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Wong KO, Bond K, Homik J, et al. Antinuclear Antibody, Rheumatoid Factor, and Cyclic-Citrullinated Peptide Tests for Evaluating Musculoskeletal Complaints in Children [Internet]. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 2012 Mar. (Comparative Effectiveness Reviews, No. 50.)

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Antinuclear Antibody, Rheumatoid Factor, and Cyclic-Citrullinated Peptide Tests for Evaluating Musculoskeletal Complaints in Children [Internet].

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Appendix DList of Excluded Studies

EXCLUDED STUDIES (N = 438)

The following studies failed to meet at least one of the pre-specified inclusion criteria.

Study design (N = 129)

The following studies were excluded because they were not reports of primary research.

1.
Miller E, Uleryk E, Doria AS. Evidence-based outcomes of studies addressing diagnostic accuracy of MRI of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. AJR. 2009;(5):1209–18. American. [PubMed: 19380543]
2.
Kallel-Sellami M, Baili-Klila L, Zerzeri Y, et al. Pediatric systemic lupus erythematosus with C1q deficiency. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2007;1108:193–6. [PubMed: 17893985]
3.
Melegari A, Mascia MT, Sandri G, et al. Immunodeficiency and autoimmune phenomena in female hyper-IgM syndrome. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2007;1109:106–8. [PubMed: 17785295]
4.
Mseddi M, Dammak A, Marrekchi S, et al. Subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus in childhood: a case report. Archives de Pediatrie. 2007;14(2):164–6. [French] [PubMed: 17207613]
5.
Gough-Palmer A, McHugh K. Investigating hip pain in a well child. BMJ: British Medical Journal. 2007;334(7605):1216–7. [PMC free article: PMC1892599] [PubMed: 17556478]
6.
Banerjee P, Crain B. 2-year-old girl with right leg weakness. Brain Pathology. 2008;18(4):608–10. [PubMed: 18782176]
7.
Abbassian A. The limping child: a clinical approach to diagnosis. British Journal of Hospital Medicine. 2007;68(5):246–50. [PubMed: 17554942]
8.
Trueman CA. Joint disease: the future arthritis burden. Caring. 2009;28(2):8–13. [PubMed: 19953858]
9.
Gilbert NF, Deavers MT, Madewell JE, et al. A 16-year-old girl with pain and swelling in the medial clavicle. CLIN ORTHOP RELATED RES. 2008;466(12):3158–62. [PMC free article: PMC2628250] [PubMed: 18404298]
10.
Brown RJ. Introduction to the special issue on medically unexplained symptoms: background and future directions. Clinical Psychology Review. 2007;27(7):769–80. [PubMed: 17707564]
11.
Wyndham M. The limping child. Community Practitioner. 2007;80(9):42. [PubMed: 17900028]
12.
Syed RH, Gilliam BE, Moore TL. Rheumatoid factors and anticyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies in pediatric rheumatology. Current Rheumatology Reports. 2008;10(2):156–63. [PubMed: 18460272]
13.
Yokota S, Mori M, Imagawa T, et al. Proposal for juvenile idiopathic arthritis guidance on diagnosis and treatment for primary care pediatricians and nonpediatric rheumatologists. Modern Rheumatology. 2007;17(5):353–63. [PubMed: 17929125]
14.
Iwata N, Mori M, Miyamae T, et al. Sjogren’s syndrome associated with childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus. Nihon Rinsho Meneki Gakkai Kaishi. 2008;31(3):166–71. [Japanese] [PubMed: 18587227]
15.
van Holsbeeck MT. A role for US screening in juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Pediatric Radiology. 2007;37(7):623–4. [PubMed: 17530239]
16.
Gottlieb BS, Ilowite NT. Systemic lupus erythematosus in children and adolescents. Pediatrics in Review. 2006;27(9):323–30. [PubMed: 16950937]
17.
Al-Mendalawi MD. Juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus in Bahrain. A tertiary referral center experience. Saudi Medical Journal. 2009;30(9):1240–1. [PubMed: 19750278]
18.
Quartier P, Prieur AM. Systemic lupus erythematosus. Archives de Pediatrie. 2003;10(4):367–73. [French] [PubMed: 12818767]
19.
Gandon-Laloum S. Growth and limb pains. Archives de Pediatrie. 2006;13(6):550–2. [French] [PubMed: 16697588]
20.
Bizzaro N, Wiik A. Appropriateness in anti-nuclear antibody testing: from clinical request to strategic laboratory practice. Clinical & Experimental Rheumatology. 2004;22(3):349–55. [PubMed: 15144133]
21.
Jarvis JN. The unique clinical presentation of children with chronic arthritis: putting the pediatrics in pediatric rheumatology. Current Problems in Pediatric & Adolescent Health Care. 2006;36(3):80–2. [PubMed: 16473283]
22.
Kaur S, Thami GP. Antinuclear antibody-negative systemic lupus erythematosus: revisited. INDIAN J PEDIATR. 2003;70(2):185–6. [PubMed: 12661819]
23.
Leung AK, Lemay JF. The limping child. Journal of Pediatric Health Care. 2004;18(5):219–23. [PubMed: 15337915]
24.
Gunther KP, Thielemann F, Bottesi M. Anterior knee pain in children and adolescents. Diagnosis and conservative treatment. Orthopade. 2003;32(2):110–8. [German] [PubMed: 12607076]
25.
Shea KG, Pfeiffer R, Curtin M. Idiopathic anterior knee pain in adolescents. Orthopedic Clinics of North America. 7 A.D.;34(3):377–83. [PubMed: 12974487]
26.
Siegel DM. Antinuclear Antibody (ANA) Testing. Pediatrics in Review. 2003;24(9):320–1. [PubMed: 12949270]
27.
Ganley TJ, Gaugles RL, Moroz LA. Consultation with the specialist: patellofemoral conditions in childhood. Pediatrics in Review. 70 A.D.;27(7):264–9. [PubMed: 16815995]
28.
Kashikar-Zuck S, Graham TB, Huenefeld MD, et al. A review of biobehavioral research in juvenile primary fibromyalgia syndrome. ARTHRITIS CARE RES. 2000;13(6):388–97. [PubMed: 14635315]
29.
Locham KK, Singh J, Garg R, et al. ANA negative lupus erythematosus. Indian Pediatrics. 2000;37(5):540–2. [PubMed: 10820549]
30.
Solomon DH, Shmerling RH, Schur PH, et al. A computer based intervention to reduce unnecessary serologic testing. J RHEUMATOL. 1999;26(12):2578–84. [PubMed: 10606365]
31.
Carreno PL. [Practical value of immunologic changes in juvenile chronic arthritis]. Anales Espanoles de Pediatria. 1993;39 Suppl-30 [Spanish] [PubMed: 8291787]
32.
Modesto CC. [Antinuclear antibodies and juvenile chronic rheumatoid arthritis]. Anales Espanoles de Pediatria. 1996;44(4):305–9. [Spanish] [PubMed: 8849075]
33.
Lightfoot RW Jr. Cost effective use of laboratory tests in rheumatology. Bulletin on the Rheumatic Diseases. 1997;46(6):1–3. [PubMed: 9336998]
34.
Martinez-Cordero E, Orozco BG, Martinez ME. Evaluation of disease activity by laboratory tests in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Journal of Investigational Allergology & Clinical Immunology. 1995;5(4):216–20. [PubMed: 8705012]
35.
Brady M. The child with a limp. Journal of Pediatric Health Care. 1993;7(5):226–8. [PubMed: 8410589]
36.
Leak AM. Autoantibody profile in juvenile chronic arthritis. ANN RHEUM DIS. 1988;47(3):178–82. [PMC free article: PMC1003480] [PubMed: 3281608]
37.
Southwood TR, Malleson PN. Antinuclear antibodies and juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA): search for a specific autoantibody associated with JCA. ANN RHEUM DIS. 1991;50(9):595–8. [PMC free article: PMC1004499] [PubMed: 1929579]
38.
Schaller JG. Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis: Series 1. Arthritis & Rheumatism. 1977;20(2:Suppl):70. [PubMed: 263894]
39.
Chamberlain MA. Referral of chronic arthritics. British Medical Journal Clinical Research Ed. 1984;288(6414):347–8. [PMC free article: PMC1444268] [PubMed: 6419922]
40.
Ballardini P, Busachi CA, Amoresano A, et al. Prevalence of rheumatoid factors in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Clinical & Experimental Rheumatology. 2010;9(5):548. [PubMed: 1954710]
41.
Kanski JJ. Juvenile arthritis and uveitis. Survey of Ophthalmology. 1990;34(4):253–67. [PubMed: 2188388]
42.
Mayet WJ, Bachmann M, Hermann E, et al. The Ro/SS-A antigen-antibody system. Zeitschrift fur Rheumatologie. 1988;47(2):80–5. [German] [PubMed: 3291481]
43.
Sievers K, Nissila M, Sievers UM. Cerebral vasculitis visualized by angiography in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis simulating brain tumor. Acta Rheumatologica Scandinavica. 1968;14(3):222–32. [PubMed: 5306097]
44.
Oppermann J. Phagocytized aggregates in joint effusion cells of children with rheumatoid arthritis. Allergie und Asthma. 1969;15(4):218–22. [German] [PubMed: 5400707]
45.
Irias JJ. Hydralazine-induced lupus erythematosus-like syndrome. American Journal of Diseases of Children. 1975;129(7):862–4. [PubMed: 50009]
46.
Bloch-Michel H, Waltzing P, Brauner M, et al. The rosette rheumatoid test in seronegative juvenile-infantile polyarthritis. Annales de Medecine Interne. 1972;123(4):375–9. [French] [PubMed: 5077043]
47.
Yodfat Y, Yossipovitch Z, Cohen I, et al. A family with a high incidence of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. ANN RHEUM DIS. 1972;31(2):92–4. [PMC free article: PMC1005871] [PubMed: 4111641]
48.
Bresnihan FP, Ansell BM. Effect of penicillamine treatment on immune complexes in two cases of seropositive juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. ANN RHEUM DIS. 1975;35(5):463–5. [PMC free article: PMC1006582] [PubMed: 1086656]
49.
Gregg S. Rheumatoid arthritis in childhood. Arizona Medicine. 1971;28(8):577–85. [PubMed: 4947582]
50.
Baum J, Fink C. Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis in monozygotic twins: a case report and review of the literature. Arthritis & Rheumatism. 1968;11(1):33–6. [PubMed: 4966598]
51.
Brizard J. Chronic inflammatory rheumatism in children. Cahiers de Medecine. 1972;13(3):167–79. [French] [PubMed: 4537787]
52.
Bruneau CD, Edmonds JP, Hughes GR, et al. Detection and characterization of DNA-anti-DNA complexes in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus. Clinical & Experimental Immunology. 1977;28(3):433–6. [PMC free article: PMC1541003] [PubMed: 302166]
53.
Ansell BA. Rheumatoid disease, laboratory data. CRC Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences. 1972;3(2):193–201. [PubMed: 4562916]
54.
Day NK, Geiger H, McLean R, et al. C2 deficiency. Development of lupus erythematosus. Journal of Clinical Investigation. 1973;52(7):1601–7. [PMC free article: PMC302431] [PubMed: 4578155]
55.
Kornreich H, Malouf NN, Hanson V. Acute hepatic dysfunction in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. J Pediatric. 1971;79(1):27–35. [PubMed: 5314582]
56.
Mackay IR. Autoimmune disease. Medical Journal of Australia. 1969;1(13):696–9. [PubMed: 4890055]
57.
Schaller JG. Diagnosis and treatment of arthritis in children. Medical Times. 1977;105(11):65–74. [PubMed: 916861]
58.
Kolle G. Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis and related collagen diseases. Clinical aspects. Monatsschrift fur Kinderheilkunde. 1976;124(12):779–85. [German] [PubMed: 12466]
59.
Haustein UF, Sonnichsen N. Lupus erythematodes in childhood--a virus-induced autoimmune disease? Padiatrie und Grenzgebiete. 1974;13(2–3):163–76. [German] [PubMed: 4605775]
60.
Boone JE, Baldwin J, Levine C. Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Pediatric Clinics of North America. 1974;21(4):885–915. [PubMed: 4610493]
61.
Levinson JE. Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. POSTGRAD MED. 1972;51(6):88–94. [PubMed: 4537350]
62.
Dumas M, Loyau G. Diagnostic problems raised by polyarthritis of an inflammatory nature. Semaine des Hopitaux. 1972;48(9):645–8. [French] [PubMed: 4114412]
63.
Smiley WK. The eye in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Transactions of the Ophthalmological Societies of the United Kingdom. 1974;94(3):817–29. [PubMed: 4549593]
64.
Macaubas C, Nguyen K, Milojevic D, et al. Oligoarticular and polyarticular JIA: Epidemiology and pathogenesis. Nature Reviews Rheumatology. 2009;5(11):616–26. [PMC free article: PMC4159935] [PubMed: 19806151]
65.
Goldenberg DL. Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis of Fibromyalgia. American Journal of Medicine. 2009;122(12 SUPPL):S14–S21. [PubMed: 19962492]
66.
Hunter PJ, Wedderburn LR. Pediatric rheumatic disease: Can molecular profiling predict the future in JIA? Nature Reviews Rheumatology. 2009;5(11):593–4. [PubMed: 19865086]
67.
Ortega-Hernandez O-D, Shoenfeld Y. Infection, vaccination, and autoantibodies in chronic fatigue syndrome, cause or coincidence. Contemporary Challenges in Autoimmunity Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2009;1173:600–9. [PubMed: 19758205]
68.
McGonagle D, Benjamin M. Towards a new clinico-immunopathological classification of juvenile inflammatory arthritis. J RHEUMATOL. 2009;36(8):1573–4. [PubMed: 19671809]
69.
Ringold S, Cron RQ. The temporomandibular joint in juvenile idiopathic arthritis: Frequently used and frequently arthritic. Pediatric Rheumatology. 2009;7(11) [PMC free article: PMC2694194] [PubMed: 19480670]
70.
Nandi M, Ganguli SK, Mondal R, et al. Clinico-serological profile of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Indian Pediatrics. 2009;46(7):640–1. [PubMed: 19638666]
71.
Goeb V, Jouen F, Gilbert D, et al. Diagnostic and prognostic usefulness of antibodies to citrullinated peptides. Joint Bone Spine. 2009;76(4):343–9. [PubMed: 19524474]
72.
Gomez AP, Atrio AIS, Nieves AIT, et al. Differential diagnostic protocol of arthritis in infancy and adolescence. Medicine. 2009;10(29):1972–5. [Spanish]
73.
Gomez AP, Atrio AIS, Hernandez FA, et al. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Medicine. 2009;10(29):1933–41. [Spanish]
74.
Syed RH, Gilliam BE, Moore TL. Rheumatoid factors and anticyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies in pediatric rheumatology. Current Rheumatology Reports. 2008;10(2):156–63. [PubMed: 18460272]
75.
Unsal E, Arli AO, Akman H. Rhupus arthropathy as the presenting manifestation in Juvenile SLE: A case report. Pediatric Rheumatology. 2007;5(7) [PMC free article: PMC1887527] [PubMed: 17550633]
76.
Hinze C, Brunner HI. Pediatric rheumatology - Its own specialty. Nature Clinical Practice Rheumatology. 2008;4(6):279. [PubMed: 18516066]
77.
Olsen NJ, Wandstrat AE, Karp DR. Development of risk profiles for systemic lupus erythematosus. Future Rheumatology. 2007;2(5):507–14.
78.
Silverman E. Pediatric systemic lupus erythematosus. Future Rheumatology. 2007;2(1):23–50.
79.
Weiss JE, Ilowite NT. Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis. Rheumatic Disease Clinics of North America. 2007;33(3):441–70. [PubMed: 17936173]
80.
Yildiz B, Kural N. IgG1 deficiency and high IgA level with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. European Journal of Pediatrics. 2007;166(11):1179–80. [PubMed: 17136352]
81.
Buc M, Parnicka Z, Rovensky J, et al. Juvenile idiopatic arthritis an overview of current status in immunopathogenesis, immunogenetic, and immunotherapy. Rheumatologia. 2006;20(4):209–14. [Slovak]
82.
Gottlieb BS, Ilowite NT. Systemic lupus erythematosus in children and adolescents. Pediatrics in Review. 2006;27(9):323–30. [PubMed: 16950937]
83.
Lopez-Longo F-J, Rodriguez-Mahou M, Sanchez-Ramon S, et al. Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide versus anti-Sa antibodies in diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis in an outpatient clinic for connective tissue disease and spondyloarthritis. J RHEUMATOL. 2006;33(8):1476–81. [PubMed: 16881106]
84.
Ravelli A, Martini A. Remission in juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Clinical and experimental rheumatology. 2006;24(6 SUPPL 43):S105–S110. [PubMed: 17083772]
85.
Uma SA. Systemic lupus erythematosus in children-clinical spectrum and management. Indian Journal of Practical Pediatrics. 2005;7(4):352–8.
86.
Childhood SLE. South African Medical Journal. 2005;95(6):363.
87.
Kamoun M. Diagnostic performance and predictive value of anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies for diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis: Toward more accurate detection? Clinical Chemistry. 2005;51(1):12–3. [PubMed: 15613706]
88.
Migliorini P, Baldini C, Rocchi V, et al. Anti-Sm and anti-RNP antibodies. Autoimmunity. 2005;38(1):47–54. [PubMed: 15804705]
89.
Symmons D. Commentary: Juvenile idiopathic arthritis - Issues of definition and causation. International Journal of Epidemiology. 2005;34(3):671–2. [PubMed: 15851394]
90.
Vander CB, Peene I, Cantaert T, et al. Anti-citrullinated protein/peptide antibodies (ACPA) in rheumatoid arthritis: Specificity and relation with rheumatoid factor. Autoimmunity Reviews. 2005;4(7):468–74. [PubMed: 16137613]
91.
Wiik AS. Anti-nuclear autoantibodies: Clinical utility for diagnosis, prognosis, monitoring, and planning of treatment strategy in systemic immunoinflammatory diseases. Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology. 2005;34(4):260–8. [PubMed: 16195158]
92.
Yablanski K, Yordanova V. Diagnostic significance of the antibodies to cyclic citrullinated peptides in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Clinical Application of Immunology. 2005;4(1–2):435–40.
93.
Maddison PJ. Is it SLE? Best Practice and Research in Clinical Rheumatology. 2002;16(2):167–80. [PubMed: 12041947]
94.
Agarwal V, Mahajan A. Laboratory tests in rheumatology: Rational utilization and interpretation. JK Science. 2004;6(1):52–5.
95.
Bodman-Smith MD, Fife MF, Wythe H, et al. Anti-BiP antibody levels in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) Rheumatology. 2004;43(10):1305–6. [PubMed: 15448213]
96.
Klein-Gitelman M. Pediatric lupus versus adult lupus role of the laboratory. Clinical and Applied Immunology Reviews. 2004;4(5):333–50.
97.
Petty RE, Southwood TR, Manners P, et al. International League of Associations for Rheumatology Classification of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: Second Revision, Edmonton, 2001. J RHEUMATOL. 2004;31(2):390–2. [PubMed: 14760812]
98.
Ravelli A. Toward an understanding of the long-term outcome of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Clinical and experimental rheumatology. 2004;22(3):271–5. [PubMed: 15144118]
99.
van Venrooij WJ, Hazes JM, Visser H. Anticitrullinated protein/peptide antibody and its role in the diagnosis and prognosis of early rheumatoid arthritis. Netherlands Journal of Medicine. 2002;60(10):383–8. [PubMed: 12607587]
100.
Lewis JG, Florkowski CM, Elder PA, et al. Rheumatoid factor and false positive sex-hormone binding globulin. Clinica Chimica Acta. 2003;332(1–2):139–44. [PubMed: 12763291]
101.
Slettjord CN, Nossent HC, Goodson NJ, et al. Increased mortality in early inflammatory polyarthritis: Comment on the article by Goodson et al. Arthritis and rheumatism. 2003;48(5):1462–3. [PubMed: 12746924]
102.
Goumy L. Idiopathic juvenile polyarthritis. Presse Medicale. 2001;30(3):137–42. [French] [PubMed: 11225487]
103.
Hull RG. Guidelines for management of childhood arthritis. Rheumatology. 2001;40(11):1309–12. [PubMed: 11709617]
104.
Malleson PN, Beauchamp RD. Rheumatology: 16. Diagnosing musculoskeletal pain in children. Canadian Medical Association Journal. 2001;165(2):183–8. [PMC free article: PMC81287] [PubMed: 11501459]
105.
Rauz S, Murray PI, Southwood TR. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis and uveitis: The classification conundrum. Eye. 2000;14(6):817–20. [PubMed: 11584835]
106.
Diagnosis, development and treatment principles of systemic lupus erythematosus. Annales de Dermatologie et de Venereologie. 2000;127(SPEC.ISS. 1):A167–A173. [French] [PubMed: 11474518]
107.
Illei GG, Klippel JH. Why is the ANA result positive? Bulletin on the Rheumatic Diseases. 1999;48(1):1–4. [PubMed: 10028188]
108.
Pelkonen PM. Juvenile arthritis with oligoarticular onset. Bailliere’s Clinical Rheumatology. 1998;12(2):273–86. [PubMed: 9890098]
109.
Rosenberg AM. Systemic lupus erythematosus in children. Springer Seminars in Immunopathology. 1994;16(2–3):261–79. [PubMed: 7716708]
110.
Tibbitts GM. Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis: Old challenges, new insights. POSTGRAD MED. 1994;96(2):75–87. [PubMed: 8041686]
111.
Tucker LB. Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Current Opinion in Rheumatology. 1993;5(5):619–28. [PubMed: 7691139]
112.
Hanson V. The subtypes of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis and their significance. Ryumachi. 1991;31(6):592–8.
113.
Bonagura VR, Ilowite NT, Hatam L, et al. Expression of the major rheumatoid factor cross-reactive idiotype in pediatric patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Clinical Immunology and Immunopathology. 1991;60(2):232–43. [PubMed: 2070569]
114.
Laxer RM. Introduction. J RHEUMATOL. 1990;17(SUPPL 26):1.
115.
Rhodes VJ. Physical therapy management of patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Physical Therapy. 1991;71(12):910–9. [PubMed: 1946625]
116.
Southwood TR, Malleson PN. Antinuclear antibodies and juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA): Search for a specific autoantibody associated with JCA. ANN RHEUM DIS. 1991;50(9):593–8. [PMC free article: PMC1004499] [PubMed: 1929579]
117.
Ansell BM. Juvenile chronic arthritis, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, and inflammatory arthropathies of childhood. Current Opinion in Rheumatology. 1990;2(5):799–803. [PubMed: 2265077]
118.
Miller JJ III. Immunologic abnormalities of juvenile arthritis. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research. 1990;(259):23–30. [PubMed: 2208861]
119.
Martini A. Immunological approach to juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Annales de Pediatrie. 1988;35(8):555–8. [French] [PubMed: 3059960]
120.
John M, John V, Oppermann J. Laboratorial findings in the case of juvenile chronic arthritis. Zeitschrift fur Klinische Medizin. 1985;40(19):1445–8. [German]
121.
Wahn V. Anti-immunoglobulins (rheumatoid factors) - Immunobiology and relevance in pediatric practice. Monatsschrift fur Kinderheilkunde. 1985;133(4):196–200. [German] [PubMed: 3873599]
122.
Moore TL, Weiss TD. Immunologic studies in juvenile arthritis. Bulletin on the Rheumatic Diseases. 1982;32(3):25–9. [PubMed: 6982089]
123.
Gupta K, Chintu C, Raghu MB. Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis in Zambian children. East African Medical Journal. 1981;58(5):344–53. [PubMed: 7285834]
124.
Ulybina OV, Shakhbazyan IE, Komissarova IA. Significance of some cytochemical and immunological indices in the clinical characteristics of rheumatoid arthritis children. Pediatriya - Zhurnal im G N Speranskogo. 1980;59(4):40–4. [Russian] [PubMed: 7383788]
125.
Keren DF. Antinuclear antibody testing. CLIN LAB MED. 2002;22(2):447–74. [PubMed: 12134471]
126.
Price S. Autoantibody profiles linked to ethnicity in pediatric SLE. Nature Reviews Rheumatology. 2009;5(4):182.
127.
Schaller J, Wedgwood RJ. Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis: a review. Pediatrics. 1972;50(6):940. [PubMed: 4564600]
128.
De AT, Davey R, Solanki K, et al. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in a paediatric unit. New Zealand Medical Journal. 2010;123(1313):77–9. [PubMed: 20581899]
129.
Kobayashi R, Mii S, Nakano T, et al. Neonatal lupus erythematosus in Japan: A review of the literature. Autoimmunity Reviews. 2009;8(6):462–6. [PubMed: 19162245]

Population (N = 77)

The following studies were excluded because the study population was not consisted primarily of individuals ≤ 18 years with a diagnosis of JIA, SLE, or with undiagnosed MSK pain .

1.
Allen RC, Dewez P, Stuart L, et al. Antinuclear antibodies using HEp-2 cells in normal children and in children with common infections. Journal of Paediatrics & Child Health. 1991;27(1):39–42. [PubMed: 2043388]
2.
Alpigiani MG, Cerboni M, Bertini I, et al. Endocrine autoimmunity in young patients with juvenile chronic arthritis. Clinical & Experimental Rheumatology. 2002;20(4):565–8. [PubMed: 12175117]
3.
Arinola OG, Salimonu LS. Rheumatoid factor in sera of Nigerian school children with unrinary schistosomiasis. African Journal of Medicine & Medical Sciences. 2000;29(3–4):329–30. [PubMed: 11714018]
4.
Attar SM, Bunting PS, Smith CD, et al. Comparison of the anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide and rheumatoid factor in rheumatoid arthritis at an arthritis center. Saudi Medical Journal. 2009;30(3):446–7. [PubMed: 19271083]
5.
Awoyinfa JD, Batubo TA, McFarlane H, et al. Rheumatoid factor in Nigerians. African Journal of Medical Sciences. 1971;2(1):49–55. [PubMed: 4106444]
6.
Barone C, Bartoloni C, Gentiloni N, et al. Systemic lupus erythematosus with only IgE-class antinuclear antibodies. Arthritis & Rheumatism. 1981;24(11):1441–3. [PubMed: 6976171]
7.
Berkun Y, Zandman-Goddard G, Barzilai O, et al. Infectious antibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus patients. Lupus. 2009;18(13):1129–35. [PubMed: 19880558]
8.
Bonaguri C, Melegari A, Dall’Aglio P, et al. An italian multicenter study for application of a diagnostic algorithm in autoantibody testing. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2009;1173:124–9. [PubMed: 19758140]
9.
Bortolotti F, Vajro P, Balli F, et al. Non-organ specific autoantibodies in children with chronic hepatitis C. Journal of Hepatology. 1996;25(5):614–20. [PubMed: 8938535]
10.
Carreno L, Lopez-Longo FJ, Monteagudo I, et al. Immunological and clinical differences between juvenile and adult onset of systemic lupus erythematosus. Lupus. 1999;8(4):287–92. [PubMed: 10413207]
11.
Che Maraina CH, Rusni D, Azwany YN. Do antibodies against modified citrullinated vimentin have a value in the ACR criteria for rheumatoid arthritis? 2010:62.
12.
Correia ML, Carvalho S, Fortuna J, et al. Comparison of three anti-CCP antibody tests and rheumatoid factor in RA and control patients. Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology. 2008;34(1):21–5. [PubMed: 18270853]
13.
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14.
Dias BL, Imamura EU, Izumi AP, et al. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis with dry synovitis: clinical case and review of literature. Acta Reumatologica Portuguesa. 2009;34(3):541–5. [Portuguese] [PubMed: 19820678]
15.
El-Awady HM, El-Wakkad ASE-D, Saleh MT, et al. Serum Melatonin in Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis: Correlation with Disease Activity. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences. 2007;10(9):1471–6. [PubMed: 19069959]
16.
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30.
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31.
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33.
Kasapcopur O, Ozbakir F, Arisoy N, et al. Frequency of antinuclear antibodies and rheumatoid factor in healthy Turkish children. Turkish Journal of Pediatrics. 1999;41(1):67–71. [PubMed: 10770678]
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36.
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39.
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48.
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49.
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Index test (N = 64)

The following studies were excluded because the index tests were not ANA, RF, and/or CCP.

1.
Adib N, Silman A, Thomson W. Outcome following onset of juvenile idiopathic inflammatory arthritis: II. predictors of outcome in juvenile arthritis. Rheumatology. 2005;44(8):1002–7. [PubMed: 15827044]
2.
Anderson CJ, Neas BR, Uchiumi T, et al. Autoantibodies to the 20-kDa ribosomal proteins: Identification, characterization, and new aspects on prevalence in systemic lupus erythematosus. Clin Immunol. 2001;98(2):249–57. [PubMed: 11161982]
3.
Ansell BM, Holborow J, Zutshi D, et al. Comparison of three serological tests in adult rheumatoid arthritis and Still’s disease (juvenile rheumatoid arthritis) Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1969;168(1):21–9. [PubMed: 5310583]
4.
Bader-Meunier B, Armengaud JB, Haddad E, et al. Initial presentation of childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus: a French multicenter study. J Pediatr. 2005;146(5):648–53. [PubMed: 15870669]
5.
Barnes MG, Grom AA, Thompson SD, et al. Subtype-specific peripheral blood gene expression profiles in recent-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2009;60(7):2102–12. [PMC free article: PMC2782469] [PubMed: 19565513]
6.
Barnett EV, NORTH AF Jr, CONDEMI JJ, et al. Antinuclear factors in systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Intern Med. 1965;63:100–8. [PubMed: 14305956]
7.
Barraclough D, Russell AS, Percy JS. Diagnosis and follow-up of children referred to a rheumatic disease unit. Med J Aust. 1977;1(25):920–3. [PubMed: 301982]
8.
Beresford MW, Cleary G, Sills JA, et al. Delayed diagnosis: JIA in children with learning difficulties. Rheumatology. 2005;44:292.
9.
Boone MI, Moore TL, Cruz OA. Screening for uveitis in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 1998;35(1):41–3. [PubMed: 9503315]
10.
Calabro JJ, Parrino GR, Atchoo PD, et al. Chronic iridocyclitis in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 1970;13(4):406–13. [PubMed: 5310717]
11.
Chen Y-S, Yang Y-H, Lin Y-T, et al. Risk of infection in hospitalised children with systemic lupus erythematosus: A 10-year follow-up. Clin Rheumatol. 2004;23(3):235–8. [PubMed: 15168152]
12.
Chudwin DS, Ammann AJ, Cowan MJ, et al. Significance of a positive antinuclear antibody test in a pediatric population. Am J Dis Child. 1983;137(11):1103–6. [PubMed: 6356882]
13.
Cleary AG, Lancaster GA, Annan F, et al. Nutritional impairment in juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Rheumatology. 2004;43(12):1569–73. [PubMed: 15466896]
14.
Craft AW, Eastham EJ, Bell JI, et al. Serum ferritin in juvenile chronic polyarthritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 1977;36(3):271–3. [PMC free article: PMC1006680] [PubMed: 879866]
15.
De IJ. Epidemiology of musculoskeletal pain in primary care. Arch Dis Child. 2004;89(5):431–4. [PMC free article: PMC1719931] [PubMed: 15102634]
16.
Dippell J. Hidden IgM rheumatoid factor in chronic juvenile arthritis. An open multicenter diagnostic study. Monatsschr Kinderheilkd. 1989;(9):606–9. [German] Organ. [PubMed: 2811884]
17.
Ehrmann FD, Bernatsky S, Abrahamowicz M, et al. Consultation with an arthritis specialist for children with suspected juvenile rheumatoid arthritis: a population-based study. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2008;162(6):538–43. [PubMed: 18524744]
18.
Foster HE, Eltringham MS, Kay LJ, et al. Delay in access to appropriate care for children presenting with musculoskeletal symptoms and ultimately diagnosed with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2007;57(6):921–7. [PubMed: 17665486]
19.
Fujikawa S, Okuni M. Clinical analysis of 570 cases with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis: results of a nationwide retrospective survey in Japan. Acta Paediatr Jpn. 1997;39(2):245–9. [PubMed: 9141266]
20.
Goel KM, Shanks RA. Follow-up study of 100 cases of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 1974;33(1):25–31. [PMC free article: PMC1006194] [PubMed: 4856607]
21.
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22.
Guillaume S, Prieur AM, Coste J, et al. Long-term outcome and prognosis in oligoarticular-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2000;43(8):1858–65. [PubMed: 10943877]
23.
Heinlen LD, McClain MT, Kim X, et al. Anti-Ro and anti-nRNP response in unaffected family members of SLE patients. Lupus. 2003;12(4):335–7. [PubMed: 12729062]
24.
Ilowite NT, Wedgwood JF, Bonagura VR. Expression of the major rheumatoid factor cross-reactive idiotype in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 1989;32(3):265–70. [PubMed: 2930601]
25.
Jesus AA, Silva CA, Carneiro-Sampaio M, et al. Anti-C1q antibodies in juvenile-onset systemic lupus erythematosus. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2009;1173:235–8. [PubMed: 19758156]
26.
Kobayashi S, Wada N, Kubo M. Autoantibodies to native human type II collagen in the sera of patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Japan J Rheumatol. 1991;3(4):265–74.
27.
Konijnenberg AY, De Graeff-Meeder ER, Kimpen JL, et al. Children with unexplained chronic pain: do pediatricians agree regarding the diagnostic approach and presumed primary cause? Pediatrics. 2004;114(5):1220–6. [PubMed: 15520099]
28.
Kornreich HK, Drexler E, Hanson V. Antinulear factors in childhood rheumatic diseases. J Pediatr. 1966;69(6):1039–45. [PubMed: 5297059]
29.
Kotaniemi K, Savolainen A, Karma A, et al. Recent advances in uveitis of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Surv Ophthalmol. 2003;48(5):489–502. [PubMed: 14499817]
30.
Kotaniemi K. Uveitis in juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Acta Ophthalmol Scand. 2002;80(2):226.
31.
Krumrey-Langkammerer M, Hafner R. Evaluation of the ILAR criteria for juvenile idiopathic arthritis. J Rheumol. 2001;28(11):2544–7. [PubMed: 11708431]
32.
Len CA, Terreri MT, Puccini RF, et al. Development of a tool for early referral of children and adolescents with signs and symptoms suggestive of chronic arthropathy to pediatric rheumatology centers. Arthritis Rheum. 2006;55(3):373–7. [PubMed: 16739205]
33.
Maeno N, Takei S, Fujikawa S, et al. Antiagalactosyl IgG antibodies in juvenile idiopathic arthritis, juvenile onset Sjogren’s syndrome, and healthy children. J Rheumol. 2004;31(6):1211–7. [PubMed: 15170938]
34.
Marini R, Costallat LT. Young age at onset, renal involvement, and arterial hypertension are of adverse prognostic significance in juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus. Rev Rhum (English Edition) 1999;66(6):303–9. [PubMed: 10418057]
35.
Mason T, Reed AM, Nelson AM, et al. Radiographic progression in children with polyarticular juvenile rheumatoid arthritis: a pilot study. Ann Rheum Dis. 2005;64(3):491–3. [PMC free article: PMC1755419] [PubMed: 15708901]
36.
McBride JD, Gabriel FG, Fordham J, et al. Screening autoantibody profiles in systemic rheumatic disease with a diagnostic protein microarray that uses a filtration-assisted nanodot array luminometric immunoassay (NALIA) Clin Chem. 2008;54(5):883–90. [PubMed: 18356243]
37.
Mikkelsson M, Sourander A, Salminen JJ, et al. Widespread pain and neck pain in schoolchildren. A prospective one-year follow-up study. Acta Paediatr. 1999;88(10):1119–24. [PubMed: 10565460]
38.
Minden K, Mingels A, Niewerth M, et al. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis and uveitis: Epidemiology including data from a national database. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd. 2007;224(6):469–72. [German] [PubMed: 17594614]
39.
Miller JJ. Immunologic abnormalities of juvenile arthritis. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1990;(259):23–30. [PubMed: 2208861]
40.
Moore T, Dorner RW, Zuckner J. Hidden rheumatoid factor in seronegative juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 1974;33(3):255–7. [PMC free article: PMC1006251] [PubMed: 4546351]
41.
Moore TL, Dorner RW, Zuckner J. Complement-fixing hidden rheumatoid factor in children with benign rheumatoid nodules. Arthritis Rheum. 1978;21(8):930–4. [PubMed: 737016]
42.
Moore TL, Dorner RW, Weiss TD, et al. Hidden 19S IgM rheumatoid factor in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Pediatr Res. 1980;14(10):1135–8. [PubMed: 7465283]
43.
Moore TL, Dorner RW, Osborn TG, et al. Hidden 19S IgM rheumatoid factors. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 1988;18(1):72–5. [PubMed: 3187544]
44.
Moore TL, el-Najdawi E, Dorner RW. IgM rheumatoid factor plaque-forming cells in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 1987;30(3):335–8. [PubMed: 3551966]
45.
Moore TL, Dorner RW, Sheridan PW, et al. Precipitation of 19S IgM rheumatoid factor-IgG circulating immune complexes in patients with juvenile arthritis by polyethylene glycol and separation by immobilized protein A. Clin Exp Immunol. 1984;56(2):247–52. [PMC free article: PMC1536220] [PubMed: 6733970]
46.
Moore TL, Dorner RW, Weiss TD, et al. Specificity of hidden 19S IgM rheumatoid factor in patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 1981;24(10):1283–90. [PubMed: 7306229]
47.
Moore TL, Zuckner J, Baldassare AR, Weiss TD, Dorner RW. Complement-fixing hidden rheumatoid factor in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. ARTHRITIS RHEUM. 1978;21(8):935–941. [PubMed: 737017]
48.
Nesher G, Moore TL, Grisanti MW, et al. Antiperinuclear factor in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 1992;51(3):350–2. [PMC free article: PMC1004659] [PubMed: 1575580]
49.
Neuer G, Bustin M, Michels H, et al. Autoantibodies to the chromosomal protein HMG-17 in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 1992;35(4):472–5. [PubMed: 1567496]
50.
Oen K, Reed M, Malleson PN, et al. Radiologic outcome and its relationship to functional disability in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumol. 2003;30(4):832–40. [PubMed: 12672208]
51.
Okano T, Satoh M, Akizuki M. Immunologic tests: Anti SS-A/Ro, anti SS-B/La antibody. Nippon Rinsho - Nippon Rinsho. 2005;63 Suppl-8 [Japanese] [PubMed: 16111312]
52.
Perilloux BC, Shetty AK, Leiva LE, et al. Antinuclear antibody (ANA) and ANA profile tests in children with autoimmune disorders: a retrospective study. Clin Rheumatol. 2000;19(3):200–3. [PubMed: 10870654]
53.
Petty RE, Cassidy JT, Sullivan DB. Clinical correlates of antinuclear antibodies in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. J Pediatr. 1973;83(3):386–9. [PubMed: 4579718]
54.
Pongpanich B, Daengroongroj P. Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis: clinical characteristics in 100 Thai patients. Clin Rheumatol. 1988;7(2):257–61. [PubMed: 3416569]
55.
Rangel L, Garralda ME, Hall A, et al. Psychiatric adjustment in chronic fatigue syndrome of childhood and in juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Psychol Med. 2003;33(2):289–97. [PubMed: 12622307]
56.
Rask CU, Olsen EM, Elberling H, et al. Functional somatic symptoms and associated impairment in 5–7-year-old children: the Copenhagen Child Cohort 2000. Eur J Epidemiol. 2009;24(10):625–34. [PubMed: 19633995]
57.
Rood MJ, ten CR, Van Suijlekom-Smit LWA, et al. Childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus. Scand J Rheumatol. 1999;28(4):222–6. [PubMed: 10503558]
58.
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61.
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62.
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63.
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Reference standard (N = 7)

The following studies did not have JIA or SLE as the reference standard.

1.
Adib N, Davies K, Grahame R, et al. Joint hypermobility syndrome in childhood. A not so benign multisystem disorder? Rheumatology. 2005;44(6):744–50. [PubMed: 15728418]
2.
Cabral DA, Petty RE, Fung M, et al. Persistent antinuclear antibodies in children without identifiable inflammatory rheumatic or autoimmune disease. Pediatrics. 1992;89(3):441–4. [PubMed: 1741219]
3.
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4.
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5.
Gulez N, Karaca NE, Aksu G, et al. Increased percentages of autoantibodies in immunoglobulin A-deficient children do not correlate with clinical manifestations. Autoimmunity. 2009;42(1):74–9. [PubMed: 19127458]
6.
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7.
sadi-Pooya AA, Bordbar MR. Are laboratory tests necessary in making the diagnosis of limb pains typical for growing pains in children? Pediatr Int. 2007;49(6):833–5. [PubMed: 18045281]

Outcome data (N = 155)

The following studies were excluded because they did not report sufficient numeric data on test result.

1.
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2.
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3.
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4.
Aggarwal A, Misra R. Juvenile chronic arthritis in India: is it different from that seen in Western countries? Rheumatology International. 1994;14(2):53–6. [PubMed: 7529938]
5.
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6.
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7.
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8.
Al-Matar MJ, Petty RE, Tucker LB, et al. The early pattern of joint involvement predicts disease progression in children with oligoarticular (pauciarticular) juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. ARTHRITIS RHEUM. 2002;46(10):2708–15. [PubMed: 12384930]
9.
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10.
Al-Wahadneh AM, bu-Zeid AF, Khreisat WH. Juvenile idiopathic oligoarthritis: analysis of 42 cases in Jordan. EAST MEDITERRANEAN HEALTH J. 2007;13(2):461–4. [PubMed: 17684867]
11.
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12.
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13.
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14.
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15.
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16.
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17.
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18.
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19.
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20.
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21.
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22.
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23.
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24.
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25.
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26.
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27.
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28.
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29.
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30.
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31.
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32.
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33.
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34.
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35.
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36.
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41.
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42.
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43.
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44.
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45.
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47.
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48.
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Duplicates (N = 6)

The following studies were excluded because they were duplicates.

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Al-Mendalawi MD. Juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus in Bahrain. A tertiary referral center experience. Saudi Medical Journal. 2009;30(9):1240. [PubMed: 19750278]
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Lipinska J, Smolewska E, Brozik H, et al. Diagnostic value of selected immunological markers in children with JIA. Alergia Astma Immunologia. 2005;10(2):75–82. [Polish] Date of Publication: 2005 2005;(2):75–82.
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Nandi M, Ganguli SK, Mondal R, et al. Clinico-serological profile of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Indian Pediatrics. 2009;46(7):640–1. [PubMed: 19638666]
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Varbanova B, Kolarov Z, Baleva M. IgA-RF as a marker of progressing of rheumatoid arthritis and juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Rheumatology. 2002;10(2):49–53. [Bulgarian] Date of Publication: 2002 2002;(2):49–53.
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