TABLE 4.2Mammals and Primates

ACAnterior cingulateAgranular frontal cortex: shared by rats, monkeys, and other mammalsMedial PFC in rodentsBiases competition among multiple stimuli and actions for dominant control over behavior Advantageous in the presence of multiple possible actions and outcomes
PLPrelimbicBiases behavior toward goal-directed choices (R-O associations) vs. habits (S-R associations) Advantageous in an dynamic environment, when the outcome of behavior is changing With IL, biases behavior toward repeated exploitation (based on outcome) vs. an innate tendency to avoid exploited places (independent of outcome)
ILInfralimbicBiases behavior toward habits (S-R associations) vs. goal-directed choices (R-O associations) Advantageous in a static environment, when the outcome of behavior is fixed
OFaAgranular orbitofrontalOrbital or lateral PFC in rodentsBiases control toward seeking transiently available, higher-value rewards (“impatient” foraging, increased delay discounting) Advantageous in the presence of a rich, available resource Improved stimulus-outcome (S-O) predictions, specific for sensory properties each kind of reward
IaAgranular insularBiases control toward seeking rarely available, higher-value rewards (“patient” foraging, anticipatory contrast effect) Advantageous when a rich resource might be available later Improved storage or recall of sensory aspects of specific rewards
PFgGranular prefrontal cortexAbsent in rodents and other nonprimate mammalsAdvanced feature-value conjunctions, including “menu”-independent value, drive-independent value (“the common currency”), association of strategies and rules with reward, value-free use of rewards

Abbreviation: PFC, prefrontal cortex.

From: Chapter 4, What Can Different Brains Do with Reward?

Cover of Neurobiology of Sensation and Reward
Neurobiology of Sensation and Reward.
Gottfried JA, editor.
Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press; 2011.
Copyright © 2011 by Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

NCBI Bookshelf. A service of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.