NCBI Bookshelf. A service of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.

Institute of Medicine (US) and National Research Council (US) Committee on the Use of Chimpanzees in Biomedical and Behavioral Research; Altevogt BM, Pankevich DE, Shelton-Davenport MK, et al., editors. Chimpanzees in Biomedical and Behavioral Research: Assessing the Necessity. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2011.

Cover of Chimpanzees in Biomedical and Behavioral Research

Chimpanzees in Biomedical and Behavioral Research: Assessing the Necessity.

Show details

FUTURE USE OF CHIMPANZEES IN BIOMEDICAL AND BEHAVIORAL RESEARCH

As highlighted throughout this report, over many years scientific advances that have led directly to the development of preventive and therapeutic products for life-threatening or debilitating diseases and disorders have been dependent on scientific knowledge obtained through experiments using the chimpanzee. In addition, many preliminary proof-of-concept experiments have been carried out in the chimpanzee; for example, development of human and humanized monoclonal antibody therapies have required preclinical testing in the chimpanzee (Iwarson et al., 1985). The same has been the case for early evaluation of therapeutic concepts based on RNAi, microRNA, and antisense RNA (e.g., for treating chronic HCV infection), and for evaluation of TLR7 antagonists (e.g., for treating chronic HBV infection) (Lanford et al., 2011).

The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases at the NIH has identified eight instances over the past two decades where research on new (or newly recognized), emerging, and reemerging infectious diseases has called for use of the chimpanzee to answer crucial questions pertaining to pathogenesis, prevention, control, or therapy. In five of these, the chimpanzee is still being used.11 At the same time, as has been the case rather often in the past, an important new, emerging, or reemerging disease may present treatment, prevention, and/or control problems that defy available alternative experimental approaches, including the most novel, innovative approaches, and therefore may require use of the chimpanzee—rare as this may be, this possibility cannot be discounted over the long term. The committee recognizes that the limited number of available animals and the potential need to perform experiments under conditions of biocontainment could potentially constrain the value of the chimpanzee during a public health emergency. The similarity in the neuroanatomy between the human and the chimpanzee may make it a model for neuropsychiatric disorders, for example, expressing human risk genes via viral vectors or from optogenetic methods that exploit the chimpanzee functional neuroanotomy.

However, in this case the past is not necessarily prelude—great progress is being made in developing alternatives to the chimpanzee; more studies are using other non-human primates (Ben-Yehudah et al., 2010; Couto and Kolykhalov, 2006; Pan et al., 2010; Suomi, 2006), genetically modified (knock-out, knock-in) mice (Chen et al., 2011a; de Jong et al., 2010; Dorner et al., 2011; Kneteman and Mercer, 2005; Lindenbach et al., 2005; Ma et al., 2010; Ploss and Rice, 2009), and even in silico technologies (Hosea, 2011; Qiu et al., 2011; Valerio, 2011). In some instances, “preclinical studies” in humans, that is, expanded studies carried out in the field during disease outbreaks, have served as an alternative to the use of the chimpanzee.

Finding

The committee cannot predict or forecast future need of the chimpanzee animal model and encourages use of the criteria established in this report when assessing the potential necessity of chimpanzees for future research uses.

Encephalitozoon cuniculi; Helicobacter pylori; Hepatitis C (ongoing); Hepatitis E (ongoing); Human herpesvirus 8 (ongoing); Human herpesvirus 6 (ongoing); Streptococcus, Group A; Staphylococcus aureus (ongoing) (NIAID, 2011).

Footnotes

11

Encephalitozoon cuniculi; Helicobacter pylori; Hepatitis C (ongoing); Hepatitis E (ongoing); Human herpesvirus 8 (ongoing); Human herpesvirus 6 (ongoing); Streptococcus, Group A; Staphylococcus aureus (ongoing) (NIAID, 2011).

Copyright © 2011, National Academy of Sciences.
Bookshelf ID: NBK91438
PubReader format: click here to try

Views

  • PubReader
  • Print View
  • Cite this Page
  • PDF version of this title (1.0M)

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...