FIGURE 12.1. Proximal and distal cues associated with food reinforcement.

FIGURE 12.1

Proximal and distal cues associated with food reinforcement. Proximal cues can be defined as those sensory cues that are associated with the consummatory act of eating itself; it might include inputs such as the taste and the texture of a food, or its odor as detected via the nasopharynx route (retronasal olfaction). Distal cues, on the other hand, can be understood as those sensory cues that either precede the consummatory act (“preingestive” distal cues, such as visual or olfactory signals predicting food availability) or follow the consummatory act (“postingestive” distal cues, such as metabolic changes resulting from eating). Distal cues might gain reward value due to associations formed with ensuing proximal cues. Proximal cues themselves might also become reward predictors if consistently associated with ensuing positive postingestive effects. In this figure, the consummatory act takes place at time T = 0, and distal cues occur at variables times that might either precede (-h) or follow (+h) the consummatory act.

From: Chapter 12, Multiple Reward Layers in Food Reinforcement

Cover of Neurobiology of Sensation and Reward
Neurobiology of Sensation and Reward.
Gottfried JA, editor.
Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press; 2011.
Copyright © 2011 by Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

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