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Institute of Medicine (US) Forum on Emerging Infections; Knobler SL, Lemon SM, Najafi M, et al., editors. The Resistance Phenomenon in Microbes and Infectious Disease Vectors: Implications for Human Health and Strategies for Containment: Workshop Summary. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2003.

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The Resistance Phenomenon in Microbes and Infectious Disease Vectors: Implications for Human Health and Strategies for Containment: Workshop Summary.

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Appendix GForum Member, Speaker, and Staff Biographies


ADEL A.F. MAHMOUD, M.D., Ph.D., (Chair), is President of Merck Vaccines at Merck & Co., Inc. He formerly served Case Western Reserve University and University Hospitals of Cleveland as Chairman of Medicine and Physician-in-Chief from 1987 to 1998. Prior to that, Dr. Mahmoud held several positions, spanning 25 years, at the same institutions. Dr. Mahmoud and his colleagues conducted pioneering investigations on the biology and function of eosinophils. He prepared the first specific anti-eosinophil serum, which was used to define the role of these cells in host resistance to helminthic infections. Dr. Mahmoud also established clinical and laboratory investigations in several developing countries, including Kenya, Egypt, and The Philippines, to examine the determinants of infection and disease in schistosomiasis and other infectious agents. This work led to the development of innovative strategies to control those infections, which have been adopted by the World Health Organization (WHO) as selective population chemotherapy. In recent years, Dr. Mahmoud turned his attention to developing a comprehensive set of responses to the problems associated with emerging infections in the developing world. He was elected to membership of the American Society for Clinical Investigation in 1978, the Association of American Physicians in 1980, and the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences in 1987. He received the Bailey K. Ashford Award of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene in 1983, and the Squibb Award of the Infectious Diseases Society of America in 1984. Dr. Mahmoud currently serves as Chair of the Forum on Emerging Infections and is a member of the Board on Global Health, both of the Institute of Medicine. He also chairs the U.S. Delegation to the U.S.-Japan Cooperative Medical Science Program.

STANLEY M. LEMON, M.D., (Vice-Chair), is Dean of the School of Medicine at the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston. He received his undergraduate degree in biochemical sciences from Princeton University summa cum laude, and his M.D. with honors from the University of Rochester. He completed postgraduate training in internal medicine and infectious diseases at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and is board-certified in both. From 1977 to 1983, he served with the U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command, directing the Hepatitis Laboratory at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research. He joined the faculty of the University of North Carolina School of Medicine in 1983, serving first as Chief of the Division of Infectious Diseases, and then Vice Chair for Research of the Department of Medicine. In 1997, Dr. Lemon moved to the University of Texas Medical Branch as Professor and Chair of the Department of Microbiology & Immunology. He was subsequently appointed Dean pro tem of the School of Medicine in 1999, and permanent Dean of Medicine in 2000. Dr. Lemon's research interests relate to the molecular virology and pathogenesis of the positive-stranded RNA viruses responsible for hepatitis C and hepatitis A. He is particularly interested in the molecular mechanisms controlling replication of these RNA genomes and related mechanisms of disease pathogenesis. He has published over 180 papers, and numerous textbook chapters related to hepatitis and other viral infections, and has a longstanding interest in vaccine development. He has served previously as chair of the Anti-Infective Drugs Advisory Committee and the Vaccines and Related Biologics Advisory Committee of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, and is past chair of the Steering Committee on Hepatitis and Poliomyelitis of WHO's Programme on Vaccine Development. He presently serves as Chairman of the U.S. Hepatitis Panel of the U.S.-Japan Cooperative Medical Sciences Program, and recently chaired an Institute of Medicine study committee related to vaccines for the protection of the military against naturally occurring infectious disease threats.

DAVID ACHESON, M.D., is Chief Medical Officer at the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, U.S. Food and Drug Administration. He received his medical degree at the University of London. After completing internships in general surgery and medicine, he continued his postdoctoral training in Manchester, England, as a Wellcome Trust Research Fellow. He subsequently was a Wellcome Trust Training Fellow in Infectious Diseases at the New England Medical Center and at the Wellcome Research Unit in Vellore, India. Dr. Acheson was Associate Professor of Medicine, Division of Geographic Medicine and Infectious Diseases, New England Medical Center until 2001. He then joined the faculties of the Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine and Department of Microbiology and Immunology at the University of Maryland Medical School. Currently at the FDA, his research concentration is on foodborne pathogens and encompasses a mixture of molecular pathogenesis, cell biology, and epidemiology. Specifically, his research focuses on Shiga toxin-producing E. coli and understanding toxin interaction with intestinal epithelial cells using tissue culture models. His laboratory has also undertaken a study to examine Shiga toxin-producing E. coli in food animals in relation to virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance patterns. More recently, Dr. Acheson initiated a project to understand the molecular pathogenesis of Campylobacter jejuni. Other studies have undertaken surveillance of diarrheal disease in the community to determine causes, outcomes, and risk factors of unexplained diarrhea. Dr. Acheson has authored/co-authored over 72 journal articles and 42 book chapters and reviews, and is coauthor of the book Safe Eating (Dell Health, 1998). He is reviewer of more than 10 journals and is on the editorial board of Infection and Immunity and Clinical Infectious Diseases. Dr. Acheson is a Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians, a Fellow of the Infectious Disease Society of America, and holds several patents.

STEVEN J. BRICKNER, Ph.D., is Research Advisor, Antibacterials Chemistry, at Pfizer Global Research and Development. He received his Ph.D. in organic chemistry from Cornell University and was a NIH Postdoctoral Research Fellow at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Dr. Brickner is a medicinal chemist with nearly 20 years of research experience in the pharmaceutical industry, all focused on the discovery and development of novel antibacterial agents. He is an inventor/co-inventor on 21 U.S. patents, and has published numerous scientific papers, primarily within the area of the oxazolidinones. Prior to joining Pfizer in 1996, he led a team at Pharmacia and Upjohn that discovered and developed linezolid, the first member of a new class of antibiotics to be approved in the last 35 years.

GAIL H. CASSELL, Ph.D., is Vice President, Scientific Affairs, Distinguished Lilly Research Scholar for Infectious Diseases, Eli Lilly & Company. Previously, she was the Charles H. McCauley Professor and (since 1987) Chair, Department of Microbiology, University of Alabama Schools of Medicine and Dentistry at Birmingham, a department which, under her leadership, has ranked first in research funding from the National Institutes of Health since 1989. She is a member of the Director's Advisory Committee of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Dr. Cassell is past president of the American Society for Microbiology (ASM) and is serving her third three-year term as chairman of the Public and Scientific Affairs Board of ASM. She is a former member of the National Institutes of Health Director's Advisory Committee and a former member of the Advisory Council of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. She has also served as an advisor on infectious diseases and indirect costs of research to the White House Office on Science and Technology and was previously chair of the Board of Scientific Counselors of the National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Dr. Cassell served eight years on the Bacteriology-Mycology-II Study Section and served as its chair for three years. She serves on the editorial boards of several prestigious scientific journals and has authored over 275 articles and book chapters. She has been intimately involved in the establishment of science policy and legislation related to biomedical research and public health. Dr. Cassell has received several national and international awards and an honorary degree for her research on infectious diseases.

GORDON DEFRIESE, Ph.D., is Professor of Social Medicine and Professor of Medicine (in the Division of General Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology) at the UNC-CH School of Medicine. In addition, he holds appointments as Professor of Epidemiology and Health Policy and Administration in the UNC-CH School of Public Health and as Professor of Dental Ecology in the UNC-CH School of Dentistry. From 1986–2000, he served as Co-Director of the Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholars Program, co-sponsored by the UNC-CH School of Medicine and the Cecil G. Sheps Center for Health Services Research. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Kentucky College of Medicine. Some of his research interests are in the areas of health promotion and disease prevention, medical sociology, primary health care, rural health care, cost-benefit analysis, and cost-effectiveness. He is a past president of the Association for Health Services Research and a fellow of the New York Academy of Medicine. He is founder of the Partnership for Prevention, a coalition of private-sector business and industry organizations, voluntary health organizations, and state and federal public health agencies based in Washington, D.C. that have joined together to work toward the elevation of disease prevention among the nation's health policy priorities. He is an at-large member of the National Board of Medical Examiners. Since 1994 he has served as President and CEO of the North Carolina Institute of Medicine. He is Editor-in-Chief and Publisher of the North Carolina Medical Journal.

CEDRIC E. DUMONT, M.D., is Medical Director for the Office of Medical Services (MED) at the U.S. Department of State. Dr. Dumont graduated from Columbia University with a B.A. in 1975 and obtained his medical degree from Tufts University School of Medicine in 1980. Dr. Dumont is a board-certified internist with subspecialty training in infectious diseases. He completed his internal medicine residency in 1983 and infectious diseases fellowship in 1988 at Georgetown University Hospital in Washington, D.C. Dr. Dumont has been a medical practitioner for over 22 years, 2 of which included service in the Peace Corps. Since joining the Department of State in 1990, he has had substantial experience overseas in Dakar, Bamako, Kinshasa, and Brazzaville. For the past 6 years, as the Medical Director for the Department of State, Dr. Dumont has promoted the health of all United States government employees serving overseas by encouraging their participation in a comprehensive health maintenance program and by facilitating their access to high-quality medical care. Dr. Dumont is a very strong supporter of the professional development and advancement of MED's highly qualified professional staff. In addition, he has supported and encouraged the use of an electronic medical record, which will be able to monitor the health of all its beneficiaries, not only during a specific assignment but also throughout their career in the Foreign Service. In the aftermath of the bombings in Nairobi and Dar es Salaam, Dr. Dumont has led in the development and implementation of a comprehensive medical response plan to terrorist attacks on USG missions overseas, including events involving chemical and biological weapons. He also has initiated the development and implementation of a Health Promotion and Wellness program designed for all Department employees and family members.

JESSE L. GOODMAN, M.D., M.P.H., was professor of medicine and Chief of Infectious Diseases at the University of Minnesota, and is now serving as Deputy Director for the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, where he is active in a broad range of scientific, public health, and policy issues. After joining the FDA commissioner's office, he has worked closely with several centers and helped coordinate FDA's response to the antimicrobial resistance problem. He was co-chair of a recently formed federal interagency task force which developed the national Public Health Action Plan on antimicrobial resistance. He graduated from Harvard College and attended the Albert Einstein College of Medicine followed by internal medicine, hematology, oncology, and infectious diseases training at the University of Pennsylvania and University of California Los Angeles, where he was also chief medical resident. He received his master's of public health from the University of Minnesota. He has been active in community public health activities, including creating an environmental health partnership in St. Paul, Minnesota. In recent years, his laboratory's research has focused on the molecular pathogenesis of tickborne diseases. His laboratory isolated the etiological intracellular agent of the emerging tickborne infection, human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, and identified its leukocyte receptor. He has also been an active clinician and teacher and has directed or participated in major multi-center clinical studies. He is a Fellow of the Infectious Diseases Society of America and, among several honors, has been elected to the American Society for Clinical Investigation.

RENU GUPTA, M.D., is Vice President and Head, U.S. Clinical Research and Development at Novartis Pharmaceuticals. Previously, she was Vice President, Medical, Safety, and Therapeutics at Covance. Dr. Gupta is a board-certified pediatrician, with subspecialty training in Infectious Diseases from Children's Hospital of Philadelphia and the University of Pennsylvania. She was also Postdoctoral Research Fellow in Microbiology at the University of Pennsylvania and the Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology, where she conducted research on the pathogenesis of infectious diseases. Dr. Gupta received her M.B., Ch.B with distinction from the University of Zambia, where she examined the problem of poor compliance in the treatment of tuberculosis in rural and urban Africa. She is currently active in a number of professional societies, including the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the American Society of Microbiology. She is a frequent presenter at the Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy and other major congresses, and has been published in leading infectious diseases periodicals. From 1989 to mid-1998, Dr. Gupta was with Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, where she directed clinical research as well as strategic planning for the Infectious Diseases and Immunology Divisions. For the past several years, her work has focused on a better understanding of the problem of emerging infections. This has led to her pioneering efforts in establishing the Global Antimicrobial Surveillance Program, SENTRY, a private-academic-public sector partnership. Dr. Gupta chaired the steering committee for the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program. She remains active in women's and children's health issues, and is currently furthering education and outreach initiatives. More recently, Dr. Gupta has been instrumental in the formation of the Harvard-Pharma Management Board, of which she is a member, to further the educational goals of the Scholars in Clinical Science Program at the Harvard Medical School.

MARGARET A. HAMBURG, M.D., is Vice President for Biological Programs at Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI), a charitable organization working to reduce the global threat from nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons. Dr. Hamburg is in charge of the biological program area. Before taking on her current position, Dr. Hamburg was the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, serving as a principal policy advisor to the Secretary of Health and Human Services with responsibilities including policy formulation and analysis, the development and review of regulations and/or legislation, budget analysis, strategic planning, and the conduct and coordination of policy research and program evaluation. Prior to this, she served for almost six years as the Commissioner of Health for the City of New York. As chief health officer in the nation's largest city, Dr. Hamburg's many accomplishments included the design and implementation of an internationally recognized tuberculosis control program that produced dramatic declines in tuberculosis cases; the development of initiatives that raised childhood immunization rates to record levels; and the creation of the first public health bioterrorism preparedness program in the nation. She completed her internship and residency in Internal Medicine at the New York Hospital/Cornell University Medical Center and is certified by the American Board of Internal Medicine. Dr. Hamburg is a graduate of Harvard College and Harvard Medical School. She currently serves on the Harvard University Board of Overseers. She has been elected to membership in the Institute of Medicine, the New York Academy of Medicine, and the Council on Foreign Relations, and is a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and the American College of Physicians.

CAROLE A. HEILMAN, Ph.D., is Director of the Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (DMID) of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID). Dr. Heilman received her bachelor's degree in biology from Boston University in 1972, and earned her master's degree and doctorate in microbiology from Rutgers University in 1976 and 1979, respectively. Dr. Heilman began her career at the National Institutes of Health as a postdoctoral research associate with the National Cancer Institute where she carried out research on the regulation of gene expression during cancer development. In 1986, she came to NIAID as the influenza and viral respiratory diseases program officer in DMID and, in 1988, she was appointed chief of the respiratory diseases branch where she coordinated the development of acellular pertussis vaccines. She joined the Division of AIDS as deputy director in 1997 and was responsible for developing the Innovation Grant Program for Approaches in HIV Vaccine Research. She is the recipient of several notable awards for outstanding achievement. Throughout her extramural career, Dr. Heilman has contributed articles on vaccine design and development to many scientific journals and has served as a consultant to the World Bank and WHO in this area. She is also a member of several professional societies, including the Infectious Diseases Society of America, the American Society for Microbiology, and the American Society of Virology.

DAVID L. HEYMANN, M.D., is currently the Executive Director of the World Health Organization (WHO) Communicable Diseases Cluster. From October 1995 to July 1998 he was Director of the WHO Programme on Emerging and Other Communicable Diseases Surveillance and Control. Prior to becoming director of this program, he was the chief of research activities in the Global Programme on AIDS. From 1976 to 1989, prior to joining WHO, Dr Heymann spent 13 years working as a medical epidemiologist in sub-Saharan Africa (Cameroon, Ivory Coast, the former Zaire, and Malawi) on assignment from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in CDC-supported activities aimed at strengthening capacity in surveillance of infectious diseases and their control, with special emphasis on the childhood immunizable diseases, African hemorrhagic fevers, pox viruses, and malaria. While based in Africa, Dr. Heymann participated in the investigation of the first outbreak of Ebola in Yambuku (former Zaire) in 1976, then again investigated the second outbreak of Ebola in 1977 in Tandala, and in 1995 directed the international response to the Ebola outbreak in Kikwit. Prior to 1976, Dr. Heymann spent two years in India as a medical officer in the WHO Smallpox Eradication Programme. Dr. Heymann holds a B.A. from the Pennsylvania State University, an M.D. from Wake Forest University, and a Diploma in Tropical Medicine and Hygiene from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, and completed practical epidemiology training in the Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS) training program of the CDC. He has published 131 scientific articles on infectious diseases in peer-reviewed medical and scientific journals.

JAMES M. HUGHES, M.D., received his B.A. in 1966 and M.D. in 1971 from Stanford University. He completed a residency in internal medicine at the University of Washington and a fellowship in infectious diseases at the University of Virginia. He is board-certified in internal medicine, infectious diseases, and preventive medicine. He first joined CDC as an Epidemic Intelligence Service officer in 1973. During his CDC career, he has worked primarily in the areas of foodborne disease and infection control in health care settings. He became Director of the National Center for Infectious Diseases in 1992. The center is currently working to address domestic and global challenges posed by emerging infectious diseases and the threat of bioterrorism. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine and a fellow of the American College of Physicians, the Infectious Diseases Society of America, and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He is an Assistant Surgeon General in the Public Health Service.

SAMUEL L. KATZ, M.D., is Wilburt C. Davison Professor and chairman emeritus of pediatrics at Duke University Medical Center. He has concentrated his research on infectious diseases, focusing primarily on vaccine research, development, and policy. Dr. Katz has served on a number of scientific advisory committees and is the recipient of many prestigious awards and honorary fellowships in international organizations. He attained his M.D. from Harvard Medical School and completed his residency training at Boston hospitals. He became a staff member at Children's Hospital, working with Nobel laureate John Enders, during which time they developed the attenuated measles virus vaccine now used throughout the world. He has chaired the Committee on Infectious Diseases of the American Academy of Pediatrics (the Redbook Committee), the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Vaccine Priorities Study of the Institute of Medicine (IOM), and several WHO and Children's Vaccine Initiative panels on vaccines. He is a member of many scientific advisory committees including those of the NIH, IOM, and WHO. Dr. Katz's published studies include abundant original scientific articles, chapters in textbooks, and many abstracts, editorials, and reviews. He is the coeditor of a textbook on pediatric infectious diseases and has given many named lectures in the United States and abroad. Currently he co-chairs the Indo-U.S. Vaccine Action Program as well as the National Network for Immunization Information (NNii).

COLONEL PATRICK KELLEY, M.D., M.P.H., Dr.P.H., is Director of the Department of Defense Global Emerging Infections System and the Director of the Division of Preventive Medicine at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR), Silver Spring, Maryland. He obtained his M.D. from the University of Virginia and a Dr.P.H. in infectious disease epidemiology from the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. He is board-certified in general preventive medicine and a fellow of the American College of Preventive Medicine. For many years he directed the Army General Preventive Medicine Residency at WRAIR. Colonel Kelley has extensive experience leading military infectious disease studies and in managing domestic and international public health surveillance efforts. He has spoken before professional audiences in over 15 countries and has authored or co-authored over 50 scientific papers and book chapters on a variety of infectious disease and preventive medicine topics. He serves as the specialty editor for a textbook entitled, Military Preventive Medicine: Mobilization and Deployment.

MARCELLE LAYTON, M.D., is the Assistant Commissioner for the Bureau of Communicable Diseases at the New York City Department of Health. This bureau is responsible for the surveillance and control of 62 infectious diseases and conditions reportable under the New York City Health Code. Current areas of concern include antibiotic resistance; foodborne, waterborne, and tickborne diseases; hepatitis C; and biological disaster planning for the potential threats of bioterrorism and pandemic influenza. Dr. Layton received her medical degree from Duke University. She completed an internal medicine residency at the University Health Science Center in Syracuse, New York, and an infectious disease fellowship at Yale University. In addition, Dr. Layton spent two years with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as a fellow in the Epidemic Intelligence Service, where she was assigned to the New York City Department of Health. In the past, she has volunteered or worked with the Indian Health Service, the Alaskan Native Health Service, and clinics in northwestern Thailand and central Nepal.

JOSHUA LEDERBERG, Ph.D., is Professor emeritus of Molecular Genetics and Informatics and Sackler Foundation Scholar at The Rockefeller University, New York, New York. His lifelong research, for which he received the Nobel Prize in 1958, has been in genetic structure and function in microorganisms. He has a keen interest in international health and was co-chair of a previous Institute of Medicine Committee on Emerging Microbial Threats to Health (1990–1992) and currently is co-chair of the Committee on Emerging Microbial Threats to Health in the 21st Century. He has been a member of the National Academy of Sciences since 1957 and is a charter member of the Institute of Medicine.

CARLOS LOPEZ, Ph.D., is Research Fellow, Research Acquisitions, Eli Lilly Research Laboratories. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Minnesota in 1970. Dr. Lopez was awarded the NTRDA postdoctoral fellowship. After his fellowship he was appointed assistant professor of pathology at the University of Minnesota, where he did his research on cytomegalovirus infections in renal transplant recipients and the consequences of those infections. He was next appointed assistant member and head of the Laboratory of Herpesvirus Infections at the Sloan Kettering Institute for Cancer Research, where his research focused on herpes virus infections and the resistance mechanisms involved. Dr. Lopez's laboratory contributed to the immunological analysis of the earliest AIDS patients at the beginning of the AIDS epidemic in New York. He is co-author of one of the seminal publications on this disease, as well as many scientific papers, and co-editor of six books. Dr. Lopez has been a consultant to numerous agencies and organizations including the National Institutes of Health, the Department of Veterans Affairs, and the American Cancer Society.

LYNN MARKS, M.D., is board-certified in internal medicine and infectious diseases. He was on faculty at the University of South Alabama College of Medicine in the Infectious Diseases department focusing on patient care, teaching, and research. His academic research interest was on the molecular genetics of bacterial pathogenicity. He subsequently joined SmithKline Beecham's (now GlaxoSmithKline) anti-infectives clinical group and later progressed to global head of the Consumer Healthcare division Medical and Regulatory group. He then returned to pharmaceutical research and development as global head of the Infectious Diseases Therapeutic Area Strategy Team for GlaxoSmithKline.

STEPHEN S. MORSE, Ph.D., is Director of the Center for Public Health Preparedness at the Mailman School of Public Health of Columbia University, and a faculty member in the Epidemiology Department. Dr. Morse recently returned to Columbia from four years in government service as Program Manager at the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), where he co-directed the Pathogen Countermeasures program and subsequently directed the Advanced Diagnostics program. Before coming to Columbia, he was Assistant Professor (Virology) at The Rockefeller University in New York, where he remains an adjunct faculty member. Dr. Morse is the editor of two books, Emerging Viruses (Oxford University Press, 1993; paperback, 1996) (selected by American Scientist for its list of “100 Top Science Books of the 20th Century”), and The Evolutionary Biology of Viruses (Raven Press, 1994). He currently serves as a Section Editor of the CDC journal Emerging Infectious Diseases and was formerly an Editor-in-Chief of the Pasteur Institute's journal Research in Virology. Dr. Morse was Chair and principal organizer of the 1989 NIAID/NIH Conference on Emerging Viruses (for which he originated the term and concept of emerging viruses/infections); served as a member of the Institute of Medicine-National Academy of Sciences' Committee on Emerging Microbial Threats to Health (and chaired its Task Force on Viruses), and was a contributor to its report, Emerging Infections (1992); was a member of the IOM's Committee on Xenograft Transplantation; currently serves on the Steering Committee of the Institute of Medicine's Forum on Emerging Infections, and has served as an adviser to WHO, PAHO (Pan-American Health Organization), FDA, the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), and other agencies. He is a Fellow of the New York Academy of Sciences and a past Chair of its Microbiology Section. He was the founding Chair of ProMED (the nonprofit international Program to Monitor Emerging Diseases) and was one of the originators of ProMED-mail, an international network inaugurated by ProMED in 1994 for outbreak reporting and disease monitoring using the Internet. Dr. Morse received his Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin-Madison.

MICHAEL T. OSTERHOLM, Ph.D., M.P.H., is Director of the Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy at the University of Minnesota where he is also Professor at the School of Public Health. Previously, Dr. Osterholm was the state epidemiologist and Chief of the Acute Disease Epidemiology Section for the Minnesota Department of Health. He has received numerous research awards from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). He served as principal investigator for the CDC-sponsored Emerging Infections Program in Minnesota. He has published more than 240 articles and abstracts on various emerging infectious disease problems and is the author of the best selling book, Living Terrors: What America Needs to Know to Survive the Coming Bioterrorist Catastrophe. He is past president of the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists. He currently serves on the National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Medicine (IOM) Forum on Emerging Infections. He has also served on the IOM Committee, Food Safety, Production to Consumption and the IOM Committee on the Department of Defense Persian Gulf Syndrome Comprehensive Clinical Evaluation Program, and as a reviewer for the IOM report on chemical and biological terrorism.

GARY A. ROSELLE, M.D., received his M.D. from Ohio State University School of Medicine in 1973. He served his residency at Northwestern University School of Medicine and his Infectious Diseases fellowship at the University of Cincinnati School of Medicine. Dr. Roselle is the Program Director for Infectious Diseases for the VA Central Office in Washington, D.C., as well as the Chief of the Medical Service at the Cincinnati VA Medical Center. He is a professor of medicine in the Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases at the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine. Dr. Roselle serves on several national advisory committees. In addition, he is currently heading the Emerging Pathogens Initiative for the Department of Veterans Affairs. Dr. Roselle has received commendations from the Cincinnati Medical Center Director, the Under Secretary for Health for the Department of Veterans Affairs, and the Secretary of Veterans Affairs for his work in the infectious diseases program for the Department of Veterans Affairs. He has been an invited speaker at several national and international meetings, and has published over 80 papers and several book chapters.

DAVID M. SHLAES, M.D., Ph.D., is Executive Vice President for Research and Development at Idenix Pharmaceuticals. Previously, he spent six years as Vice President and Therapeutic Area Co-Leader for Infectious Diseases at Wyeth Research. Before joining Wyeth, Dr. Shlaes was professor of medicine at the Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine and chief of the Infectious Diseases Section and the Clinical Microbiology Unit at the Veterans Affairs Medical Center in Cleveland, Ohio. His major research interest has been the mechanisms and epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria, in which area he has published widely. He has recently become more involved in the area of public policy as it relates to the discovery and development of antibiotics. He has served on the Institute of Medicine's Forum on Emerging Infections since 1996.

JANET SHOEMAKER is director of the American Society for Microbiology's Public Affairs Office, a position she has held since 1989. She is responsible for managing the legislative and regulatory affairs of this 42,000-member organization, the largest single biological science society in the world. She has served as principal investigator for a project funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) to collect and disseminate data on the job market for recent doctorates in microbiology and has played a key role in American Society for Microbiology (ASM) projects, including the production of the ASM Employment Outlook in the Microbiological Sciences and The Impact of Managed Care and Health System Change on Clinical Microbiology. Previously, she held positions as Assistant Director of Public Affairs for ASM, as ASM coordinator of the U.S./U.S.S.R. Exchange Program in Microbiology, a program sponsored and coordinated by the National Science Foundation and the U.S. Department of State, and as a freelance editor and writer. She received her baccalaureate, cum laude, from the University of Massachusetts, and is a graduate of the George Washington University programs in public policy and in editing and publications. She has served as commissioner to the Commission on Professionals in Science and Technology, and as the ASM representative to the ad hoc Group for Medical Research Funding, and is a member of Women in Government Relations, the American Society of Association Executives, and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. She has co-authored published articles on research funding, biotechnology, biological weapons control, and public policy issues related to microbiology.

P. FREDERICK SPARLING, M.D., is J. Herbert Bate Professor emeritus of Medicine, Microbiology and Immunology at the University of North Carolina (UNC) at Chapel Hill, and is Director of the North Carolina Sexually Transmitted Infections Research Center. Previously, he served as chair of the Department of Medicine and chair of the Department of Microbiology and Immunology at UNC. He was president of the Infectious Disease Society of America in 1996–1997. He was also a member of the Institute of Medicine's Committee on Microbial Threats to Health (1991–1992). Dr. Sparling's laboratory research is in the molecular biology of bacterial outer membrane proteins involved in pathogenesis, with a major emphasis on gonococci and meningococci. His current studies focus on the biochemistry and genetics of iron-scavenging mechanisms used by gonococci and meningococci and the structure and function of the gonococcal porin proteins. He is pursuing the goal of a vaccine for gonorrhea.

MICHAEL ZEILINGER, D.P.M., M.P.H., is Infectious Disease Team Leader at the Office of Health and Nutrition, Environmental Health Division at the U.S. Agency for International Development. Dr. Zeilinger serves as the senior advisor and manager of the infectious disease strategic objective team which encompasses four sub-teams: malaria, tuberculosis, antimicrobial resistance, and surveillance. He is also the Cognizant Technical Officer for USAID's umbrella Inter-Agency Agreement with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Prior to his work at USAID/W, Dr. Zeilinger was the Program Director for Project HOPE in the Central Asian republics, which included public and private sector-funded TB control projects in Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Turkmenistan. His work in Central Asia also included humanitarian assistance and child survival programs. Prior to that, he worked with Birch and Davis on the Department of Defense's Military Health Service System, and the Public Health Foundation on a U.S. Department of Health and Human Services-funded Empowerment Zones/Enterprise Communities Health Benchmarks Demonstration Project. Dr. Zeilinger is a Doctor of Podiatric Medicine and managed several community health programs during his surgical residency. He also has a master's degree in public health (International Health Promotion) from The George Washington University and is currently an Adjunct Professor at their School of Public Health.


DAVID M. BELL, M.D., is Assistant to the Director for Antimicrobial Resistance, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Atlanta. In this capacity, he coordinates CDC's efforts to address antimicrobial resistance. He is also co-chair of the U.S. Federal Interagency Task Force on Antimicrobial Resistance and clinical assistant professor of pediatric infectious diseases at Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta. From 1987 to 1997, Dr. Bell directed CDC's efforts to assess and reduce the risk of HIV transmission to workers and patients in healthcare settings. Previously, he was Director of the Diagnostic Virology Laboratory at the University of Tennessee, Memphis, and practiced general pediatrics. He is co-author of 90 scientific publications and book chapters dealing with the public health, clinical, and laboratory aspects of infectious diseases. In 2000, he chaired the WHO Consultation to develop Global Principles for the Containment of Antimicrobial Resistance due to Antimicrobial Use in Animals Intended for Food. Dr. Bell graduated from Princeton University (A.B., 1973) and Harvard Medical School (M.D., 1977). His training included residency at Boston Children's Hospital, the Epidemic Intelligence Service Program at CDC, and fellowship in pediatric infectious diseases at the University of Rochester.

WILLIAM G. BROGDON, Ph.D., has been Chief of the Vector Biology and Toxicology Section, Entomology Branch, Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, since 1996. With over 24 years as a research entomologist with the CDC, Dr. Brogdon has developed an applied research program on insecticide resistance in arthropod vectors of disease. Studies have been conducted both in the United States and in 20 countries on insecticide resistance in Aedes, Culex, and Anopheles mosquito vectors. Dr. Brogdon has developed novel biological, biochemical, and molecular approaches to detecting insecticide resistance and its mechanisms in individual insects. With support from the Emerging Infectious Diseases program, he has operated a Resistance Surveillance Laboratory since 1995 and a WHO Collaborating Center on Insecticide Resistance. Dr. Brogdon has served as a member of the WHO Expert Committee on Vector Control.

THOMAS B. ELLIOTT, Ph.D., is a research microbiologist at The Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Bethesda, Maryland, where he has studied susceptibility to infectious agents and therapy for bacterial infections in irradiated animal models and the inactivation of bacteria and viruses by ionizing radiation. His work contributed to the recommended therapy for sepsis in victims of radiation accidents, development of combined therapy with non-specific biological response modifiers together with antimicrobial agents, and the discovery that pulmonary infections of Bacillus anthracis induce a unique polymicrobial sepsis following sub-lethal doses of gamma radiation. Dr. Elliott directs research projects for students in the Master of Public Health and the Laboratory Animal Medicine Residency programs in the Department of Preventive Medicine and Biometrics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences. Previously, Dr. Elliott was a clinical chemist, performed industrial microbiological studies, and taught microbiology and immunology at The George Washington University and the Foundation for Advancement of Education in the Sciences, National Institutes of Health. He is currently serving on two advisory committees, which are coordinated by the Office of Science and Technology Policy, Executive Office of the President, on inactivation of microorganisms and the Interagency Working Committee on Test Methods and Surrogates for Anthrax, Environmental Protection Agency. He has participated on advisory committees, the Human Response Dose Committee, Defense Threat Reduction Agency; and U.S. Army Specific Military Requirements, U.S. Army Nuclear and Chemical Agency. Dr. Elliott is a member of the American Society for Microbiology and the Society of the Sigma Xi.

VINCENT A. FISCHETTI, Ph.D., has been a professor and chairman of the Laboratory of Bacterial Pathogenesis and Immunology at the Rockefeller University, New York, New York, since 1990. He is a fellow of the American Academy of Microbiology and the recipient of two NIH MERIT awards. He has been editor-in-chief of the scientific journal Infection and Immunity for 10 years, and serves as advisory editor for the Journal of Experimental Medicine and Trends in Microbiology. Dr. Fischetti serves on the scientific advisory board and as trustee of the Trudeau Institute. He has published approximately 130 primary research articles and 77 textbook chapters as well as being an inventor on over 37 issued patents. Dr. Fischetti received a Ph.D. in microbiology from New York University. His research career has been directed toward the understanding of infection by gram-positive bacteria. He has focused his attention on group A streptococcus and has developed new strategies to control infection by these bacteria. He currently has a vaccine in clinical trial to control strep infections and a novel target for antibiotic development being tested by a major pharmaceutical company. In recent years he has directed his attention to the use of bacteriophage lytic enzymes to control colonizing pathogenic bacteria, particularly those that are resistant to current antibiotics.

JULIE L. GERBERDING, M.D., M.P.H., is Director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), an associate clinical professor of medicine (infectious diseases) at Emory University, and an associate professor of medicine (infectious diseases) and epidemiology and biostatistics at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF). She earned her B.A. degree magna cum laude in chemistry and biology and M.D. degree at Case Western Reserve University and then completed her internship and residency in internal medicine at UCSF, where she also served as chief medical resident before completing her fellowship in clinical pharmacology and infectious diseases at UCSF. She earned her M.P.H. at the University of California, Berkeley in 1990. Dr. Gerberding is a member of Phi Beta Kappa, Alpha Omega Alpha, the American Society for Clinical Investigation (ASCI), and the American College of Physicians, and is a fellow in the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA). She has served as chair and co-chair of the IDSA's Committee on Professional Development and Diversity and co-chair of the Annual Program Committee, and was elected to serve as a member of the nominations committee. Dr. Gerberding is also a member of the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America and has served as a member of the AIDS/Tuberculosis Committee and as Academic Counselor on the SHEA Board, and will be president of SHEA in 2003. In the past, she served as a member of NCID/CDC Board of Scientific Counselors, the CDC HIV Advisory Committee, and the Scientific Program Committee, National Conference on Human Retroviruses. She has also been a consultant to NIH, AMA, CDC, OSHA, the National AIDS Commission, Office of Technology Assessment, and WHO. Her editorial activities have included appointments to the Editorial Board, Annals of Internal Medicine; Associate Editor, American Journal of Medicine, and service as a peer reviewer for numerous journals. She has authored/co-authored more than 120 publications. Her scientific interests encompass infection prevention/health care quality promotion among patients and their health care providers and emerging infectious diseases threats.

MARK J. GOLDBERGER, M.D., M.P.H., received his medical degree from the Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons. He did his postgraduate training at the Presbyterian Hospital in New York City and with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and is board-certified in internal medicine and infectious diseases and a fellow of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Dr. Goldberger was on the faculty of Columbia University for nine years and has been with the Food and Drug Administration since 1989. He is currently the director of the Office of Drug Evaluation IV within the Center for Drugs at FDA. This office is responsible for the regulation of all anti-infective drugs as well as drugs for solid organ transplantation. He also serves as the lead in coordinating drug shortage activities within the Center.

TERRY GREEN is a Senior Program Associate with Management Sciences for Health where he is the team leader for the RPM Plus Infectious Disease/Antimicrobial Resistance activity. He is responsible for the implementation of global and national antimicrobial resistance containment strategies, including infection control activities. This work also includes the development and implementation of training materials for international drug and therapeutics committee training courses. He has facilitated courses in Thailand, The Philippines, Indonesia, Kenya, and Nepal. Green is a pharmacist with 22 years of experience with the U.S. Public Health Service and 4 years experience in international health. Experience includes serving on drug and therapeutics committees, development and implementation of pharmacy quality assurance programs, providing drug information services, and development of pharmacy-based primary care programs. International experience prior to working with Management Sciences for Health includes pharmacy assessments in Montenegro, Nicaragua, Micronesia, the Virgin Islands, and three years of pharmacy development work in the Republic of Palau.

JANET HEMINGWAY, Ph.D., is the current Director of the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine. She received her B.Sc. in Genetics from Sheffield University and her Ph.D. in Tropical Medicine from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. She then proceeded to a lecturership in Toxicology at the University of California, Riverside, followed by a Royal Society Research Fellowship at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. Prior to her current post, she was Professor of Insect Molecular Biology and Director of Biosciences research at Cardiff University. Her major research interests are the development and spread of insecticide resistance in insect vectors of disease. Dr. Hemingway currently has a research group of 33 scientists at post-doctoral and post-graduate levels looking at numerous aspects of resistance from the molecular biology of resistance gene amplification and control of resistance gene expression, through positional cloning for resistance gene identification, to field-based resistance management programs in Africa and Latin America. The group is also looking at the interaction of insecticide resistance and vectorial capacity in filarial and malarial systems using genomic approaches.

WILLIAM JACK, D.Phil., is an Assistant Professor in the Economics Department at Georgetown University. He has held positions at the Australian National University and the University of Sydney, and has worked as a staff member of the International Monetary Fund and the Joint Committee on Taxation of the U.S. Congress. He has undertaken studies on health reform in Latin America and Eastern Europe for the World Bank. In addition to publications in academic journals on health care, health insurance, and public economics, he has written Principles of Health Economics for Developing Countries, a text published through the World Bank for health policy makers, students, and researchers.

CHARLES H. KING, M.D., M.S., is an associate professor of Medicine, International Health, and Epidemiology and Biostatistics at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio. He is a specialist in the areas of Infectious Diseases and Travel Medicine at University Hospitals of Cleveland, and is a full-time faculty member at CWRU School of Medicine. He received his B.S. from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, his M.D. from the State University of New York Downstate Medical Center, and his M.S. in Statistics from the University of Michigan School of Public Health. His current research focuses on the modeling of transmission of infectious diseases and the prevention of disease due to helminthic infections. He is director of two NIH-funded research projects based in Coast Province, Kenya, which focus, respectively, on the ecology of Schistosoma haematobium transmission and on drug-based control of human urinary schistosomiasis.

RAMANAN LAXMINARAYAN, Ph.D., M.P.H., is a fellow in the Energy and Natural Resources Division at Resources for the Future (RFF). Laxminarayan received his undergraduate degree in engineering from the Birla Institute of Technology and Science in Pilani, India, and both his master's degree in public health and doctorate in economics from the University of Washington in Seattle. His research deals with the integration of epidemiological models of infectious disease transmission and acquisition of bacterial and parasite resistance into the economic analysis of public health problems. His research on “resistance economics” is focused on improving the analytical framework to study problems such as bacterial resistance to antibiotics and pest resistance to genetically modified crops. He has worked with WHO on evaluating malaria treatment policy in Africa, has organized two conferences on the Economics of Resistance, and is editor of a forthcoming book, Battling Resistance to Antibiotics and Pesticides: An Economic Approach.

STUART B. LEVY, M.D., is Professor of Medicine and of Molecular Biology and Microbiology and the Director of the Center for Adaptation Genetics and Drug Resistance at Tufts University School of Medicine, and Staff Physician at the New England Medical Center. He also serves as President of the Alliance for the Prudent Use of Antibiotics, an international organization with members in over 100 countries. He is a past president of the 42,000 member American Society for Microbiology. He is co-founder and Chief Scientific Officer of Paratek Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Dr. Levy has published over 250 papers on antibiotic use and resistance, and has edited four books and two special journal editions devoted to the subject. The new edition of his book, The Antibiotic Paradox: How Misuse of Antibiotics Destroys Their Curative Powers, was released in January 2002 by Perseus Books. Dr. Levy is a Fellow of the American College of Physicians, Infectious Disease Society of America, and the American Academy of Microbiology. He has organized and chaired four international meetings on drug resistance and was Chairperson of the NIH Fogarty Center three-year international study of antibiotic use and resistance worldwide. He was awarded the 1995 Hoechst-Roussel Award for esteemed research in antimicrobial chemotherapy by the American Society for Microbiology. He was awarded an honorary degree in biology from Wesleyan University in 1998 and one from Des Moines University in 2001. Dr. Levy has been featured and quoted for his work on antibiotic use and resistance in major national and international newspapers and magazines including Time, Newsweek, U.S. News and World Report, The New Yorker, The New York Times, The Washington Post, and USA Today. He has appeared on Good Morning America, Nova, The Today Show, Fox TV Front Page, ABC Prime Time, CBS 48 Hours, the Jim Lehrer News Hour, CNN, and all major U.S. television network news shows.

MURRAY M. LUMPKIN, M.D., M.Sc., is presently the Acting Deputy Commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration. He is also the FDA's Senior Associate Commissioner for International Activities and Strategic Initiatives and the Senior Medical Officer in the Office of the Commissioner. In addition to overseeing all FDA international initiatives, he is responsible for leading the FDA response to several national public health issues that cut across several of the programmatic centers at FDA, including the agency's response to the threat of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and antimicrobial resistance. Dr. Lumpkin received his B.A. in German from Davidson College and his medical degree from Wake Forest University. He completed a residency in pediatrics at the Mayo Clinic followed by a fellowship in pediatric infectious diseases. He attended the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine as a Fulbright Fellow and received an M.Sc. in Medical Parasitology from the University of London. His professional certifications include pediatrics and tropical medicine. In 1989 he joined the FDA as Director of the Division of Anti-Infective Drug Products, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER), which is charged with the primary oversight and approval responsibilities for drugs classified as antimicrobials as well as dermatological and ophthalmological drug products. He then served as Deputy Center Director for CDER. He has represented the FDA in numerous bilateral initiatives with various governments, including those of Canada, Great Britain, Singapore, Germany, France, Taiwan, and Australia, along with the European Commission. His prior professional experience includes working as a clinical worker in a refugee camp in Bangladesh; head of pediatric infectious diseases at East Tennessee Children's Hospital in Knoxville; and Medical Director at Abbott Laboratories where he was in a senior leadership position on the multidisciplinary, global team responsible for the worldwide development of a new antimicrobial (clarithromycin).

SHAHRIAR MOBASHERY, Ph.D., is a Professor in the Departments of Chemistry, Pharmacology and Biochemistry and Molecular Biology at Wayne State University. He received his undergraduate and graduate degrees from the University of Southern California and the University of Chicago, respectively. After a two-year postdoctoral research program at the Rockefeller University, he joined the faculty at Wayne State University. He leads a multidisciplinary research group that integrates research in organic chemistry, biochemistry, molecular biology, structural biology, and computational sciences. The research interests of the group are diverse, spanning investigations of the mechanisms of drug resistance to antibiotics, development of novel classes of antibiotics, studies of the structural aspects of the bacterial envelope, and cancer metastasis. He has served on numerous advisory committees for the government and the private sector. He is currently on the editorial boards of a number of scientific journals, serves on the Scientific Advisory Board of Newbiotics, Inc., and is a member of the NIH Bioorganic and Natural Products study section. Dr. Mobashery assumes the position of the Navari Professor of Chemistry and Biochemistry at the University of Notre Dame in 2003.

LINDSAY E. NICOLLE, M.D., F.R.C.P.C., is Professor of Internal Medicine and Medical Microbiology at the University of Manitoba and Consultant in Infectious Diseases at the Health Sciences Centre and St. Boniface Hospital in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. She is also currently Acting Director, Infection Control at St. Boniface Hospital. She has recently completed a sabbatical at WHO where she participated in development of the Global Strategy for Antimicrobial Resistance. Dr. Nicolle is currently Chairperson of the Infection Control Guidelines Committee of the Laboratory Centre for Disease Control in Canada. She was Chairperson of the Long Term Care Committee of the Society for Health Care Epidemiology of America from 1994 to 2002, and was previously secretary of this organization. She has also served as President of the Canadian Infectious Diseases Society, member of the Board of the Community and Hospital Infection Control Association, and of the Canadian Society for Clinical Investigation, and is previous co-chair and founder of the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program. Other activities include membership on the Health Canada Expert Committee on Blood Regulation, Pandemic Influenza Planning Committee, and Minister's Advisory Committee for Chemical, Biological, and Radioactive Safety. Dr. Nicolle's research interests have been in hospital-acquired infections, infections in the elderly, and urinary tract infections. She is the Editor-in-Chief of the Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases, and a member of the Editorial Board of Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology. She has authored/co-authored over 300 publications and book chapters, and contributed to the development of many position papers and consensus documents on infection control and infectious diseases.

IRUKA OKEKE, Ph.D., is Assistant Professor of Microbiology at the Department of Biology, Haverford College, Pennsylvania. She undertook undergraduate and graduate training in pharmacy and microbiology at Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria, where she studied the antibiotic resistance and virulence of fecal Escherichia coli. Since then, she has continued to research the antibiotic resistance and pathogenesis of E. coli, first as post-doctoral fellow at Uppsala Universitet, Sweden, and the University of Maryland, and more recently as Career Development Lecturer in microbiology at the University of Bradford, U.K. Her current research focuses on the molecular epidemiology, pathogenesis, and antibiotic resistance of enterovirulent E. coli.

STEPHEN R. PALUMBI, Ph.D., received his Ph.D. from the University of Washington in 1984. His research group engages in the study of rapid evolutionary change, including the genetics, evolution, conservation, population biology, and systematics of a diverse array of marine organisms. Professor Palumbi has published on the genetics and evolution of a wide variety of organisms including sea urchins, whales, cone snails, corals, sharks, spiders, shrimps, bryozoans, and butterflyfishes. Palumbi's latest book, The Evolution Explosion: How Humans Cause Rapid Evolutionary Change (W.W. Norton), shows how rapid evolution is central to emerging problems in modern society, and has been cited for its easy readability by non-scientists. A primary research focus of his is the use of molecular genetic techniques in conservation, including for the identification of whale and dolphin products available in commercial markets. Current conservation work centers on the genetics of marine reserves designed for conservation and fisheries enhancement, with projects in The Philipppines, the Bahamas, and off the west coast of the United States. In addition, basic work on the molecular evolution of reproductive isolation and its influence on patterns of speciation uses marine model systems such as sea urchins. This work is expanding our view of the evolution of gamete morphology and the genes involved. In fall 2002, Steve appeared on the TV series, “The Future Is Wild,” a computer-animated exploration of the possible courses of evolution in the next few hundred million years.

STEVEN L. PECK, Ph.D., earned his master's degree at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in Biostatistics. He completed his Ph.D. work in Biomathematics, on the spread of resistance in spatially structured systems, at the North Carolina State University. This work was used by the EPA to set refuge sizes for delaying resistance development in transgenic crops. Currently he is assistant professor in the Zoology Department of Brigham Young University where he continues to work on modeling the spatial aspects in the spread of resistance and on rates of evolution in spatially subdivided populations.

DONALD R. ROBERTS, Ph.D., is a Professor of Tropical Public Health in the Division of Tropical Public Health at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USUHS) in Bethesda, Maryland. He is also the Director of the Center for Applications of Remote Sensing and geographical information systems in Public Health. The center has a multi-disciplinary staff of researchers who are involved in field research in Peru, Belize, and Thailand. Dr. Roberts has 94 peer-reviewed publications, with several others in press, under review, or in preparation. His special area of interest is malaria control, especially the control of malaria by spraying insecticide residues on house walls. He has published several original papers on behavioral responses of malaria vectors to insecticide residues and the re-emergence of malaria when house spray programs are abandoned. Additionally, he is interested in applications of GIS and remote sensing technologies for research and control of arthropod-borne diseases. Although he has conducted research in Asia, his primary area of interest is malaria control in Central and South America.

ANTHONY SAVELLI is a Principal Program Associate with the Management Sciences for Health (MSH) Center for Pharmaceutical Management (CPM). He is currently Director of the USAID-funded Rational Pharmaceutical Management Plus (RPM Plus) Program. This five-year program includes global, regional, and country-level initiatives working in the areas of general pharmaceutical system strengthening, as well as child survival, maternal health, HIV/AIDS, malaria, TB, and antimicrobial resistance. Since October 2000, RPM Plus has worked in Haiti, the Dominican Republic, Honduras, Peru, Nepal, Bangladesh, Vietnam, Zambia, Kenya, Senegal, Uganda, South Africa, Albania, Moldova, Romania, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and Turkmenistan. Prior to his work with RPM Plus, Savelli was director of the predecessor Rational Pharmaceutical Management Project, and the Rational Pharmaceutical Management/Russia Project. He has held long-term pharmacy advisor positions in The Commonwealth of Dominica, Swaziland, and Russia. Savelli is a pharmacist and has a master's degree in Public and International Affairs.

JEROME J. SCHENTAG, Pharm.D., earned his bachelor's degree in Pharmacy from the University of Nebraska in Omaha, and his Doctor of Pharmacy degree from the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He completed a postdoctoral fellowship in Clinical Pharmacokinetics at the State University of New York (SUNY) in Buffalo, then joined the department faculty. Presently, Dr. Schentag is Professor of Pharmaceutics and Pharmacy, University at Buffalo School of Pharmacy. Dr. Schentag also holds the title of Fellow, Center for Entrepreneurial Leadership, SUNY at Buffalo School of Management. He is a member of numerous professional societies and holds several professional distinctions, including the status of Fellow in the American College of Clinical Pharmacy. Dr. Schentag has authored or co-authored more than 260 publications and serves or has served on the editorial boards of the journals Pharmacotherapy, Annals of Pharmacotherapy, Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, Pharmaceutical Research, and Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics. His research interests include the effects of diseases on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of antibiotics, oncolytics, and cardiovascular medications, and the relationships between pharmacokinetics and toxicity of medications used in critically ill patients.

THOMAS R. SHRYOCK, Ph.D., is a Senior Technical Microbiology Advisor for Elanco Animal Health, a division of Eli Lilly & Co., where his responsibilities include interacting with regulatory authorities, animal production companies, and industry trade organizations on issues surrounding the use of antibiotics in food animals as they pertain to antibiotic resistance. Dr. Shryock was initially involved with the in vitro and in vivo efficacy evaluation of new antibacterial products in Elanco Discovery. In addition, Dr. Shryock is the Chairholder of the NCCLS Veterinary Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing subcommittee and a Member of the NCCLS Area Committee on Microbiology. He is also currently Division Advisor of Division Z, Animal Health Microbiology, which he co-founded and previously served as Acting Chair and Chair. Dr. Shryock was previously employed as an Assistant Professor of Life Sciences at the Indiana State University, participating in the Medical Technology Program. Prior to that position, he was a Research Microbiologist with Pfizer Animal Health for four years. Dr. Shryock received his B.S. in Biology from the University of Toledo and his doctorate in Medical Microbiology and Immunology from Ohio State University. He subsequently completed two post-doctoral fellowships conducting research in the area of cystic fibrosis pulmonary infection and immune response. Dr. Shryock has authored and/or co-authored over 40 research papers on infectious disease topics. He has been an editor for Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy for nine years and has given presentations in numerous meetings around the world on the topic of antibiotic use in food animals.

RICHARD D. SMITH, M.Sc., graduated in economics and completed postgraduate studies in Health Economics at the University of York in 1991. He has since held positions in Sydney, Cambridge, Bristol, and Melbourne, joining the University of East Anglia as Senior Lecturer in Health Economics in June 1999. He is also an Honorary Associate Professor at the University of Hong Kong. Smith's research interests and experience range extensively across many facets of health economics and he has over 70 published works, including over 20 journal papers and chapters concerning the economics of antimicrobial resistance. His research has focused mainly on: (i) the valuation of benefits resulting from health care interventions, in particular the theory and method of willingness-to-pay, and the interface of cost-benefit analysis with cost-utility analysis; (ii) the economics of antimicrobial resistance; and (iii) primary care reform. More recently, he has become involved in the application of public goods theory in health, with a forthcoming book on this topic (Global Public Goods for Health: A Health Economic and Public Health Perspective) published by Oxford University Press. In recent years Smith has worked extensively with WHO, both in the development of the WHO Global Strategy for the Containment of Resistance and, more recently, in aspects of globalization and health. Smith has also taught widely to economic and medical undergraduates and postgraduates as well as a variety of health service professionals in the U.K., Australia, Hong Kong, and The Philippines. He is currently Director of Postgraduate Programmes within the School of Medicine, Health Policy and Practice at the University of East Anglia.

ALEXANDER TOMASZ, Ph.D., has a Ph.D. in Biochemistry from Columbia University, New York. He is currently Professor and Head of the Laboratory of Microbiology at The Rockefeller University. Dr. Tomasz's contributions include studies on molecular steps in DNA uptake during genetic transformation of pneumococci; the isolation of the first bacterial quorum-sensing agent, the polypeptide hormone (also called “activator”) responsible for the triggering of the physiological state of competence for genetic transformation; the discovery of antibiotic tolerance in bacteria and elucidation of the mechanism of penicillin resistance through alteration of penicillin-binding proteins in pneumococci; the discovery of penicillin-binding protein 2A, the gene product of mecA, which is the central genetic determinant of methicillin resistance in staphylococci; the first high-resolution biochemical analysis of gram-positive bacterial cell walls (pneumococcus, staphylococcus) including identification of the unique phosphocholine-containing teichoic acid of pneumococci; and the first demonstration of inflammatory activity and cytokine-inducing activity of bacterial cell wall components. Most recent contributions include mechanism of staphylococcal glycopeptide resistance; identification of multi-drug-resistant epidemic clones of pneumococci, staphylococci; and organization of a New York-based (Bacterial Antibiotic Resistance, BAR) initiative and an international surveillance network (CEM/NET) for the tracking of antibiotic-resistant bacterial pathogens. Dr. Tomasz has received the prestigious Hoechst-Roussel Award and the Selman A. Waksman Award of the American Society for Microbiology, in recognition of contributions to the field of antibiotic resistance in bacteria, and received an Endowed Chair in Infectious Diseases in 1998 at The Rockefeller University. He is a member of several task forces evaluating the impacts of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (Congress of the United States, Office of Technology Assessment; the American Society for Microbiology; Advisory Board of the WHO), and the author of over 300 publications. He is on the editorial board of several journals, and is Editor-in-Chief of the journal Microbial Drug Resistance.

MARY E. TORRENCE, D.V.M., Ph.D., is the National Program Leader for Food Safety at USDA's Cooperative State Research Education and Extension Service. As a National Program Leader, Dr. Torrence provides leadership and direction to universities, particularly land grant universities, in food safety research. Dr. Torrence is also the program director for the National Research Initiative's grant program entitled Epidemiologic Approaches for Food Safety. Before taking this position, Dr. Torrence was the branch chief of the Epidemiology Branch in the Office of Surveillance and Biometrics in the Center for Devices and Radiological Health, FDA. She has also worked at the Center for Veterinary Medicine, FDA, and at Purdue University. In her current position, she is responsible for providing leadership on a national level to land grant universities. She is a member of numerous federal food safety committees, including the Risk Assessment Consortium and the National Food Safety System. She received her D.V.M. from Ohio State University and her Ph.D. in epidemiology and public health from Virginia Tech. She is a Diplomate in the American College of Veterinary Preventive Medicine. She was co-organizer of a Workshop on Epidemiologic Methods and Approaches for Food Safety and, recently, a co-chair for a research colloquium for the American Academy of Micro-biology on the “Impact of Antimicrobial Resistance on Agriculture: A Critical Scientific Assessment.” She is author of the book (Mosby, Inc.) entitled Understanding Epidemiology. She is co-editor of Microbial Food Safety in Animal Agriculture: Current Topics, which is due to be published by Iowa State Press in March, 2003.

ROBERT G. WEBSTER, Ph.D., is Professor of Virology in the department of Infectious Diseases at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital. A native of New Zealand, Dr. Webster received his B.Sc. and M.Sc. in Microbiology from the Otago University in New Zealand. In 1962, he earned his Ph.D. from the Australian National University and went on to spend the next two years as a Fulbright Scholar working on influenza with Dr. Tommy Francis in the Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Since 1968, Dr. Webster has been at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee, and in 1988, he was appointed to the Rose Marie Thomas Chair in Virology. In 1989, Dr. Webster was admitted to the highly prestigious Royal Society of London in recognition for his contribution to influenza virus research. In 1998, he was selected for membership to the National Academy of Sciences. In addition to his position at St. Jude, Dr. Webster is Director of the U.S. Collaborating Center of the WHO dealing with the ecology of animal influenza viruses. Dr. Webster's interests include the structure and function of influenza virus proteins and the development of new vaccines and antivirals, and the importance of influenza viruses in wild birds as a major reservoir of influenza viruses and their role in the evolution of new pandemic strains for humans and lower animals. His curriculum vitae contains over 400 original articles and reviews on influenza viruses. He has mentored many individuals who have been successful in contributing to our knowledge of influenza as an emerging pathogen.

THOMAS E. WELLEMS, M.D., Ph.D., is Chief of the Laboratory for Malaria and Vector Research at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland. The laboratory supports multi-disciplinary research programs on malaria parasites, their transmission by mosquitoes, and their pathology in humans. Dr. Wellems began his work in malaria in 1984 after completing his medical residency at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania. His discoveries have been honored by the Director's Award of the National Institutes of Health, the Bailey K. Ashford Medal of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, the Smadel Medal of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, and the Lincei Golgi Medal of the Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei in Rome. Dr. Wellems' specific interests focus on drug resistance, immune evasion, and the virulence of Plasmodium falciparum, the parasite that causes the most deadly form of human malaria. Two key findings from his laboratory research have been the P. falciparum transporter for chloroquine resistance and the gene family responsible for antigenic variation of parasitized red blood cells. In field investigations, his efforts have led to new diagnostic assays for drug-resistant malaria strains and new information on hemoglobin mutations that confer protection against the severe complications of malaria.


STACEY L. KNOBLER is Director of the Forum on Emerging Infections at the Institute of Medicine (IOM). She previously served as the co-director of the IOM Board on Global Health's study, Neurological, Psychiatric, and Developmental Disorders in Developing Countries, and research associate for the Assessment of Future Scientific Needs for Live Variola Virus. Ms. Knobler is actively involved in program research and development for the Board on Global Health. Previously, she has held positions as a Research Associate at the Brookings Institution, Foreign Policy Studies Program and as an Arms Control and Democratization Consultant for the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe in Vienna and Bosnia-Herzegovina. Ms. Knobler has also worked as a research and negotiations analyst in Israel and Palestine. She is currently a member of the CBACI Senior Working Group for Health, Security, and U.S. Global Leadership. Ms. Knobler has conducted research and co-authored published articles on biological and nuclear weapons control, foreign aid, health in developing countries, poverty and public assistance, and the Arab-Israeli peace process.

MARJAN NAJAFI, M.P.H., is a research associate for the Forum on Emerging Infections in the Board on Global Health. She has also worked with the IOM committee that produced Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2000. She received her undergraduate degrees in chemical engineering and applied mathematics from the University of Rhode Island. Ms. Najafi served as a public health engineer with the Maryland Department of Environment and, later, the Research Triangle Institute. After obtaining a master's of public health from the Bloomberg School of Public Health at Johns Hopkins University, she managed a lead poisoning prevention program in Micronesia with a grant from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Prior to joining IOM, she worked on a study researching the effects of cellular phone radiation on human health.

LAURIE A. SPINELLI is a project assistant for the Forum on Emerging Infections in the Board on Global Health. Ms. Spinelli joined the IOM in July 2000, and has worked with the IOM committee that generated the Neurological, Psychiatric, and Developmental Disorders: Meeting the Challenge in the Developing World report. Currently, she is working on two forthcoming reports: Reducing the Impact of Birth Defects in Developing Countries and Improving Birth Outcomes in Developing Countries. Prior to joining IOM, she graduated from Syracuse University with a bachelor of arts degree in speech communications. Ms. Spinelli also teaches an interpersonal communication course at the College of Southern Maryland.

Copyright © 2003, National Academy of Sciences.
Bookshelf ID: NBK97143
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