• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information

Table 8.4Percentage of children/young people with ASD who had a condition (potentially or actually) identified or confirmed by the biomedical investigation

Biomedical investigationQuality assessmentSummary of findings
Studies (N)% of participants testedDesignLimitationsInconsistencyIndirectnessQuality% of total participants in studies with abnormal test results (95% CI)
EEG
Performed routinely189;195;196;198;2044 (191)100.0%Uncon obsNot usedNot usedNot usedVery low7 (0, 24)
Performed based on clinical judgement193;194;205;2063 (356)43.8%Uncon obsNot usedNot usedNot usedVery low4 (1, 11)
Performed for research purposes152;190;192;197;201;203;208;2098 (3073)99.6%Uncon obsNot usedNot usedNot usedVery low23 (14, 34)
MRI
Performed routinely189;2042 (117)100.0%Uncon obsNot usedNot usedNot usedVery low3 (1, 7)
Performed based on clinical judgement195;196;205;2063 (395)22.0%Uncon obsNot usedNot usedNot usedVery low0 (0, 1)
Performed for research purposesNo studies were identified.
CT/CAT/PET/SPECT
Performed routinelyNo studies were identified for this analysis
Performed based on clinical judgement193196;2063 (205)43.9%Uncon obsNot usedNot usedNot usedVery low0 (0, 2)
Performed for research purposes202No studies were identified for this analysis
Metabolic tests
Performed routinely165;189;193;194;2044 (322)100.0%Uncon obsNot usedNot usedNot usedVery low0 (0, 1)
Performed based on clinical judgement152;165;195;196;205;2064 (508)46.2%Uncon obsNot usedNot usedNot usedVery low1 (0, 6)
Performed for research purposes2131 (56)100.0%Uncon obsNot usedNot usedNot usedVery low100
Blood tests
Performed routinely2041 (32)100.0%Uncon obsNot usedNot usedNot usedVery low3
Performed based on clinical judgementNo studies were identified for this analysis
Performed for research purposes2151 (48)100.0%Uncon obsNot usedNot usedNot usedVery low58
Urine tests
Performed routinely2041 (32)100.0%Uncon obsNot usedNot usedNot usedVery low0
Performed based on clinical judgementNo studies were identified for this analysis
Performed for research purposesNo studies were identified for this analysis
Genetic tests
Performed routinely189;2042 (117)100.0%Uncon obsNot usedNot usedNot usedVery low14 (7, 22)
Performed based on clinical judgement195;196;205;2183 (359)52.1%Uncon obsNot usedNot usedNot usedVery low3 (1, 7)
Performed for research purposes181;188;190;193;194;2175 (1723)95.8%Uncon obsNot usedNot usedNot usedVery low10 (2, 24)

EEG: electroencephalography (EEG); MRI: magnetic resonance imaging; CT: Computed tomography; CAT: computed axial tomography; PET: positron emission tomography; SPECT: single photon emission computed tomography

CI: confidence interval; Uncon obs: Uncontrolled observational (see Methods, Section 2.6.2 for detail)

From: 8, Medical investigations

Cover of Autism
Autism: Recognition, Referral and Diagnosis of Children and Young People on the Autism Spectrum.
NICE Clinical Guidelines, No. 128.
National Collaborating Centre for Women’s and Children’s Health (UK).
London: RCOG Press; 2011 Sep.
Copyright © 2011, National Collaborating Centre for Women’s and Children’s Health.

No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the publisher or, in the case of reprographic reproduction, in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency in the UK [www.cla.co.uk]. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside the terms stated here should be sent to the publisher at the UK address printed on this page.

The use of registered names, trademarks, etc. in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant laws and regulations and therefore for general use.

NCBI Bookshelf. A service of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.