevention vs volunteer controlViolent reoffenceNSD
IVRelapse prevention vs non-volunteer controlViolent reoffenceNSD
Mattes 200596IOxcarbazepine vs placeboChange in BPRS hostility ratingOR
IIOxcarbazepine vs placeboM-OAS – global (change in score)OR
IVOxcarbazepine vs placeboM-OAS verbal aggression (change in score)OR
VIOxcarbazepine vs placeboM-OAS – assault against others (change in score)OR
Meehan 2002109IOlanzapine (5 mg) vs placeboChange PANSS hostility item: 2 hoursOR
IILorazepam vs placeboChange PANSS hostility item: 2 hoursOR
IIIOlanzapine (2.5 mg) vs placeboChange PANSS hostility item: 2 hoursOR
Mitchell 200677Boot camp vs traditional correctional facilitySelf-control scale – temperLinked with Mackenzie95
Monnelly 200385Risperidone vs placeboM-OAS – aggression subscaleOR
New 200497Fluoxetine vs placeboOAS – aggressionOR
Nickel 2004104ITopiramate vs placeboSTAXI – anger controlOR
IITopiramate vs placeboSTAXI – anger outOR
IIITopiramate vs placeboSTAXI – state angerOR
IVTopiramate vs placeboSTAXI – trait angerOR
VTopiramate vs placeboSTAXI – anger inOR
Nickel 200588ITopiramate vs placeboAnger symptoms – anger inOR
IITopiramate vs placeboAnger symptoms – anger controlOR
IIITopiramate vs placeboAnger symptoms – anger outOR
IVTopiramate vs placeboAnger symptoms – state angerOR
VTopiramate vs placeboAnger symptoms – trait angerOR
Nickel 2005105ITopiramate vs placeboAnger symptoms – anger controlOR
IITopiramate vs placeboAnger symptoms – anger inOR
IIITopiramate vs placeboAnger symptoms – anger outOR
IVTopiramate vs placeboAnger symptoms – state angerOR
VTopiramate vs placeboAnger symptoms – trait angerOR
Raveendran 200775IOlanzapine vs haloperidol plus promethazineIn restraints at 120 minutesRR
IIOlanzapine vs haloperidol plus promethazineIn restraints at 15 minutesRR
IIIOlanzapine vs haloperidol plus promethazineIn restraints at 240 minutesRR
IVOlanzapine vs haloperidol plus promethazineIn restraints at 30 minutesRR
VOlanzapine vs haloperidol plus promethazineIn restraints at 60 minutesRR
Rinne 200299Fluvoxamine vs placeboBorderline Personality Disorder Severity Index – anger subscaleOR
Soler 2005118DBT plus olanzapine vs DBT plus placeboImpulsivity/aggressive behaviour (bi-weekly reports)OR
Suh 2004101IRisperidone vs haloperidolCohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory – aggressive behaviour subscaleOR
IIRisperidone vs haloperidolBehavioural Pathology in Alzheimer's Disease Rating Scale – aggressiveness subscaleOR
Theall 200771Four-session motivated focused condition vs four-session negotiation-focused condition (TAU) National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)NSD
Tritt 2005103ILamotrigine vs placeboSTAXI – anger controlOR
IILamotrigine vs placeboSTAXI – anger outOR
IIILamotrigine vs placeboSTAXI – state angerOR
IVLamotrigine vs placeboSTAXI – trait angerOR
VLamotrigine vs placeboSTAXI – anger inOR
Tyrer 2008108IRisperidone vs placeboM-OAS 4 weeksOR
IIHaloperidol vs placeboM-OAS 4 weeksOR
IIIRisperidone or haloperidol vs placeboM-OAS 4 weeksOR
Vannoy 2006102RCTIAnger control based on Buddhist meditation vs TAUSTAXI anger (males) 1-week post-treatmentOR
RCTIIAnger control based on Buddhist meditation vs TAUAQ anger (males) 1-week post-treatmentOR
RCTIIIAnger control based on Buddhist meditation vs TAUAQ hostility (males) 1-week post-treatmentOR
RCTIVAnger control based on Buddhist meditation vs TAUCM hostility (males) 1-week post-treatmentOR
RCTVAnger control based on Buddhist meditation vs TAUSTAXI anger (females) 1-week post-treatmentOR
RCTVIAnger control based on Buddhist meditation vs TAUAQ anger (females) 1-week post-treatmentOR
RCTVIIAnger control based on Buddhist meditation vs TAUAQ hostility (females) 1-week post-treatmentOR
RCTVIIIAnger control based on Buddhist meditation vs TAUCM hostility (females) 1-week post-treatmentOR
RCTIXAnger control based on Buddhist meditation vs TAUSTAXI anger (males) 10-weeks post-treatmentOR
RCTXAnger control based on Buddhist meditation vs TAUAQ anger (males) 10-weeks post-treatmentOR
RCTXIAnger control based on Buddhist meditation vs TAUAQ hostility (males) 10-weeks post-treatmentOR
RCTXIIAnger control based on Buddhist meditation vs TAUCM hostility (Males) 10-weeks post-treatmentOR
RCTXIIIAnger control based on Buddhist meditation vs TAUSTAXI anger (females) 10-weeks post-treatmentOR
RCTIXAnger control based on Buddhist meditation vs TAUAQ anger (females) 10-weeks post-treatmentOR
RCTXVAnger control based on Buddhist meditation vs TAUAQ hostility (Females) 10-weeks post-treatmentOR
RCTXVIAnger control based on Buddhist meditation vs TAUCM hostility (Females) 10-weeks post-treatmentOR
Villari 200876IRisperidone vs olanzapineBPRS hostilityNSD
IIRisperidone vs quetiapineBPRS hostilityNSD
IIIRisperidone vs haloperidolBPRS hostilityNSD
IVOlanzapine vs quetiapineBPRS hostilityNSD
VOlanzapine vs haloperidolBPRS hostilityNSD
VIQuetiapine vs haloperidolBPRS hostilityNSD
VIIRisperidone vs olanzapineM-OAS verbal aggressionNSD
VIIIRisperidone vs quetiapineM-OAS verbal aggressionNSD
IXRisperidone vs haloperidolM-OAS verbal aggressionNSD
XOlanzapine vs quetiapineM-OAS verbal aggressionNSD
XIOlanzapine vs haloperidolM-OAS verbal aggressionNSD
XIIQuetiapine vs haloperidolM-OAS verbal aggressionNSD
XIIIRisperidone vs olanzapineM-OAS physical aggressionNSD
XIVRisperidone vs quetiapineM-OAS physical aggressionNSD
XVRisperidone vs haloperidolM-OAS physical aggressionNSD
XVIOlanzapine vs quetiapineM-OAS physical aggressionNSD
XVIIOlanzapine vs haloperidolM-OAS physical aggressionNSD
XVIIIQuetiapine vs haloperidolM-OAS physical aggressionNSD
XIXRisperidone or olanzapine or quetiapine vs haloperidolBPRS hostilityNSD
XXRisperidone or olanzapine or quetiapine vs haloperidolM-OAS verbal aggressionNSD
XXIRisperidone or olanzapine or quetiapine vs haloperidolM-OAS physical aggressionNSD
Volavka 200487IClozapine vs olanzapineIncident of aggression during 14-week study (OAS)OR
IIClozapine vs risperidoneIncident of aggression during 14-week study (OAS)OR
IIIClozapine vs haloperidolIncident of aggression during 14-week study (OAS)OR
IVOlanzapine vs risperidoneIncident of aggression during 14-week study (OAS)OR
VOlanzapine vs haloperidolIncident of aggression during 14-week study (OAS)OR
VIRisperidone vs haloperidolIncident of aggression during 14-week study (OAS)OR
VIIClozapine vs olanzapineIncident of aggression during 14-week study (OAS)OR
VIIIClozapine vs risperidoneIncident of aggression during 14-week study (OAS)OR
IXClozapine vs haloperidolIncident of aggression during 14-week study (OAS)OR
XOlanzapine vs risperidoneIncident of aggression during days 25–98 of study (OAS)OR
XIOlanzapine vs haloperidolIncident of aggression during days 25–98 of study (OAS)OR
XIIRisperidone vs haloperidolIncident of aggression during days 25–98 of study (OAS)OR
Walsh 200293Intensive care management vs standard careMore assaultsOR
Willner 200284ICB anger management vs WLAnger Inventory – client ratingsOR
IICB anger management vs WLComposite score of anger inventory and provocation index both clients and carersOR
IIICB anger management vs WLComposite score of anger inventory and provocation index clients ratingsOR
IVCB anger management vs WLProvocation Index – client ratingsOR
VCB anger management vs WLComposite score of anger inventory and provocation index carer ratingsOR
VICB anger management vs WLProvocation Index – carer ratingsOR
VIICB anger management vs WLAnger Inventory – carer ratingsOR
Zanarini 2003119Ethyl-eicosapentaenoic acid vs placeboM-OASOR
Zanarini 2004100IOlanzapine vs fluoxetineOAS (change)OR
IIOlanzapine vs olanzapine + fluoxetine combinedOAS (change)OR
IIIFluoxetine vs olanzapine + fluoxetine combinedOAS (change)OR

AQ, Aggression Questionnaire; BPRS, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale; CB, cognitive behavioural; CM, Cook–Medley Hostility Scale; DBT, dialectical behaviour therapy; DV, domestic violence; E-EPA, ethyl-eicosapentaenoic acid; NSD, no suitable data; PANSS; Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale; RR, relative risk; SCL-90, Symptom-Checklist-90; SCL-90-R, Symptom-Checklist-90-Revised.

Shaded rows are those that were selected for use in MAs.

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