Table 4Factors associated with an increased prevalence of autism

  • A sibling with autism
  • Birth defects associated with central nervous system malformation and/or dysfunction, including cerebral palsy
  • Gestational age less than 35 weeks
  • Parental schizophrenia-like psychosis or affective disorder
  • Maternal use of sodium valproate in pregnancy
  • Intellectual disability
  • Neonatal encephalopathy or epileptic encephalopathy, including infantile spasms
  • Chromosomal disorders such as Down’s syndrome
  • Genetic disorders such as fragile X
  • Muscular dystrophy
  • Neurofibromatosis
  • Tuberous sclerosis

From: 4, Following referral

Cover of Autism
Autism: Recognition, Referral and Diagnosis of Children and Young People on the Autism Spectrum.
NICE Clinical Guidelines, No. 128.
National Collaborating Centre for Women’s and Children’s Health (UK).
London: RCOG Press; 2011 Sep.
Copyright © 2011, National Collaborating Centre for Women’s and Children’s Health.

No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the publisher or, in the case of reprographic reproduction, in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency in the UK []. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside the terms stated here should be sent to the publisher at the UK address printed on this page.

The use of registered names, trademarks, etc. in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant laws and regulations and therefore for general use.

NCBI Bookshelf. A service of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.