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Baba AI, Câtoi C. Comparative Oncology. Bucharest: The Publishing House of the Romanian Academy; 2007.

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Comparative Oncology.

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Comparative oncology has undergone a special development over the past decades and has increasingly attracted the interest of researchers who have studied the etiopathogenesis, morphogenesis and epidemiology, as well as the carcinogens and carcinogenesis of tumor disease.

Cases of cancer in animals were reported as early as the 17th and 18th centuries. The first description of tumors in dogs was given by MUZARD in 1792, in “Methodical encyclopedia”, and the “Dictionary of veterinary medicine and surgery” published in 1826 attempted to classify and describe neoplasms in animals. A comparative study of human tumors and tumors known in different animal species was performed in 1851 by LEBERT, in “Practical treatise on cancer diseases”.

BOURGOIN (1972) reviews the published synthesis studies, reaching the conclusion that 67.4% of all tumors diagnosed in animals are malignant. The author mentions some peculiarities related to the species, observing a higher frequency of epithelial carcinomas in dogs and rabbits, while sarcomas are more frequent in horses and fish. Some animal species seem to be more rarely affected by cancer diseases, hence the expression “refractory species”. Thus, skin neoplasms in sheep are rare. The morbidity of cancer in animals compared to humans should be estimated in relation to the economic factor, which determines the killing of animals before age allows the full expression of the neoplastic disease.

Other animal species manifest a particular sensitivity, clinically and morphologically expressing cancer disease shortly after the exposure to certain oncogenic, even polluting factors, which allows to take measures for both animals and humans. These species have been called “sentinel animals”.

In 1972, COTCHIN completed an extensive synthesis of bibliographic data, comparing the types of neoplasms described in humans and animals. Until recently, the study of cancer disease in animals, especially in the morphopathological area and less the epidemiological and etiopathogenetic areas, was the concern of passionate people. Over the past decades, the possibilities offered by comparative pathology have been used in the vast field of experiment and heredopathological studies, the results of which will allow the understanding of the unknown aspects that still exist in cancer disease, which continues to be regarded with fear, even in the third millennium.

Romanian oncology, brief history. The scientific foundations of the study of cancer were laid with the creation in 1929 of the “Institute for the Study and Prophylaxis of Cancer” in Cluj, which preceded by one year the “Oncologic Institute - Gustave Russy” in Paris and by 7 years the “Oncologic Institute -Eötvös Lorand” in Budapest.

The Oncologic Institute of Cluj was the first in the world to propose as main study object the prophylaxis of cancer. The initiative of the creation of this institute belonged to Prof. Dr. Iuliu MOLDOVAN and Dr. Constantin STANCA, the latter being a founder and editor in chief of the “Cancerul” journal. In 1958, Prof. Dr. Ion CHIRICUŢĂ was appointed director of this Institute. He restructured and modernized the Institute, he developed an important research section; as a recognition of the merits of this man of culture and science, this prestigious medical institution was named the “Ion Chiricuţă” Oncologic Institute Cluj.

In 1975, Prof. Dr. Ion CHIRICUŢĂ and Prof. Dr. Ion ADAMEŞTEANU created the “Society of Comparative Oncology” in Cluj, the first one in Romania. This society developed based on the collaboration between the researchers of the Oncologic Institute and the teaching staff and researchers of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Cluj, where starting with 1963, within the Department of Veterinary Pathology, a team of researchers-teaching staff was formed under the direction of Prof. Dr. Constanţa ADAMEŞTEANU, who founded an important school of comparative oncology, continued and developed by Prof. Dr. Alecsandru loan BABA.

In Bucharest, the first anticancer center started its activity at Colţea Hospital, in 1926, under the direction of Prof. Dr. Amza JIANU and Prof. Dr. Ion JOVIN. In 1949, the “Oncologic Institute” of Bucharest was created, which was initially run by Prof. Dr. O. COSTĂCHEL, then by Prof. Dr. Al. TRESTIOREANU. Since 1989, the activity of the Institute has been carried out in a modern building, the “Al. Trestioreanu” Oncologic Institute. Within the Institute, extensive modern studies of comparative oncology have been initiated and developed under the direction of Prof. Dr. Nicolae MANOLESCU.

Over the past decades, organizing structures have been created in Romania, which have allowed developing extensive, coordinated scientific researches of comparative oncology. In this way, the “Foundation of Comparative Oncology” was created, as well as the “Romanian Society of Comparative Oncology”, which publishes the “Romanian Journal of Comparative Oncology”, in both Romanian and English. The foundations were laid for the introduction of the National Cancer Registry for animals in Romania.

In the Romanian faculties of veterinary medicine, courses are taught to students, there are master’s degree and doctoral specializations in comparative oncology, and scientific research is focused on the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of natural cancer disease, as well as experimental cancer.

The first edition of the book “Comparative Oncology” was published in 2002, in Romanian, by the Publishing House of the Romanian Academy. Since then, new developments have occurred, such as the new classification of tumors in animals, performed by the World Health Organization, through the collaboration of the best specialists in veterinary oncology. This classification has laid the foundations for a common nomenclature for veterinary oncology and human oncology, which is a real scientific event that will mark the development and the future of comparative oncology.

We wish to thank all the people who devote their time and life to the good functioning of the structures of the World Health Organization, in order to protect the health of humans and animals. We thank them for their collaboration and understanding.

We must also express our gratitude to the many people who have contributed to the preparation of this edition, for the assistance received, but we must here acknowledge: Dr. Adrian Gal, Dr. Vasile I. Rus, Dr. Endre Dombay, Dr. Sorina Jacob and Rozalia Banyai.

We are grateful again to receive the courtesy and cooperation of the Publishing House of the Romanian Academy in this shared contribution to the study of comparative oncology.





Copyright © 2007, The Publishing House of the Romanian Academy.
Bookshelf ID: NBK9541


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